Bridge Oracle SystemFirst Ever Public Oracle System on TRON Networkby Bridge Oracle teamSpring 2020Last Update: March 11th 2021White Paper Version: v 0.1.4AbstractSmart contracts are going to change the world’s businesses by providing aninfrastructure for creating Dapps (decentralized applications) and DAOs(Decentralized Autonomous Organizations) in order to automate jobs based onblockchain technology. However, one should note that due to underlyingconsensus protocols, the blockchain on which smart contract is deployed andtriggered, cannot access external data.In order to solve this problem, a kind of special technology was proposedwhich is called Oracle. Oracles inject information of the real world into theblockchains whenever needed. Without oracles, blockchains can be only used fortokenization purposes; however, by setting oracle technology on a blockchain,smart contracts can be programmed as required and perform as a decentralizedautonomous organization.In this paper, Bridge project is presented as the first ever dedicated publicoracle system on TRON network that is introduced to serve smart contracts whichare deployed on TRON blockchain. At the end of the paper, roadmap of theproject is declared which is consisted of adding various data sources, responseswith various kind of proofs, developing decentralized oracle service which is anincentive-based system for reporting aggregating response to blockchain andproviding possibilities for launching enterprise oracles on behalf of companies tosell dedicated data.
Keywordssmart contract, dapp, decentralized application, DAO, decentralized autonomousorganization, blockchain, consensus protocol, deploy, trigger, oracle,tokenization, proof, incentive, aggregating response
Contents1. Introduction . 42. Bridge Oracle . 72.1. Oracle Structure . 72.1.1. Smart Contracts . 82.1.2. Data Carriers . 82.2. Oracle Performance . 82.3. Oracle API Contracts . 112.3.1. Public API Contract . 112.3.2. Decentralized API Contract . 112.3.3. Enterprise API Contract . 112.4. Public Oracle Data Sources. 122.4.1. URL. 122.4.2. Complex URL . 122.4.3. WolframAlpha . 132.4.4. Random . 132.4.5. BTFS . 132.4.6. Nested . 132.5. Responding Time of Requests . 142.5.1. On Time Queries . 142.5.2. Scheduled Queries. 142.4.7. / 2.5.3. Open Ending Time Queries. 152.5.4. Recursive Queries . 162.6. Off-Chain System Architecture . 162.7. Payment Methods. 192.8. Roadmap . 203. Conclusion . 214. Appendix . 234.1. BRG Tokens. 234.1. Token Distribution Policy . 23
1. IntroductionSmart contracts are a kind of application with tamperproof context and clauseswhich are deployed and executed on blockchain networks. It means that no party(and even creators) are able to manipulate the codes and functions afterdeployment. Thus, unlike traditional paper contracts or digital ones which areprogrammed on centralized platforms that are exposed to alteration, terminationand deletion by a trusted party or a third person, smart contracts bring parties intoagreement and generate a novel and powerful class of trust without relying ontrust in any party or intermediaries. This feature turns smart contracts into asuperior tool for realizing and implementing digital agreements.It should be noted that smart contracts are trying to digitalize real-worldagreements. Consequently, in order to carry out such a task, they need to accessreal-world data. However, due to special underlying consensus protocols,blockchains are avoided to connect external data sources, therefore they cannotaccess outside. Thus, smart contract developers encounter a connectivity issueaccording to which majority of smart contracts are not able to function practically.Without connectivity, smart contracts and blockchains are only tools andplatforms, respectively by which tokenization of shares and assets oforganizations are possible and they are not flexible enough to be used as aprogramming ecosystem. For this cause the main usage of smart contracts whichare deployed in TRON network are low price and weak tokens which is anordinary and common use case in any other blockchain networks.Current concentration on tokens is due to lack of a public and user-friendlyoracle service in TRON network. Thus, beside blockchain technology, oraclesystem is a vital requirement with which blockchain platforms acquire theflexibility of handling all kind of applications and digital autonomousorganizations by accessing external data. Oracles are a kind of technologythrough which people are able to inject real-world data into their smart contracts.The most useful data source that is utilized as data feed in order to injectinformation, is HTTP/HTTPS API endpoint. As it was declared before, due toconsensus mechanisms used by blockchains, they are unable to directly fetch suchcritical data.
