Teaching Self-Determination Skills To Students With .

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National Secondary TransitionTechnical Assistance CenterTeaching Self-Determination Skillsto Students With Disabilities3 hour presentation1

Agenda SD defined Components of SD Ways to assess SD Approaches to promoting SD Research-based SD curricula Evidence-based practices in SD Other SD Resources Game time!!!


The Birthday PartyTaken from Jamie L van Dycke, James E. Martin, David L. Lovett, Teaching Exceptional Children.Reston Jan/Feb 2006 Vol. 38, Iss.3 Pg. 42, 6pgs Self-Determination Constructs4

Self-Determination DefinedThere are manydefinitions of SD inthe literature.The mostcomprehensivedefinition is providedby Field, Martin,Miller, Ward, andWehmeyer (1998).

Self-Determination DefinedA combination of skills, knowledge, andbeliefs that enable a person to engage in goaldirected, self-regulated, autonomousbehavior.An understanding of one’s strengths andlimitations together with a belief in oneself ascapable and effective are essential to selfdetermination.When acting on the basis of these skills andattitudes, individuals have greater ability totake control of their lives and assume the roleof successful adults in our society.

Components of Self-Determination Choice making: appropriately choosingbetween a finite number of choices Problem-solving: weigh pros & cons ofpotential actions, identify barriers to success Decision making: involves choosingbetween unlimited options Goal setting and attainment: ability to setappropriate goals for self and achieve thegoals with actions

Components of Self-Determination Self-regulation: self-monitoring, selfevaluation, self-instruction, self-management(controlling own behavior by being aware ofone’s actions and providing feedback)Self-awareness: awareness of ownindividuality, strengths, and areas forimprovementSelf-efficacy: understanding that own actionshave an impact – you are a causal agency inyour lifeSelf-advocacy: have knowledge of self,knowledge of rights, communication skills,and leadership ability.

Self-awarenessSELF Knowledge of RightsSample sub-components rning styleSupport needsAccommodation needsCharacteristics of one’s disabilityResponsibilities Sample sub-components includePersonal rightsCommunity rightsHuman service rightsConsumer rightsEducational rightsSteps to redress violationsSteps to advocate for changeKnowledge of resourcesCommunicationADVOCACY Assertiveness Negotiation Articulation Body LanguageSample sub-components include Use of assistive technology Listening Persuasion CompromiseLeadershipSample sub-components include Knowledge of group’s rights Knowledge of resources Advocating for others or for causes Organizational participation Political action Team dynamics and roles

Why the emphasis on SD?Individuals who score higher onmeasures of SD have more positiveadult outcomes (e.g., betteremployment, better living situations) Research is emerging regarding therelationship between SD and positiveschool experiences (e.g., higher grades,attendance, fewer behaviorproblems). Wehmeyer & Schwartz (1997)

You have the WHYS and theWHATS so, now the question isHOW?

Assessing Self-Determination Purpose: to provide information aboutreadiness to make decisions related to futureambitions and help students in identifyingrelative strengths and limitations related toself-determination Examples: The Arc’s Self-Determination Scale Self-Determination Assessment Battery Choice Maker Self-DeterminationAssessment AIR Self-Determination Scale

The Arc Self-Determination ScaleWehmeyer & Kelchner, 1995 Target Population: middle and secondarystudents with Behavioral/Emotional Disorders,Mild ID, LD, Speech/Language Impairments,Developmental Disabilities, OHI, OrthopedicImpairments Measures: choice-making, decision-making,problem-solving, self-awareness, selfregulation, goal setting & planning, selfefficacy Data collection options: student self-report Price: freehttp://education.ou.edu/zarrow/?p 38&z 39

Self-Determination Assessment BatteryHoffman, Field, & Sawilowsky, 1996 Target population: Secondary students withmild to moderate disabilities Measures: decision-making, problem-solving,self-awareness, self-advocacy, goal setting &planning, learning from mistakes, risk taking Data collection options: Student, parent,teacher interviews, student self-report, andbehavioral observation Price: freehttp://education.ou.edu/zarrow/?p 38&z 41

ChoiceMaker Self-DeterminationAssessment Martin & Marshall, 1996Target Population: middle and secondarystudents with Learning Disabilities andEmotional/Behavioral DisordersMeasures: choice-making, decision-making,problem-solving, self-awareness, self-advocacy,goal setting & planningData collection options: rating scale forteacherPrice: 15.49 for 25 copies(www.sopriswest.com)

