Adjective, Adverb, Noun ClausesGerund ,Participialp and InfinitivePhrasesJ fJafarAAsgariiEnglish DepartmentKashan University of Medical Sciences
Structure of Complex SentencesEvery Complex sentence is made up oftwo parts, the dependent and theindependent:I will come,,If yyou say.yIndepDepIf you say,DeporI will come.Indep
The dependent part can begindifferentlyMain ClauseDependent ClauseThat you are triedWhat yyou sayywho you areI KnowWhat time you leftHow far you can jumpWhy you leftAlthoughg I don't sayy it
The dependent part can have 3main functionsNoun clauseThey didn't know why hewas so upset.Adjective clauseThe man to whom I wastalkingg is a ppilotAdverbial clauseAfter it had stoppedsnowing, I went outside
The Noun Clause is the modifiedand bigger form of the noun: اﺳﻢ ﺳﺎدﻩ NounAnswer ﻋﺒﺎرت اﺳﻤﯽ The answer to theNoun phrase questionI know theanswer.I know theanswer to thequestion. ﺟﻤﻠﻪ وارﻩ اﺳﻤﯽ What the answer is I know what theianswer is.Noun clause
A sentence with a Noun Clause ismade up of 4 partsMain ClauseSubordinating SubjectC jConjunctiontiVerbI KnowWhich wayTheyWentI understandWhatYouAre trying to say
The Noun Clause Can PerformAll functions of the simple noun:objectI know what the answer is.Subjectwhat the answer is is not important.Object ofprepSujcomplementpObjectcomplementI am thinking about what the answeris.What is important now is what theanswer is.I know one thing: what the answer is.
The Adjective Clause: StuctureNounRelative pro.DescriptionThe manWhomI sawThe bookWhichI want to buyThe dayWhenI was bornThe citywhereI was born
The Adjective Clause withprepositions and superlativesFor whom I workThe manwith Whom I competeAgainst whom I stoodThe tallest of whom was AliThe menThe most powerful of whom wasabsent
The Adverbial Clause Adverb clauses can be grouped according tothe type of relationship they express: TimeTime- placeplace- reasonreason- purposepurpose- mannermanner-condition- result- contrast. Afterfas - As longlas - As soon as before - since - until - when - wheneverwhile
End of part one
What is a Gerund PhaseEvery gerund, without exception, ends in -ing. Gerunds are not,however, all that easy to pick out. The problem is that all presentparticiplesti i l alsol endd iin -ingi . WhatWh t isi theth difference?diff?Gerunds function as nouns. Thus, gerunds will be subjects,subject complements, direct objects, indirect objects, and objectsof prepositionsprepositions. Present participlesparticiples, on the other handhand, completeprogressive verbs or act as modifiers. Read these examples:Since Francisco was five years old, swimming has been hispassion.passionSwimming subject of the verb has beenFrancisco's first love is swimming.Swimming subject complement of the verb isFrancisco enjoys swimming more than spending time withhis girlfriend Diana.Swimming direct object of the verb enjoysFrancisco gives swimming all of his energy and time.Swimming indirect object of the verb gives
Gerunds and Participlesa gerund phrase will always function as a nounwhile a present participle phrase has the job ofmodifying another word in the sentence. Checkoutt thesethexamples:l188.8.131.52.Swimming is a good form of exerciseexercise.Swimming in the lake, he found a dead body.The man swimming there is my father.I am not interested in swimming
The perfect gerundThe perfect gerund form of a gerund is made upof having plus the past participate of the mainverb . This can be used instead of the presentform of the gerund when we are referring to apast action:1. Your having had the experience will be to yourcredit.credit2. His not having done the homework made thegyteacher veryy angry.
The Passive GerundThe passive gerund can have two forms : present andpast. The present form is made up of being the pastparticiplei i l off theh maini verb,b andd theh past formfi madeisd upof having been the past participle of the main verb.Present:being the past participlePast:having been the past participleHe was ppunished byy beingg sent to bed without anyysupper.The safe showed no signs of having been touched.
Different forms of participialphrases1. Solving the problem, he was deeply thinking.2 Having2.isolvedl d theh problem,blh went to drinkhedi ksomething3. Being solved, the problem looked easy.4. Having been solved, the problem was found to beunrealistic.
Different forms of infinitivephrasesPerfect infinitiveProgressive infinitivePerfect Progressive infinitivePassive infinitivePerfect Passive infinitiveto have paintedto be writingto have been writingto be writtento have been written
Different functions of infinitivephrasesWhen the infinitive is placed after a noun, it functions as an adjective.The assignment to do for tonight is on page 83.83The desire to succeed is strong in youth.Adjective complementWhen used after an adjective, the infinitive functions as an adjective complement.We were eager to hear about his trip.This problem is difficult to do.doAdverbial function:As an adverb, the infinitive modifies an adjective, a verb, or an entire sentence.I’m sorry to let you know that you have failed.I’m leaving now to get to class on time.To keep warm at night,night you should buy an electric blanket.blanketTo be frank, snow has never excited me.To tell the truth, I miss the beautiful weather in my country.
Thank You Very Much
The passive gerund can have two forms : present and past. The present form is made up of being the past partiilicipleof themainverb,and the past form ismadeup of having been the past participle of the main verb. Present: being the past participle Past: having been the past participle
Dependent Clauses – Noun Clauses I knew the students would learn. 28 Review: Subordinating Conjunctions, Dependent Clauses (Noun & Adverb), Verb Types & More Review Sentences & Quiz 7 29 Dependent Clauses – Adjective Clauses The scarf that I want is black. 30 Review: Dependent Clauses (Adverb, Noun, Adjective), Verb Types & More
TO FIND AN ADVERB: 1. An adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. 2. To find an adverb, say the verb and ask one of the adverb questions “how, when, or where.” Label the adverb with an “Adv” abbreviation. Barked how? loudly – adverb (Adv) TO F
(Correct; because ‘the playing of‘ is now verbal noun and not ‘gerund‘) Rule 3 Verbal noun can be used in place of Gerund. But if there are two verbal nouns or gerunds in a sentence, both should be either verbal noun or gerund to maintain parallelism. Examples: 1. I dislik
A gerund is a verb form that acts as a noun. Gerunds always end in -ing. A gerund can function in all the same ways a noun can function, such as subject, object of a preposition, direct object, or subject complement. Below is a list of gerunds and functions. Write a sentence using the gerund as indicated. 1. swimming as a direct object
Adjective Poems Adjectives describe nouns (person, place or thing). E.g. yellow sun. Yellow is the adjective. There are a few variations on adjective poems, we will use the pattern below. Pattern Line 1: Noun Line 2: Same noun is or are adjective Line 3: Same noun is or are adjective1, adjective 2
Nouns can be classified according to what they refer to. There are five major kinds of noun: 1. Common noun 2. Proper noun 3. Concrete noun 4. Abstract noun 5. Collective noun COMMON NOUN: A common noun is a name given to any person, place or thing in general. It is the name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind.
noun adjective preposition verb adverb pronoun 2. Choose the part of speech for the word home. noun adjective preposition verb adverb pronoun 3. Choose the word that is an adjective in the sentence. walked home school
Coloring books Car sickness bags Kids movies Crayons and markers Plastic cups with lids Snacks Car seats Extra clothes Stuffed animals . measurement of time adjective verb noun adjective verb noun past tense verb verb noun noun noun adjective Road Trip Fill-In-The-Blank. Player 1 Player 2 Player 3 Player 4 My Cows!