In this paper, connectivity issue of TRON network is addressed andsubsequently a solution for injecting external data into smart contracts isprovided. Bridge is the first ever dedicated public oracle technology on TRONnetwork which is developed to provide ability of accessing external data forordinary users’ smart contracts. Because making smart contracts to be externallyaware and capable of accessing off-chain resources is a vital aspect, if they areexpected to be substituted with manual and digital agreements in use today.The features due which Bridge oracle system shows off, are consisted offollowing clauses: The ability to access external data using various form of APIs and parsinghelpers such as JSON, XML, HTML. The ability to add extra various data sources such as BTFS, WolframAlpha,Random, etc. The ability to add various kinds of proof to prove the authenticity of theinjected data. The ability to develop a decentralized oracle service upon currentinfrastructure. The ability to add dedicated oracle data carriers for special enterprises inorder to sell dedicated raw data. The ability to accept two various payment methods including native coinof TRON blockchain network (TRX) and project related token (BRG) witha special discount.Before proceeding to the main project, examples of potential nextgeneration smart contracts and their needs to external data are presented whichare expected to be substituted by their traditional equivalent: Normal Contracts: For example, contract of promoting a video to reacha certain number of views. When the views of the video reach to a certainnumber, promoter should receive money.Requirements: Accessing to number of views using scraping by xpathlanguage. Securities: For example, bonds, interest rate derivatives, etc.Requirements: Accessing to APIs which report market prices and marketreference data such as interest rate.
Insurance: For example, if fire extinguisher system of a building getsthe ability to record fire data, estimate the destruction and inject it intoinsurance smart contract, insurance contracts can pay the compensation.Requirements: Accessing to IoT (Internet of Things) data feeds. Trade finance: For example, when transit of goods is completed to aspecial region, freight is paid using smart contract.Requirements: Accessing to GPS data about shipment and alikeinformation in order to fulfill contractual obligations. Dapp: Generally, any kind of decentralized application which isoperated by smart contract as backend codes. One can implement anykind of application using smart contracts in which any kind ofinformation may be required. DAO: Generally, any kind of decentralized autonomous organization inwhich usage of any kind of information is possible.The underlying reasons of using smart contracts for developing Dapps andDAOs are as follows: No need to backend codes on centralized servers. Handling security of contract by blockchain technology. Providing possibility of tokenizing your platform and create dedicatedassets. Using peer to peer payment methods through native coin and tokens of thesame blockchain network. Registering transactions publicly and transparently which can be used asreceipt by customers. Etc.Lack of a public oracle system in TRON network is strongly felt. Creatingsmart contracts without oracle technology is almost impossible and withoutoracle technology, blockchains use case is limited to be a tokenization platform.Although powerful enterprises are able to have dedicated oracle systems, peoplewith limited budget, ability, time or any other reason are unable to prepare one.
However, as you well know, in all over the world, small businesses are moreimportant than strong organizations and great economic enterprises. Thus,providing an infrastructure for attracting small businesses and implementing theirbusinesses on TRON blockchain is critical and vital for progression andexpansion of the network. For instance as emerging data centers and serverservices providers together with ready-to-use content manager systems includingWordPress, Joomla, etc. led to spread of implementing small businesses oninternet easily, creating a public oracle system on TRON network will causepeople to be able to implement their local or small business on blockchain, aswell and benefit from peer to peer payment methods of TRON network usingnative coin and tokens.In the following, Bridge oracle is presented.2. Bridge Oracle2.1. Oracle StructureAs it was said previously, oracle is a kind of technology with which blockchainsare able to access real-world data. Simple schematic structure of Bridge oraclesystem can be seen in Fig. 1:1243Figure 1. Simple Schematic Structure of Bridge Oracle System
Bridge oracle system is composed of 2 distinct parts including smart contractswhich perform in blockchain network and oracle data carriers that bridgesbetween blockchain and real-world data.2.1.1. Smart ContractsBridge oracle is consisted of 3 various smart contracts that interact with eachother. One of the contracts is the Bridge API contract that client’s smart contractshould inherit from this contract through which client’s smart contract canconnect to Bridge oracle and benefit from provided services. The other contractis Bridge oracle address resolver which redirects client’s requests to the correctservice including public oracle system, decentralized oracle system, a specificenterprise oracle system, etc. The last contract is Bridge oracle connector thatreceives client’s request and process it in format of a query and emit specific datawhich can be read by watching oracle data carriers.Notice: Note that interactions between Bridge’s smart contracts are established insuch a way that upgrading Bridge oracle system to a higher version with morefeatures and without occurrence of any disruption in previous users’ contract ispossible.2.1.2. Data CarriersAfter emitting information in blockchain by Bridge oracle connector contract,Bridge oracle data carriers that are watching connector smart contract, receive agroup of information from which they recognize blockchain requirements of realworld data.2.2. Oracle PerformanceLet’s investigate how an oracle system works generally. By considering Fig. 1,in the first step, blockchain emits special data using logging events that inspiresits requirements of real world-data. In second step, oracle data carriers that arewatching such events, understand blockchain’s needs of data and try to fetch themfrom real world by sending requests to various data sources using different kindof methods such as APIs, downloading files, asking questions, etc. In the thirdstep, intended resource respond to the oracle data carriers’ request and sendrequested data to the oracle data carriers. In the last step, oracle data carriers injectfinal result to the blockchain and eventually blockchain’s need for externalinformation is met.
