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TABLE OF CONTENTSLEARNER NOTESSESSION1TOPIC1. Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA printing2. Protein synthesis and DNA fingerprinting21. Meiosis2. Genetics – terms2Self Study1. Consolidation exercises – meiosis and DNA2. Consolidation exercises – meiosis and fingerprintingPAGE3 - 1314 - 2425 – 3536 – 4748 – 5051 - 55Page 2 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESSENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMEGRADE 12SESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)SESSION 1: TOPIC 1: NUCLEIC ACIDS – DNA AND RNALearner Note: Please ensure that you understand that the nucleus is an organelle locatedin a cell. Go through the structure of DNA and RNA very carefully. You MUST understandthe structure and combination of the complimentary bases or you will not be able to answerexam questions based on Protein Synthesis. REMEMBER: Thymine is only in DNA andUracil is only in RNA.SECTION A: TYPICAL EXAM QUESTIONSQUESTION 1:16 minutes(Taken from DoE Exemplar 2008)HINTS:The structure of the DNA and RNA molecule is very important and is often examined.Make sure that you know the labels of each component. Remember to label the diagramfirst and then move onto the questions1.1 The diagram below represents a part of a molecule. Study the diagram and answer thequestions that follow.1.1.1 Identify the molecule in the above diagram.(1)1.1.2 Label the parts numbered 1 and 5 respectively.(2)1.1.3 What is the collective name for the parts numbered 2, 3 and 4?(1)1.1.4 What is the significance of this molecule being able to replicate itself?(Replicate means to make another identical molecule – to ‘copy’)(2)Page 3 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESGRADE 12SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMESESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)1.2The following questions are based on protein synthesis.1.2.1 Describe each of the following: (You must learn the definitions.)(a) Transcription(2)(b) Translation(2)1.2.2 The diagram below shows the sequence of nitrogenous bases of a strandof DNA which codes for part of a protein molecule.Write down the mRNA codon sequence that reads from left to right from the DNAsequence above.(Remember that the mRNA codon will always be opposite to the DNA code.Also remember that Thymine is only found on DNA and that on RNA Thymine isreplaced with Uracil)(3)1.2.3 The following diagram shows the anticodons of nine different tRNA (transfer RNA)molecules each carrying a particular amino acid.(The anti-codon is the opposite to the mRNA and is, therefore, the same aswhat was coded on the DNA)Select and write down from the above diagram, the amino acids (in the correct sequence)that would be required for the base sequence of mRNA shown below.(3)[16]Page 4 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESQUESTION 2: 8minutesGRADE 12SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMESESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)(Taken from DoE November 2009)The table below shows the DNA base triplets that code for different amino acids.The following is a part of a sequence of amino acids that form a particularprotein molecule:(A reminder that a codon is made up of 3 bases and can also be called a triplet base)2.1Name the process by which mRNA is formed from a DNA template.(1)2.2How many mRNA codons would be involved in forming the portion of proteinshown above?(1)Write down the sequence of the first THREE mRNA codons (from left to right)for this portion of the protein.(3)2.32.4The following is a sequence of base triplets in DNA: GAA - GTA - TTT - AAA(a) If guanine, found in the first base triplet, is removed, explain how this wouldaffect the structure of the protein.(2)(b) Name the process that occurs when the sequence of bases in DNA changes. (1)[8]Page 5 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESQUESTION 3:GRADE 1211 minutesSENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMESESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)(Taken from DoE Preparatory Exam 2008)(A reminder first to label the diagram and then to move on to questions)Study the diagram illustrating protein synthesis below, and answer the questions that follow.3.1 Label the molecules indicated by 2 and 3.(2)3.2 Using the letters of the genetic code, write down the complementary nitrogenousbases on strand 1 of the DNA double helix, starting from the top.(Remember: A T/U and G C)(3)3.3 Use the table below to determine which three amino acids in the diagram arerepresented by 4, 5 and 6.