AIR Self-Determination Scale(Wolman, Campeau, DuBois, Mithaug, &Stolarski, 1994) Target Population: all school-age students withand without disabilities Measures: choice-making, self-regulation, selfawareness, self-advocacy, goal setting &planning Data collection options: rating scales forteacher, parent, and student Price: freehttp://education.ou.edu/zarrow/?p 38&z 3

Approaches for Promoting SD in StudentsUse student-driven IEP andtransition planning.2. Directly teaching skills orenhancing knowledge3. Embedding instruction into thegeneral curriculum4. Use Person-Centered Planning1.

Approaches for Promoting SD in Students1. Student-driven IEP and transition planning Making sure the student attends and isPREPARED for participating in their IEPmeetings Important step in transferring decisionmaking power to students Teaching students about the IEP and itsuse in guiding their future Remember that ALL students arecapable of participating

Approaches for Promoting SD in Students2. Directly teaching skills or enhancingknowledgeSelf-management (self-monitoring, selfrecording, self-graphing, )Choice-makingProblem-solvingHow do you teach these skills?

Approaches for Promoting SD in Students3. Embedding instruction into the generalcurriculum Examples: Literature Circles IEP Template Go 4 It Now! Self-Determined Learning Model ofInstruction (SDLMI)

Approaches for Promoting SD in StudentsLiterature Circles Blum, Lipsett, & Yocom (2002)8th and 9th grade students with disabilitiesshowed improvement in their perceptionsof their reading skills and were able tocontribute to discussions in their literaturecirclesSelf-determination components addressed:problem-solving and decision-makingELA skills addressed: readingcomprehension, oral communication

Approaches for Promoting SD in StudentsLiterature Circles in Practice Assign students to groups of 4 to 6Students in the group read the same bookbut prepare for the literature circlediscussions by assuming different roles (e.g.,discussion leader, vocabulary enricher,illustrator, connector)Students complete assignment sheets toprepare for their role in the discussion; thesesheets give the students specific tasks tocomplete

Approaches for Promoting SD in StudentsIEP Template Konrad & Test (2004)7th grade students with learning disabilitiesor mild mental retardation showedimprovement in their abilities to completethe IEP TemplateSelf-determination components addressed:goal-setting and self-awarenessELA skills addressed: research skills, writingfor a variety of purposes, sentence writing

Approaches for Promoting SD in StudentsIEP Template in Practice IEP awareness instruction (What is an IEP andwhy do I have one?)Career exploration using on-line career interestinventories and the on-line OccupationalOutlook Handbook Students interview parents and teachersDirect instruction and modeling of how tocomplete the TemplateTemplate includes a vision statement; presentlevel of performance; goals and objectives;measurement criteria and procedures; andservices and accommodations

Approaches for Promoting SD in StudentsGO 4 IT NOW! Konrad, Trela, & Test (2004)High-school students with cognitive andphysical disabilities showed improvement intheir abilities write IEP goal paragraphs andother types of expository paragraphsSelf-determination components addressed:goal-setting, self-awareness, and selfregulationELA skills addressed: writing for a variety ofpurposes, paragraph writing

Approaches for Promoting SD in StudentsGO 4 IT NOW! in Practice Uses a mnemonic device to help studentswrite 6-sentence goal paragraphsCan be applied to other types of paragraphwritingGoalsObjectives4 (4 objectives)IdentifyTimelineName your topic.Order your steps.Wrap it up and restatetopic.

Approaches for Promoting SD in StudentsSDLMI Mithaug, Wehmeyer, Agran, Martin, &Palmer, (1998).Three phases: Phase 1: Set a Goal Phase 2: Take Action Phase 3: Adjust Goal or Plan Used for setting academic and behaviorgoals

Approaches for Promoting SD in Students4. Person-Centered PlanningA facilitated process designed to plan anddevelop supports to meet the specificdesires of the focal person.First, a group (or circle) of individuals isidentified by the student and familywho have an interest in funding orproviding supports for the student.Second, the group meets at a placeconvenient for all members (often ahome or restaurant) to develop a plan.