Fig. 2 shows interaction of smart contracts of Bridge oracle system with togetherand with oracle data carriers in details. As it can be seen in Fig. 2, in the first step,proper API contract should be imported into user’s contract based on owner’srequirements. There are various API contracts, each has a certain parameterwritten in it from which user’s contract connects to the appropriate connectorcontract.After importing proper API contract to user’s contract, in second step andbefore sending query to the proper contract, user’s contract needs to know addressof the appropriate connector contract in order to send the query. So, asking theaddress of the proper contract is carried out using the certain parameter which issent to oracle address resolver contract from utilized API contract.In third step oracle address resolver contract finds the appropriate connectorcontract address using a hash table that is provided in it. This hash table receivesthe certain parameter which mentions the proper connector contract, and returnsthe address of the connector to the user’s contract.In fourth step, user’s contract sends the query to the determined connectoraddress on which a special kind of oracle data carriers including public,decentralized or enterprise are watching.In fifth step the connector contract sorts input data in a standard pattern andlogs corresponding event based on user’s needs and requirements.In sixth step valid oracle data carriers that are watching the connector contract,receives user’s request in format of events.In seventh step valid oracle data carriers send request to the data source whichis requested by user’s contract and ask for required data.In eighth step requested data source responds to data carriers’ requests anddelivers appropriate data.In ninth step which is the last step of the procedure, oracle data carriers injectusers’ requested data into their smart contracts.Note that final results are injected to callback function of users’ smartcontracts which are only allowed to be triggered by Bridge’s valid oracle datacarriers in order to avoid injecting fake data by evil and fraud sources.
Figure 2. Interaction of Smart Contracts of Bridge Oracle System with Together and with Oracle Data Carriers
2.3. Oracle API ContractsAs it was said in previous section, proper API contract should be imported intouser’s contract based on owner’s requirements. So, there are various APIcontracts in Bridge ecosystem, each has special functionality. Various APIcontracts include: Public API contract Decentralized API contract Enterprise API contracts that are dedicated to each company ororganization which is volunteer to sell data for BRG tokenIt should be noted that using each of above contracts depends on user’srequirements.2.3.1. Public API ContractPublic API contract has been designed to simply obviate requirements fromexternal data that the validity of data or proving the validity of data is not thatimportant for user. Of course, in this method various kinds of proof will beprovided to resolve proof of validity of data in a near future.2.3.2. Decentralized API ContractDecentralized API contract has been prepared for those users who need toimplement a fully decentralized platform. Thus, they need to fetch external datausing a decentralized oracle system as well. As developing such infrastructure isin our future plans, details of designing such oracle system will be reported infuture.2.3.3. Enterprise API ContractEnterprise API contract has been provided for enterprise companies andorganizations that own dedicated and special data which are not published andshared publicly. These companies and organizations can sell such data usingBridge system and users who need such data can import that company’s dedicatedAPI contract. This API contract redirects users’ requests to that company’sconnector on which company’s dedicated oracle data carriers watch and respondusers’ contracts directly and inject dedicated data to their contract privately.Companies and organizations can exchange their dedicated information for BRGtoken which is paid by users’ contracts. In fact, enterprise organizations can make
money by selling data to Bridge users. This is one of Bridge system’s businessplans.Notice: Note that only public API contract is prepared yet and other oraclesystems are going to be created in a near future based on roadmap plans.2.4. Public Oracle Data SourcesData sources are various kind of trusted references such as a website or a webAPI from which required data is requested by oracle data carriers based on users’choice. One should note that each data source has a special use case andfunctionality and choosing a suitable data source is of great importance. Thereare several critical data sources that are expected to exist in Bridge oracle system.Various data sour
Bridge oracle system is composed of 2 distinct parts including smart contracts which perform in blockchain network and oracle data carriers that bridges between blockchain and real-world data. 2.1.1. Smart Contracts Bridge oracle is consisted of 3 various smart contracts that interact with each other. One of the contracts is the Bridge API contract that client’s smart contract should inherit .
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