(3 x 2) (6)THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN tRNA AND AMINO ACIDS DUTING PROTEINSYNTHESIStRNA anticodonsAmino alanine[11]Page 6 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESGRADE 12SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMESESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)QUESTION 4:5 minutes(4.1 to 4.3 taken from Bishops Prelim 2008 and 4.4 to 4.5 taken from FS DoE prelim 2008)4.1The first of the accompanying diagrams shows a small part of the DNA moleculewhere the four types of base molecules are represented by the letters A, T, Cand G.Which of the following supplies the information missing from Box Xin the first diagram?4.2Sally carries the gene pairs AA, Bb and Dd on different chromosomepairs. Which one of her egg cells could contain the following genes:Aabd?BABDd?CAbD?DAA Bb Dd?Page 7 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCES4.3SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMEGRADE 12SESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)The graph below shows changes in the amount of DNA per cell in a series of cellularevents in a mammal.Which one of the following combinations correctly describes the events shown on thegraph?IIIIIIIVADNA ReplicationMitosisMeiosisFertilisationBDNA ReplicationMeiosis 1Meiosis 2FertilisationCFertilisationMeiosisMitosisDNA ReplicationDMitosisMeiosis 1Meiosis 2DNA Replication4.4 In analysing the number of different bases in a DNA sample, the following resultwould be consistent with the base-pairing rules:A.A GB.A G C TC.A T G CD.A C4.5. Which component is NOT directly involved in translation?A.mRNAB.DNAC.tRNAD.ribosomes(1 x 5) [5]Page 8 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESSENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMEGRADE 12SESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)SECTION B: ADDITIONAL CONTENT NOTES1. Introduction:The nucleus controls all life processes within a cell and is responsible for hereditaryinformation. This information is encrypted on the genes that are found on the chromosomes.Each chromosome contains DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid). RNA (Ribose nucleic acid) isfound within the nucleus and also the cell cytoplasm. Genetic information makes eachorganism unique.Functions of the nucleus Controls cell metabolism Responsible for cell division Controls protein synthesis Controls the production of RNA Responsible for the transfer of hereditary characteristics.2.Nucleic acidsNucleic acids are responsible for the control and transfer of hereditary characteristics andthe structure of proteins that are produced during protein synthesis. Each individual organismconsists of proteins that are unique to only that organism. This is why organs are not simplytransplanted from one organism to another. If the proteins are not similar, then the body willreject the organ. This is why organ transplants show the most success between siblings(brothers and sisters). The closest a parent can be to their offspring is 50% because eachoffspring is a combination of 50% male parent and 50% female parent.There are two types of nucleic acids. DNA - deoxyribose nucleic acid andRNA - ribose nucleic acid.DNA is found in the threadlike chromosomes and RNA is found mainly in the nucleolus andthe cytoplasm. DNA strands contain active sections called genes.Page 9 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESSENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMEGRADE 12SESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)2.1. StructureEach nucleic acid consists of a number of basic building blocks called nucleotides. Eachnucleotide consists of three parts: 1 phosphate ion 1 pentose sugarphosphate 1 nitrogenous baseiondeoxyribosenitrogenous basesugarNitrogenous bases are divided into two complementary groups: Purines: Pyrimidines:DNA forms a double strand where purines will only bond with pyrimidines. DNA containsThymine and RNA contains Uracil instead of thymine. The other nitrogenous bases arefound in both DNA and RNA.AdeninePurinesGuanineNitrogenous basesPyrimidinesCytosineThymine (DNA) orUracil (RNA)A back bone of phosphates and pentose sugars join to the nitrogenous bases, resulting in along chain. The nitrogenous bases are attached to each of the pentose sugars.Page 10 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESSENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMEGRADE 12SESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)2.2. The DNA moleculeThe DNA molecule is a double helix (twisted) strand. The four nitrogenous bases can bearranged in any order with a purine attached to a pyrimidine. The combination of nitrogenousbases is the code system for the messages from the DNA. A weak hydrogen bond holds thecomplementary nitrogenous bases together. This occurs as follows: Adenine always only joins to Thymine Guanine always only joins to Cytosine2.3. The RNA moleculeThe RNA molecule is always a single strand of nucleotides and contains a single row ofpurines attached to pyrimidines. Remember that the RNA contains Uracil instead of Thymine.RNA is responsible for protein synthesis.There are three types of RNA, each with a specific function: Messenger RNA (mRNA): mRNA is formed by the DNA as a piece of three nitrogenousbases called a triplet or codon. The process is called transcription. Transfer RNA (tRNA): each tRNA collects a specific amino acid from the cytoplasm,depending on the order of the nitrogenous bases and carries it to a ribosome. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): form the ribosomes and produce the proteins based on theinformation from the tRNA.HINT: Please learn the differences between DNA and RNARNADNARibose pentose sugarDeoxyribose pentose sugarSingle unwound strand of nucleotidesDouble helix strand of nucleotidesContains uracilContains thyminePage 11 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESSENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMEGRADE 12SESSION 1SECTION C: HOMEWORK EXERCISE(LEARNER NOTES)(Taken from Viva Life Science Grade 12)QUESTION 11. Study the following diagram and answer the questions that ntify parts b, d and e.Give the LETTERS in sequence that will make up any one nucleotide.What is the main function of part labelled e?The sequence of the bases could sometimes change. What is this changed insequence called?List TWO processes that could result in the change referred to in ‘d’.What type of molecule does the above diagram represent? Provide a reason foryour answer.(3)(3)(1)(1)(2)(2)[12]QUESTION 22. Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.PSAPSCPSUPS(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)GIdentify this type of nucleic acid.Provide TWO visible reasons for your answer.Why are there no hydrogen bonds present?Name the type of sugar represented by the letter S.Name three different types of the above molecule.(1)(2)(1)(1)(3)[8]Page 12 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMELIFE SCIENCEGRADE12SESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)SECTION D: SOLUTIONS TO SECTION A1.1.1 DNA (1)1.1.2. 1 Hydrogen bond 5 Cytosine (2)1.1.3 Nucleotide (1)1.1.4 - DNA produces two exact copies of itself. - During interphase/before cell division .- Two chromatids that are identical are formed - The two chromatids are identical to that of the parent (You must ensure that you know this process well)(Any 2)(2)1.2.1 (a) The synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template /by complementary matchingof the nitrogenous bases in DNA(2)(b) The process of converting the information carried by mRNA to the correctsequence of amino acids to form a particular protein (Any 2)(2)1.2.2 CAA UAC ACC (in sequence)1.2.3 Phenylalanine Valine Methionine (in sequence)(3)(3)[16] (You must know the definition)5 GCU – CAU – UGG (a) The sequence of the amino acids will change /the actualamino acids could change (or name any specific change )A different protein could form /structure of protein will change(Remember that proteins consist of many amino acids.They are the building block of a protein)(1)(1)(3)(b) Mutation /deletion(1)3.1.2 mRNA3 amino acid3.2.C,G, U, U, G, U, A, A, A,3.3.4 arginine5 cysteine6 lysine4. mark each) (3)(3 x 2) (6)[11](1 x 5) [5]Page 13 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESSENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMEGRADE 12SESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)TOPIC 2: PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND DNA FINGERPRINTINGLearner Note: Please revise the structure of DNA and the functions of the 3 types of RNAbefore proceeding with Protein Synthesis. You must know that the resulting amino acid isbased on the codon copied from the original DNA. Protein synthesis is questioned regularly inexaminations so you must understand the basics before moving on to the process of proteinsynthesis. When working through DNA fingerprinting, use a ruler when checking the DNAVNTR patterns. This way, you will very easily pick up where the markers are the same.Research forensic science and DNA fingerprinting, and consider forensic science as apossible career.SECTION A: TYPICAL EXAM QUESTIONSQUESTION 1: Multiple-choice10 minutesHINT: When answering multi-choice questions 1. Read the question while covering theanswers. 2. Think of the correct answer. 3. Look for your answer. 4. Write the letterdown on your answer sheet. BUT: If you do not know the answer after point 1 and 2, then:3. Look at the options. 4. Try to think of why an option is wrong for the question and cross itout. If there is an option that you don’t know, write a ?. 5. If you still do not know theanswer, then select the ?1.1DNA is foundA. in a geneB. on a nucleusC. on a membraneD. on chromosomes1.2 The building blocks of nucleic acids are calledA. nucleotidesB. nucleoliC. nucleosidesD. nucleocodes1.3 The sugar molecule present on RNA isA. sucroseB. riboseC. deoxyriboseD. glucosePage 14 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESGRADE 12SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMESESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)1.4 Which of the following is a complimentary base pair normally present in the DNAmolecule?