Approaches for Promoting SD in StudentsSome Types of PCPWhole-Life Planning (Timmons &Whitney-Thomas, 1998)Personal Futures Planning (Miner &Bates, 1997)McGill Action Planning System(Vandercook, York, & Forest, 1989).

Approaches for Promoting SD in StudentsMcGill Action Planning System (MAPS)What is the individual’s history?What is your dream for the future?What is your nightmare?Who is the individual?What are the individual’s strengths, gifts, andabilities?6. What are the individual’s needs?7. What would the individual’s ideal day atschool look like?8. What must be done to make it happen?

Published Research-basedCurricula in SD

Next S.T.E.P.(Student Transition & Educational Planning)Population: All levels of disabilityAges 14 through 21Purpose: Helps students learn how to take charge of theirown transition planning processHelps students assume responsibility forimportant life decisions with support fromteachers and parentsMaterials: 16 lessons with fully developed lesson plans

Next S.T.E.P. , continued(Student Transition & Educational Planning) Content: Unit 1: Getting to Know MyselfUnit 2: Self-EvaluationUnit 3: Setting and Achieving GoalsUnit 4: Sharing Your Goals and AccomplishmentsFor further information: Available through ProEd 210.00

ChoiceMaker Population:Students with mild to moderate disabilitiesGrades six through adultPurpose:Designed to teach students self-determinationskills to be successful in adult lifeContent:Includes 3 Strands: Choosing Goals Expressing Goals Taking ActionAddresses 4 transition areas: Education/training Employment Independent Living Recreation and Leisure

ChoiceMaker, continued For more information:Publisher: Sopris West www.sopriswest.com 404.39 – can purchase in components 127.49

ChoiceMaker Curriculum & LessonsStrandsGoalsModulesChoosing Goalsa. Student interestsb. Student skills andlimitsc. Student goalsChoosing education goalsChoosing employment goalsChoosing personal goalsChoosing daily living, housing,and community goalsExpressing Goalsa. Student leadingmeetingb. Student reportingSelf-directed IEPTaking Actiona.b.c.d.Take ActionStudent planStudent actionStudent evaluationStudent adjustment

Whose Future Is It Anyway?A Student-Directed Transition Planning Process Purpose: Prepare students for their IEPmeetings and gain self-determination skills Population: students with mild to moderatecognitive disabilities Materials: Coach's Guide outlines lessons how to teach lessons the roles of the students and teachers expected outcomes

Whose Future Is It Anyway?, continuedContent: Section 1: Getting to know youSection 2: Making DecisionsSection 3: How to Get What You NeedSection 4: Goals, Objectives and the FutureSection 5: CommunicatingSection 6: Thank You, Honorable ChairpersonFor Further Information: www.education.ou.edu/zarrowFree did you hear that? FREE!!!!

My Future My Plan Population: for students and families Purpose: to help facilitate planning during Materials:the early transition stages Video and video discussion guidePlanning and resource book for studentsGuide to the book for family members andteachers

My Future My Plan, continuedContent: Self-advocacyLegal rightsIEP and transition teamCareer optionsFor further Information:Publisher: State of the ctdetails?item id 202860S 44.95 (non-NEA members); 39.95 (NEAmembers)

Evidence-based Practices in SDwww.nsttac.org

IEP Development/Student ParticipationStrategiesInvolving Students in the IEP Process Involving students in the IEP processincludes instruction on: Participating in IEP meetings Participating in transition planning Leading IEP meetings Self-determination skills Transition awareness Empowerment

IEP Development/Student ParticipationStrategiesInvolving Students in the IEP Process Research-to-Practice Lesson Plan Starters For using the Self-Directed IEP with students with lanLibrary/1 and 8.pdfFor using person centered planning to increase student andfamily involvement in the IEP processhttp://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/2 27 35.pdfFor using the TAKE CHARGE: For the Future! 3 29 33.pdfFor using the Self-Advocacy Strategyhttp://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/1 and 8.pdf

IEP Development/Student ParticipationStrategiesUsing the Self-Advocacy Strategy Uses “IPLAN” mnemonic Inventory your: Strengths Areas to improve or learn Goals Choices for learning oraccommodations Provide your inventory information Listen and respond Ask questions Name your goals

