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GREEK PREFIXESPrefixMeaningExamplesa-, an-not, without, (having) noabyss, anemiaamphi-both, on both sides of, aroundamphibiousana-, an-up, back, again, upside down, wronganalysis, anodeanti-against, opposite, in answer toantipodal, antiphonyapo-, ap-from, off, away fromapostle, aphelioncata-, cat-down, against, very, bad(ly),completelycatastrophe, catholicdia-, di-through, across, between, apart,throughoutdiameter, diocesedys-bad, disordered, difficultdysenteryec-, ex-out, out ofectopic, exodusen-, em-, el-in, into, onenergy, emblem, ellipseendo-, ento-,end-, ent-withinendocrine, entophyteepi-, ep-(up)on, to, in addition to,against, in(to), overepidemic, epodeeu-, ev-good, wellEugene, evangelicalexo-, ecto-outside, externalexotic, ectoparasitehyper-over, excessivehyperactivehypo-, hyp-below, less than normalhypocrite, hyphenmeta-, met-after, changed, different, beyondmetaphor, methodpalin-backwards, againpalindrome

PrefixMeaningExamplespara-, par-beside, alongside, related to;disordered, sideways, wrong,contrary to, different (from)paranoid, parodyperi-around, nearperigeepro-before, in front ofprosceniumpros-toward, in addition toprostheticsyn-, sym-,syl-, sy-with, together, samesynonym, sympathy,syllable, systemSome Similarities Between Greek and Latin )ambiine(x)superpro, preconEnglishun(of, off)in(for)Meaningnotaway fromon both sidesin, intoout ofabovein front ofwithCompare the following linguistically related Greek and Latin ra/introprosupersub/sus, etc.away fromaround, on both sidesout ofoutsidein (cognate)un (cognate)insidein front ofaboveunder("h" and "s" are linguistically related as the last two entries show)

The following are not related, but are worth comparing:pericircumaroundsyn/sym, etc.con/co, etc.withBe sure not to confuse:anti (Greek "against")a/an (Greek "not")dys (Greek "bad, disordered")andandandante (Latin "before")ab/a/ abs (Latin "away from")dis (Latin "apart, in different directions, not")In almost every case, Latin prefixes are used with Latin bases and Greek prefixes are used withGreek bases. But we will run across hybrids from time to time, so stay alert!

GREEK SUFFIXESThese are the most important English suffixes derived from Greek. They are arranged by usage(adjective-forming, verb-forming, noun-forming).ADJECTIVE-FORMING SUFFIXES"pertaining to, like"-(i)ac-al-(i)an-(t)ic-(i)ous-oidpertaining to, likepertaining to, like, belonging to,having the character ofpertaining to, like, one concerned withpertaining to, likepertaining to, like, full oflike, having the shape RB-FORMING SUFFIXES-ize"to make"to make, to do something with,to subject tohypothesizeNOUN-FORMING SUFFIXES"result of, state of"-m(e), -ma(t)result of, thing that is the result of-sis, -se, -sy, -sia act of, state of, result of-y (-ia)quality of, state of, act of, condition of-gram-graph-graphy"writing"thing writtenwriting, instrument for writingwriting, art or science of writingscheme, phlegmthesis, heresypolyandrypentagramphonographbiography"one who does"-(a)st-ician-ite, -ot(e)-t(e)one who doesspecialist in, practitioner ofone connected with, inhabitant ofone who, that whichdynastmathematiciansodomite, patriotneophyte

-ism-ist"belief in"belief in, practice of, condition ofone who believes in, one engaged inatheismPlatonist-arch-crat"one who rules"one who rulesone who advocates or practices rule bypatriarchbureaucrat-archy-cracy"rule by"rule byrule by, type of governmentmatriarchyaristocracy-adgroup of (number)"group of"triadScientific Suffixes-(t)ics-log(y)-nom(y)-metr(y)"science of"art, science, system or study ofscience of, systematic study ofscience of, system of laws governingart or science of measuring-arium,-arion-idium-ium, -ion-isk, hemical substancesolid figure with a (specified) number of facesmeasure, instrument for measuring,number of feet in poetry"-fold"instrument for viewing, to e" (diminutive)conarium, Hipparionantheridiumbacterium, asterionbasilisk, meniscusOther Scientific Suffixes-ploid-scopemelanin, chlorinedodecahedronbarometer, hexameterdiploid ("twofold")otoscopeMedical Suffixes-ectomy-tomy"surgical removal of"surgical removal of ("act of cutting out")surgical operation on, surgical cutting ofvasectomylobotomy

-pathy"disease"one who suffers from a disease of, one whotreats a diseasedisease of, treatment of disease of or by-mania-maniac"madness"madness about, passion forone having a madness or passion ar"-phobia-phobeabnormal fear or hatred ofone who fears or hates (abnormally)arachnophobiahomophobeOther Medical rapycondition of the blood, congestion of blood indiseased condition (often caused by parasites)inflammation of, inflammatory disease ofpart, lining or enveloping tissue, regiontumor of, swelling containing, diseasedcondition of, result ofdiseased condition of, act of, process ofabnormal dischargetreatment of or nomahalitosislogorrheaelectrotherapy

The following are not related, but are worth comparing: peri circum around syn/sym, etc. con/co, etc. with Be sure not to confuse: anti (Greek "against") and ante (Latin "before") a/an (Greek "not") and ab/a/ abs (Latin "away from") dys (Greek "bad, disordered") and dis (Latin "apart, in different directions, not") In almost every case, Latin