The War Of 1812 - Core Knowledge

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Grade 2Core Knowledge Language Arts Listening & Learning StrandThe War of 1812Tell It Again! Read-Aloud Supplemental Guide

The War of 1812Transition Supplemental Guide to theTell It Again! Read-Aloud AnthologyListening & Learning StrandGRADE 2Core Knowledge Language Arts

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Table of ContentsThe War of 1812Transition Supplemental Guide to theTell It Again! Read-Aloud AnthologyPreface to the Transition Supplemental Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vAlignment Chart for The War of 1812 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviiIntroduction to The War of 1812 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Lesson 1: America in 1812, Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Lesson 2: America in 1812, Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36Lesson 3: Mr. and Mrs. Madison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Lesson 4: Another War Already? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78Pausing Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95Lesson 5: The Attack on Washington, D.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102Lesson 6: Broad Stripes and Bright Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121Lesson 7: The Battle After the War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143Lesson 8: Peace and Pirates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160Domain Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177Domain Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181Culminating Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

Preface to the Supplemental GuideThe War of 1812This preface to the Transition Supplemental Guide provides informationabout the guide’s purpose and target audience, and describes how it canbe used flexibly in various classroom settings.Please note: The Supplemental Guides for the first three domains inGrade 2 contain modified read-alouds and significantly restructuredlessons with regard to pacing and activities. These early SupplementalGuides provided step-by-step, scaffolded instruction with the intentionthat students receiving instruction from teachers using the SupplementalGuide for the first part of the year would be ready to participate in regularListening & Learning lessons, and that teachers who have used theSupplemental Guide for the first part of the year would be equipped withthe instructional strategies to scaffold the lessons when necessary. Thisshift from the full Supplemental Guide to the Transition SupplementalGuide affords teachers more autonomy and greater responsibility toadjust their execution of the lessons according to the needs of theirclasses and individual students.Transition Supplemental Guides for the remaining domains will still containVocabulary Charts and Supplemental Guide activities such as MultipleMeaning Word Activities, Syntactic Awareness Activities, and VocabularyInstructional Activities. However, the Transition Supplemental Guides donot have rewritten read-alouds and do not adjust the pacing of instruction;the pacing and read-aloud text included in each Transition SupplementalGuide is identical to the pacing and read-aloud text in the correspondingTell It Again! Read-Aloud Anthology. We have, however, augmented theintroductions and extensions of each lesson in the Transition SupplementalGuides so teachers have additional resources for students who needgreater English language support. As a result, there are often more activitiessuggested than can be completed in the allotted time for the introductionor extension activities. Teachers will need to make informed and consciousdecisions in light of their particular students’ needs when choosing whichactivities to complete and which to omit. We strongly recommend thatteachers preview the Domain Assessment prior to teaching this domain;this will provide an additional way to inform their activity choices.The War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundationv

Intended Users and UsesThis guide is intended to be used by general education teachers, readingspecialists, English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers, specialeducation teachers, and teachers seeking an additional resource forclassroom activities. This guide is intended to be both flexible andversatile. Its use is to be determined by teachers in order to fit the uniquecircumstances and specific needs of their classrooms and individualstudents. Teachers whose students would benefit from enhanced orallanguage practice may opt to use the Transition Supplemental Guide astheir primary guide for Listening & Learning. Teachers may also chooseindividual activities from the Transition Supplemental Guide to augmentthe content covered in the Tell It Again! Read-Aloud Anthology. Forexample, teachers might use the Vocabulary Instructional Activities,Syntactic Awareness Activities, and modified Extensions during smallgroup instruction time. Reading specialists and ESL teachers may findthat the tiered Vocabulary Charts are a useful starting point in addressingtheir students’ vocabulary learning needs.The Transition Supplemental Guide is designed to allow flexibility withregard to lesson pacing and encourages education professionals topause and review when necessary. A number of hands-on activities andgraphic organizers are included in the lessons to assist students withlearning the content.Transition Supplemental Guide ContentsThe Transition Supplemental Guide contains tiered Vocabulary Charts,Multiple Meaning Word Activities, Syntactic Awareness Activities, andVocabulary Instructional Activities. The Domain Assessments and FamilyLetters have been modified. In some instances, the activities in theExtensions as well as the activities in the Pausing Point, Domain Review,and Culminating Activities have been modified or rewritten. Please refer tothe following sample At a Glance Chart to see how additional support iscommunicated to the teacher.viThe War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation

ExerciseMaterialsDetailsIntroducing the Read-Aloud (10 minutes)Introductory Content[Additional materials to helpsupport this part of the lesson willbe listed here.]Vocabulary Preview[There will be one or twovocabulary preview words perlesson.][A brief explanation about how thematerial can be used.]Purpose for ListeningPresenting the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)Note: It is highly recommended that teachers preview the read-aloud, Flip Book images, andcomprehension questions to determine when to pause during the read-aloud and ask guidingquestions, especially before a central or difficult point is going to be presented (e.g., While we arereading this part of the read-aloud, I want to you think about . . .) and supplementary questions (e.g.,Who/What/Where/When/Why literal questions) to check for understanding.[Materials that may help scaffoldthe read-aloud will be listed here.]Title of Read-AloudDiscussing the Read-Aloud (15 minutes)Comprehension QuestionsWord Work Complete Remainder of the Lesson Later in the DayExtensions (20 minutes)Extension Activities[Additional Extension activitiesmay include a Multiple MeaningWord Activity, a SyntacticAwareness Activity, a VocabularyInstructional Activity, and modifiedexisting activities or new activities.]The additional materials found in the Transition Supplemental Guideafford students further opportunities to use domain vocabulary anddemonstrate knowledge of content. The lessons of this guide containactivities that create a purposeful and systematic setting for Englishlanguage learning. The read-aloud for each story or nonfiction text buildsupon previously taught vocabulary and ideas and introduces languageand knowledge needed for the next more complex text. The TransitionSupplemental Guide’s focus on oral language in the earlier gradesThe War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundationvii

addresses the language learning needs of students with limited Englishlanguage skills. These students—outside of a school setting—may not beexposed to the kind of academic language found in many written texts.Vocabulary ChartsVocabulary Chart for [Title of Lesson]Core Vocabulary words are in bold.Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined.Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*).Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics.Type of WordsTier 3Tier 2Tier 1Domain-Specific WordsGeneral Academic WordsEveryday-Speech WordsUnderstandingMultiple MeaningPhrasesCognatesVocabulary Charts at the beginning of each lesson categorize words intothree tiers which are generally categorized as follows: Tier 1 words are those that are likely in the basic repertoire of nativeEnglish speaking students—words such as ship, grandfather, andpresident. Tier 2 words are highly functional and frequently used general academicwords that appear across various texts and content areas—words suchas magnificent, role, and inspired. Tier 3 words are content-area specific and difficult words that are crucialfor comprehending the facts and ideas related to a particular subject—words like privateer, treaty, and entrenchment.English Language Learners and students with limited oral language skillsmay not necessarily know the meanings of all Tier 1 words, and mayfind Tier 2 and Tier 3 words confusing and difficult to learn. Thus, explicitexplanation of, exposure to, and practice using Tier 1, 2, and 3 words areessential to successful mastery of content for these students (NationalGovernors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief StateSchool Officers 2010 32–35).In addition, the Vocabulary Chart indicates whether the chosen words arevital to understanding the lesson (labeled Understanding); have multiplemeanings or senses (labeled Multiple Meaning); are clusters of wordsviiiThe War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation

that often appear together (labeled Phrases); or have a Spanish word thatsounds similar and has a similar meaning (labeled Cognates). Words in theVocabulary Chart were selected because they appear frequently in the textof the read-aloud or because they are words and phrases that span multiplegrade levels and content areas. Teachers should be aware of and modelthe use of these words as much as possible before, during, and after eachindividual lesson. The Vocabulary Chart could also be a good starting pointand reference for keeping track of students’ oral language developmentand their retention of domain-related and academic vocabulary. These listsare not meant to be exhaustive, and teachers are encouraged to includeadditional words they feel would best serve their students.Multiple Meaning Word ActivitiesMultiple Meaning Word Activities help students determine and clarify thedifferent meanings of individual words. This type of activity supports adeeper knowledge of content-related words and a realization that manycontent words have multiple meanings associated with them. Studentswith strong oral language skills may be able to navigate through differentmeanings of some words without much effort. However, students withlimited English language proficiency and minimal vocabulary knowledgemay be less likely to disambiguate the meanings of words. This is why itis important that teachers have a way to call students’ attention to wordsin the lesson that have ambiguous meanings, and that students have achance to explore the nuances of words in contexts within and outside ofthe lessons.Syntactic Awareness ActivitiesSyntactic Awareness Activities focus on sentence structure. Duringthe early elementary grades, students are not expected to read orwrite lengthy sentences, but they might be able to produce complexsentences in spoken language when given adequate prompting andsupport. Syntactic Awareness Activities support students’ awarenessof the structure of written language, interrelations between words,and grammar. Developing students’ oral language through syntacticawareness provides a solid foundation for written language developmentin the later elementary grades and beyond.The War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundationix

Vocabulary Instructional ActivitiesVocabulary Instructional Activities are included to build students’ generalacademic, or Tier 2, vocabulary. These words are salient becausethey appear across content areas and in complex written texts. Theseactivities support students’ learning of Tier 2 words and deepen theirknowledge of academic words and the connections of these words toother words and concepts. The vocabulary knowledge students possessis intricately connected to reading comprehension, the ability to accessbackground knowledge, express ideas, communicate effectively, andlearn about new concepts.English Language Learners and Students with DisabilitiesThe Transition Supplemental Guide assists education professionalswho serve students with limited English language skills or students withlimited home literacy experience, which may include English LanguageLearners (ELLs) and students with special needs. Although the use ofthis guide is not limited to teachers of ELLs and/or students with specialneeds, the following provides a brief explanation of these learners andthe challenges they may face in the classroom, as well as teachingstrategies that address those challenges.English Language LearnersThe Transition Supplemental Guide is designed to facilitate the academicoral language development necessary for English Language Learners(ELLs) and to strengthen ELLs’ understanding of the core contentpresented in the domains.When teaching ELLs, it is important to keep in mind that they are aheterogeneous group from a variety of social backgrounds and atdifferent stages in their language development. There may be someELLs who do not speak any English and have little experience in aformal education setting. There may be some ELLs who seem fluentin conversational English, but do not have the academic languageproficiency to participate in classroom discussions about academiccontent. The following is a chart showing the basic stages of secondlanguage acquisition; proper expectations for student behavior andperformance; and accommodations and support strategies for eachstage. Please note that ELLs may have extensive language skills in theirxThe War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation

first language and that they advance to the next stage at various ratesdepending on their acculturation, motivation, and prior experiences in aneducation setting.The War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundationxi

LanguageDevelopment StageComprehensionand ProductionAccommodations andSupport StrategiesEntering Produces little or no English Responds in nonverbal ways Has a minimal receptivevocabulary in English Use predictable phrases for set routines Use manipulatives, visuals, realia, props Use gestures (e.g., point, nod) to indicatecomprehension Use lessons that build receptive and productivevocabulary, using illustrated pre-taught words Use pre-taught words to complete sentencestarters Use simply stated questions that require simplenonverbal responses (e.g., “Show me . . . ,” “Circlethe . . . ”) Use normal intonation, emphasize key words, andfrequent checks for understanding Model oral language and practice formulaicexpressions Pair with another ELL who is more advanced inoral language skills for activities and discussionsfocused on the English language Pair with same-language peers for activities anddiscussions focused on contentEmerging(Beginner) Responds with basic phrases Includes frequent, longpauses when speaking Has basic level of Englishvocabulary (common wordsand phrases) Use repetition, gestures, and visual aids to facilitatecomprehension and students’ responses Use manipulatives, visuals, realia, props Use small-group activities Use lessons that expand receptive and expressivevocabulary, especially Tier 2 vocabulary Use illustrated core vocabulary words Use pre-identified words to complete clozesentences Use increasingly more difficult question types asstudents’ receptive and expressive language skillsimprove: Yes/no questions Either/or questions Questions that require short answers Open-ended questions to encourage expressiveresponses Allow for longer processing time and forparticipation to be voluntary Pair with another ELL who is more advanced inoral language skills for activities and discussionsfocused on the English language Pair with same-language peers for activities anddiscussions focused on contentxiiThe War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation

Transitioning(Intermediate) Speaks in simple sentences Uses newly learned wordsappropriately With appropriate scaffolding,able to understand andproduce narratives Has a much larger receptivethan expressive vocabulary inEnglish Use more complex stories and books Continue to focus on Tier 2 vocabulary Introduce academic terms (e.g., makingpredictions and inferences, figurative language) Use graphic organizers Use increasingly difficult question types asstudents’ receptive and expressive language skillsimprove: Questions that require short sentence answers Why and how questions Questions that check for literal and abstractcomprehension Provide some extra time to respond Pair with high-level English speakers for activitiesand discussions focused on the English languageExpanding(Advanced) Engages in conversationsProduces connected narrativeShows good comprehensionHas and uses expandedvocabulary in English Continue work with academic terms (e.g., makingpredictions and inferences, figurative language) Use graphic organizers Use questions that require opinion, judgment, andexplanation Pair with native English speakersCommanding(Proficient) Uses English that nearlyapproximates the language ofnative speakers Can maintain a two-wayconversation Uses more complexgrammatical structures, suchas conditionals and complexsentences. Has and uses an enrichedvocabulary in English Build high-level/academic language Expand figurative language (e.g., by usingmetaphors and idioms) Use questions that require inference andevaluation Pair with students who have a variety of skills andlanguage proficiencies(Adapted from Hirsch and Wiggins 2009, 362–364; New York Department of Education 2013; Smyk et al. 2013)The War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundationxiii

Students with Disabilities and Students with Special NeedsStudents with disabilities (SWDs) have unique learning needs thatrequire accommodations and modifications to the general educationcurriculum. When using the Transition Supplemental Guide with SWDsand students with special needs, it is important to consider instructionalaccommodations, tools, strategies, and Universal Design for Learning(UDL) Principles, which promote learning for all students through the useof multiple forms of representation, expression, and engagement (Hall,Strangman, and Meyer 2003).PacingPacing is the purposeful increase or decrease in the speed of instruction.Educators can break lessons into manageable chunks dependingon needs of the class and follow the section with a brief review ordiscussion. This format of instruction ensures that students are notinundated with information. Additionally, you may want to allow studentsto move around the room for brief periods during natural transition points.When waiting for students to respond, allow at least three seconds ofuninterrupted wait time to increase correctness of responses, responserates, and level of thinking (Stahl 1990).Goals and ExpectationsMake sure students know the purpose and the desired outcome of eachactivity. Have students articulate their own learning goals for the lesson.Provide model examples of desired end-products. Use positive verbalpraise, self-regulation charts, and redirection to reinforce appropriateways for students to participate and behave.DirectionsProvide reminders about classroom rules and routines wheneverappropriate. You may assign a partner to help clarify directions. Whennecessary, model each step of an activity’s instructions. Offering explicitdirections, procedures, and guidelines for completing tasks can enhancestudent understanding. For example, large assignments can be deliveredin smaller segments to increase comprehension and completion(Franzone 2009).xivThe War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation

Instruction Format and GroupingUse multiple instruction formats (e.g., small-group instruction, individualwork, collaborative learning, and hands-on instruction). Be sure to groupstudents in logical and flexible ways that support learning.Instructional StrategiesThe following evidence-based strategies can assist students withdisabilities in learning content (Scruggs et al. 2010): Mnemonic strategies are patterns of letters and sounds related toideas that enhance retention and recall of information. They can beused as a tool to encode information. Spatial organizers assist student understanding and recall ofinformation using charts, diagrams, graphs, and/or other graphicorganizers. Peer mediation, such as peer tutoring and cooperative learninggroups, can assist in assignment completion and enhancecollaboration within the classroom. Hands-on learning offers students opportunities to gainunderstanding of material by completing experiments and activitiesthat reinforce content. Explicit instruction utilizes clear and direct teaching using smallsteps, guided and independent practice, and explicit feedback. Visual strategies (e.g., picture/written schedules, storymaps, taskanalyses, etc.) represent content in a concrete manner to increasefocus, communication, and expression (Rao and Gagie 2006).The War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundationxv

References1.Biemiller, Andrew. 2010. Words Worth Teaching. Columbus: SRA/McGrawHill.2.Franzone, Ellen L. 2009. “Overview of Task Analysis.” Madison, WI:National Professional Development Center on Autism SpectrumDisorders, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin.3.Hall, Tracey, Anne Meyer and Nicole Strangman. 2003.“Differentiated Instruction and Implications for UDL Implementation.”National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum.4.Hirsch, Jr., E. D. and Alice K. Wiggins. 2009. Core KnowledgePreschool Sequence and Teacher Handbook. Charlottesville, VA:Core Knowledge Foundation.5.National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council ofChief State School Officers. 2010. “Appendix A,” in Common CoreState Standards: English Language Arts Standards. Washington DC:National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council ofChief State School Officers.6.New York Department of Education. 2013. New York State BilingualCommon Core Initiative. Accessed October 8. lingual-common-coreinitiative#progressions.7.Rao, Shaila M. and Brenda Gagie. 2006. “Learning Through Seeingand Doing: Visual Supports for Children with Autism.” TeachingExceptional Children 38 (6): 26–33.8.Scruggs, Thomas E., Margo A. Mastropieri, Sheri Berkeley, andJanet E. Graetz. 2010. “Do Special Education Interventions ImproveLearning of Secondary Content? A Meta-Analysis.” Remedial andSpecial Education 31: 437–449.9.Smyk, Ekaterina, M. Adelaida Restrepo, Joanna S. Gorin, andShelley Gray. 2013. “Development and Validation of the SpanishEnglish Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS).” Language, Speech,and Hearing Services in Schools 44: 252–65.10. Stahl, Robert J. 1990. “Using ‘Think-Time’ Behaviors to PromoteStudents’ Information Processing, Learning, and On-TaskParticipation: An Instructional Module.” Tempe, AZ: Arizona StateUniversity.xviThe War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Preface 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation

Alignment Chart for The War of 1812The following chart contains core content objectives addressed in thisdomain. It also demonstrates alignment between the Common CoreState Standards and corresponding Core Knowledge Language Arts(CKLA) goals.LessonAlignment Chart for The War of 181212345678Core Content ObjectivesExplain that America fought Great Britain for independence Explain that the Founding Fathers wrote the Constitution Explain that Thomas Jefferson purchased the Louisiana Territoryfrom the French Explain that Great Britain became involved in a series of warsagainst France Explain that due to a shortage of sailors, Britain began to impress,or capture, American sailors Explain that some members of the U.S. government began to callfor war Identify that the British controlled land in the northern Great Lakesregion, the northwestern territories, and Canada Explain that James Madison was the president during the War of1812 Identify James Madison, a Founding Father, as the main author ofthe Constitution Identify Dolley Payne Todd as James Madison’s wife Identify James Madison as the fourth president of the UnitedStates Explain that in 1812 the United States had a small army and asmall navy Explain that President Madison persuaded farmers to becomesoldiers Explain that the USS Constitution became known as “OldIronsides” because British cannonballs could not damage it Explain how the President’s House was a house especially built forthe president and his family; today it is called the White House The War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Alignment Chart xvii 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation

LessonAlignment Chart for The War of 181212345Explain that in 1814 the British attacked the capital, Washington,D.C. Explain that Dolley Madison had to escape from the President’sHouse Explain that Dolley Madison saved important papers, letters, and aportrait of George Washington Explain that the British Army set fire to the President’s House 6Describe how the British attacked the city of Baltimore and FortMcHenry Explain that the U.S. commander of Fort McHenry asked for alarge flag to be made to fly over Fort McHenry Explain that the British failed to capture Baltimore and FortMcHenry Explain how Francis Scott Key watched the Battle of Fort McHenryand wrote a poem that later became the national anthem Demonstrate familiarity with the song, “The Star-Spangled Banner” 7Explain that General Andrew Jackson’s army was made up ofmilitiamen, soldiers, farmers, Native Americans, African Americans,and pirates Explain that the Battle of New Orleans actually took place twoweeks after the War of 1812 was over Describe how the War of 1812 was considered a second war forindependence8 Note: The Language Arts Objectives in the Lessons may change depending on teacher’s choice of activities.Reading Standards for Literature: Grade 2Craft and StructureSTD RL.2.4Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm andmeaning in a story, poem, or song.CKLAGoal(s)Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regularbeats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supplyrhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or songxviii The War of 1812: Supplemental Guide Alignment Chart 2013 Core Knowledge Foundation

LessonAlignment Chart for The War of 181212345678Reading Standards for Informational Text: Grade 2Key Ideas and DetailsSTD RI.2.1CKLAGoal(s)Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstr

Core Vocabulary words are in bold. Multiple Meaning Word Activity word is underlined. Vocabulary Instructional Activity words have an asterisk (*). Suggested words to pre-teach are in italics. Type of Words Tier 3 Domain-Specific Words Tier 2 General Academic Words Tier 1 Everyday-Speech Words Underst

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