IEP Development/Student ParticipationStrategies Using the Self-Advocacy Strategy Research-to-Practice Lesson Plan Starters For using a computer-based version of the SelfAdvocacy pdfFor increasing student participation in their 6.pdfFor using the Self-Advocacy Strategy withadolescents in preparation for the IEP meetinghttp://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/4 737 41.pdf

IEP Development/Student ParticipationStrategiesUsing the Self-Directed IEP Self-Directed IEP is part of ChoiceMakercurriculum Involves 11 steps:1. State the purpose of the meeting2. Introduce everyone3. Review past goals and performance4. Ask for others’ feedback5. State your school and transition goals6. Ask questions if you don’t understand

IEP Development/Student ParticipationStrategies Using the Self-directed IEP continued:7. Deal with differences of opinion8. State the support you will need9. Summarize your goals10. Close the meeting by thankingeveryone11. Work on IEP goals all year

IEP Development/Student ParticipationStrategies Using the Self-Directed IEP Research-to-Practice Lesson PlanStarters To teach the Self-Directed IEP to studentswith cognitive y/1 and 8.pdf

Teaching Self-determination Skills Teaching Self-Determination Skills Research-to-Practice Lesson Plan Starters For decision-making skills: http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/18.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/19.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/10 22.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/23.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/30 3438.pdf

Teaching Self-determination Skills(Under Student Development) Research-to-Practice Lesson Plan Starters For goal setting and attainment: http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/17.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/19.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/26.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/2 27 35.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/25 28 36.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/3 29 33.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/30 34 38.pdf

Teaching Self-determination Skills(Under Student Development)Continued: Research-to-Practice Lesson Plan Starters For problem-solving skills: http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/17.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/40.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/18.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/19.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/3 29 33.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/32.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/30 34 38.pdf

Teaching Self-determination Skills(Under Student Development) Research-to-Practice Lesson Plan Starters For self-awareness: http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/17.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/19.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/2 27 35.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/25 2836.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/4 7 3741.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/30 3438.pdf

Teaching Self-determination Skills(Under Student Development)Continued: Research-to-Practice Lesson Plan Starters For self-advocacy: http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/17.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/19.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/25 2836.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/4 7 37 41.pdf http://www.nsttac.org/LessonPlanLibrary/30 3438.pdf

Other SD Resources See handout entitled “Resources forInvolving Students in their IEP Process” Do you know of others?

Why is teaching self-determination skillsworth the effort?Welcome to my IEP meeting.MeetParkerBryantToday we are going to talk aboutmy plans for the future.

Are You Smarter than aSPED Teacher?57

CATEGORIESSelf-directedIEPSD ComponentsEmphasison SDSelf-AdvocacyStrategySD LessonPlansWhose FutureIs lum

So, are we smarter than aSPED teacher?YESNO



Oh Man!!! Try again

Self-directed IEPTrue or False There are 9 steps in the Selfdirected IEP curriculum

SD Lesson PlansTrue or FalseThere are lesson plans onwww.nsttac.org for teaching selfdetermination skills that includedecision-making, goal setting andattainment, problem-solving, selfawareness, and self-advocacy.

SD ComponentsTrue or False Self-advocacymeans havingknowledge of self, knowledge ofrights, communication skills, andleadership ability

Whose Future Is It Anyway?True or False WhoseFuture Is It Anyway? Is apublished self-determination andtransition planning curriculum that isvery expensive to purchase.

Emphasis on SDTrue or False Individualswho score higher onmeasures of SD have more positiveadult outcomes (e.g., betteremployment, better living situations)

Evidence-based PracticeTrue or False “Involvingstudents in the IEPprocess” is an evidence-basedpractice that includes instruction onself-determination skills.

Self-Advocacy StrategyTrue or False TheSelf-Advocacy Strategy usedthe mnemonic IPLAN to teach selfadvocacy to students with disabilities.

Choice-Maker CurriculumTrue or False TheChoice-Maker curriculum iscomprised of 3 strands (choosinggoals, expressing goals, taking action)and addresses 4 transition areas(education, employment, independentliving, recreation/leisure).


Contact UsDavid Test, dwtest@uncc.eduMargo Izzo, 687-6327(TTY)704-687-2916 (fax)72

Components of Self-Determination Self-regulation: self-monitoring, self-evaluation, self-instruction, self-management (controlling own behavior by being aware of one’s actions and providing feedback) Self-awareness: awareness of own individuality, strengths, and areas for improvement

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