Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses Gerund ,Participial And .

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Adjective, Adverb, Noun ClausesGerund ,Participialp and InfinitivePhrasesJ fJafarAAsgariiEnglish DepartmentKashan University of Medical Sciences

Structure of Complex SentencesEvery Complex sentence is made up oftwo parts, the dependent and theindependent:I will come,,If yyou say.yIndepDepIf you say,DeporI will come.Indep

The dependent part can begindifferentlyMain ClauseDependent ClauseThat you are triedWhat yyou sayywho you areI KnowWhat time you leftHow far you can jumpWhy you leftAlthoughg I don't sayy it

The dependent part can have 3main functionsNoun clauseThey didn't know why hewas so upset.Adjective clauseThe man to whom I wastalkingg is a ppilotAdverbial clauseAfter it had stoppedsnowing, I went outside

The Noun Clause is the modifiedand bigger form of the noun: اﺳﻢ ﺳﺎدﻩ NounAnswer ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﻤﯽ The answer to theNoun phrase questionI know theanswer.I know theanswer to thequestion. ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ اﺳﻤﯽ What the answer is I know what theianswer is.Noun clause

A sentence with a Noun Clause ismade up of 4 partsMain ClauseSubordinating SubjectC jConjunctiontiVerbI KnowWhich wayTheyWentI understandWhatYouAre trying to say

The Noun Clause Can PerformAll functions of the simple noun:objectI know what the answer is.Subjectwhat the answer is is not important.Object ofprepSujcomplementpObjectcomplementI am thinking about what the answeris.What is important now is what theanswer is.I know one thing: what the answer is.

The Adjective Clause: StuctureNounRelative pro.DescriptionThe manWhomI sawThe bookWhichI want to buyThe dayWhenI was bornThe citywhereI was born

The Adjective Clause withprepositions and superlativesFor whom I workThe manwith Whom I competeAgainst whom I stoodThe tallest of whom was AliThe menThe most powerful of whom wasabsent

The Adverbial Clause Adverb clauses can be grouped according tothe type of relationship they express: TimeTime- placeplace- reasonreason- purposepurpose- mannermanner-condition- result- contrast. Afterfas - As longlas - As soon as before - since - until - when - wheneverwhile

End of part one

What is a Gerund PhaseEvery gerund, without exception, ends in -ing. Gerunds are not,however, all that easy to pick out. The problem is that all presentparticiplesti i l alsol endd iin -ingi . WhatWh t isi theth difference?diff?Gerunds function as nouns. Thus, gerunds will be subjects,subject complements, direct objects, indirect objects, and objectsof prepositionsprepositions. Present participlesparticiples, on the other handhand, completeprogressive verbs or act as modifiers. Read these examples:Since Francisco was five years old, swimming has been hispassion.passionSwimming subject of the verb has beenFrancisco's first love is swimming.Swimming subject complement of the verb isFrancisco enjoys swimming more than spending time withhis girlfriend Diana.Swimming direct object of the verb enjoysFrancisco gives swimming all of his energy and time.Swimming indirect object of the verb gives

Gerunds and Participlesa gerund phrase will always function as a nounwhile a present participle phrase has the job ofmodifying another word in the sentence. Checkoutt thesethexamples:l1.12.3.4.Swimming is a good form of exerciseexercise.Swimming in the lake, he found a dead body.The man swimming there is my father.I am not interested in swimming

The perfect gerundThe perfect gerund form of a gerund is made upof having plus the past participate of the mainverb . This can be used instead of the presentform of the gerund when we are referring to apast action:1. Your having had the experience will be to yourcredit.credit2. His not having done the homework made thegyteacher veryy angry.

The Passive GerundThe passive gerund can have two forms : present andpast. The present form is made up of being the pastparticiplei i l off theh maini verb,b andd theh past formfi madeisd upof having been the past participle of the main verb.Present:being the past participlePast:having been the past participleHe was ppunished byy beingg sent to bed without anyysupper.The safe showed no signs of having been touched.

Different forms of participialphrases1. Solving the problem, he was deeply thinking.2 Having2.isolvedl d theh problem,blh went to drinkhedi ksomething3. Being solved, the problem looked easy.4. Having been solved, the problem was found to beunrealistic.

Different forms of infinitivephrasesPerfect infinitiveProgressive infinitivePerfect Progressive infinitivePassive infinitivePerfect Passive infinitiveto have paintedto be writingto have been writingto be writtento have been written

Different functions of infinitivephrasesWhen the infinitive is placed after a noun, it functions as an adjective.The assignment to do for tonight is on page 83.83The desire to succeed is strong in youth.Adjective complementWhen used after an adjective, the infinitive functions as an adjective complement.We were eager to hear about his trip.This problem is difficult to do.doAdverbial function:As an adverb, the infinitive modifies an adjective, a verb, or an entire sentence.I’m sorry to let you know that you have failed.I’m leaving now to get to class on time.To keep warm at night,night you should buy an electric blanket.blanketTo be frank, snow has never excited me.To tell the truth, I miss the beautiful weather in my country.

Thank You Very Much

The passive gerund can have two forms : present and past. The present form is made up of being the past partiilicipleof themainverb,and the past form ismadeup of having been the past participle of the main verb. Present: being the past participle Past: having been the past participle

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