(REMEMBER THE RULE: G C and A T/U)A. thymine and cytocineB. thymine and guanineC. cytocine and uracilD. adenine and thymine1.5 During protein synthesis the following steps take place in order:A. DNA unwinds, transcription by mRNA, anticodons produced by tRNA, aminoacids combine to form polypeptidesB. DNA unwinds, anticodons produced by mRNA, transcription by tRNA, aminoacids combine to form polypeptidesC. DNA unwinds, transcription by mRNA, codons produced by tRNA, amino acidscombine to form polypeptidesD. DNA unwinds, transcription by mRNA, anticodons produced by tRNA, aminoacids are formed1.6 Select the correct difference between a DNA and RNA:(Tick all the correct points and cross all the points that are wrong; then select youranswer.)DNARNAA Ribose pentoseDeoxyribose pentosesugarsugarB Double helixSingle helix strandstrandC Contains Thymine Contains UracilD Contains tripletContains onlybasesanticodons1.7 Which part of the cell is the site of protein synthesis?A. the chromosomesB. the nucleusC. the cytoplasmD. the ribosomes1.8 The monomers of proteins are:A. nucleotidesB. tripletsC. anticodonsD. amino acidsPage 15 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESGRADE 12SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMESESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)1.9 In DNA fingerprinting, scientists use a small number of sequences of DNA calledA. mtDNAB. tRNAC. VNTRD. triplet bases1.10 Which of the following are uses of DNA fingerprinting?1. Matching paternity2. Identification of a body3. Detecting bacteria in pollutants4. Keeping criminals in jail5. Studying migration patternsA.B.C.D.1, 2, 3, 51, 2, 3, 41, 2, 4, 52, 3, 4, 5[10]HINT: With this type of question, read through options 1 to 5 and tick those that are correctand apply to the question. Cross out those that do not. Select your answer from the tickedoptionsQUESTION 2:20 minutes(Taken from DoE November 2008 Paper 1)(Reminder: always complete the labels on a diagram before you move on to thequestions)The following diagram represents protein synthesis:Page 16 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCES2.1GRADE 12SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMESESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)Name the following processes:(a) A(b) B(1)(1)2.2Name the organelle labelled C.(1)2.3Explain how the mRNA is made from the DNA template during process A.(Reminder of transcription)(5)2.4Processes A and B above can be summarised by the table below.Write the numbers 1 – 3 and next to each number the nitrogenous bases that willcomplete the table.(6)(Reminder: The DNA has a code. The mRNA is always the oppositecomplimentary bases to the DNA, and the anticodons on the tRNA will alwaysbe the same as the DNA. Thymine on DNA is replaced with Uracil on the RNA)[14]QUESTION 3:10 minutesThe DNA in all cells of an individual is identical and the sequence of nucleotides in DNAis represented by a pattern of dark bands called the DNA fingerprint. Forensics involvescomparing a crime suspect’s genetic profile with the blood of a crime victim and withhuman biological material such as hair, blood, skin fragments or semen found at thescene of the crime. Forensic detectives have gathered evidence from a crime sceneand have arrested three suspects. Using the genetic fingerprints below, state whichof the suspects is theguilty party and provide a reason for your answer.[7](Reminder: Use a ruler to check for corresponding VNTR tracers – e.g. the3rd tracer from the left is the same for the victim, the specimen and the suspects)Page 17 of 55

GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESGRADE 12SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMESESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)SECTION B: ADDITIONAL CONTENT NOTES1.PROTEIN SYNTHESISProteins are macro molecules and always contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygenand nitrogen (C, H, O, N). Some proteins contain sulphur and phosphorus as well. Proteinsare made up of building blocks called amino acids (like bricks that are used to build a house.The amino acids are like the bricks, and the house is like the protein). Every living organismconsists of proteins because all cells, hormones (except sex hormones), antibodies, bloodand enzymes consist of proteins.A protein is made up of 40 to a 1 000 amino acids, joined together in a variety ofcombinations. Amino acids are held together by peptide bonds to form peptide chains. Thepeptide chains join together to form proteins by a process called polymerization. Thisresults because of protein synthesis to provide the sequence of the individual amino acidscombination. Any small deviation or change will result in the protein losing the ability tofunction, or it can cause a mutation.Page 18 of 55


GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONLIFE SCIENCESGRADE 12SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMMESESSION 1(LEARNER NOTES)Protein Synthesis - The ProcessStep 1: Transcription (Remember that RNA contains uracil in place of thymine on the DNA) The enzyme RNA polymerase causes the DNA to unwind and separate in the nucleus. One DNA strand provides the code which is copied onto an mRNA (messenger RNA)strand in the nucleus. Each code on the DNA consists of three bases, called a triplet. Each mRNA strand consists of three bases called a codon, per DNA code triplet. So, the sequence of the bases in the DNA strand will determine the sequence of thebases in the mRNA – per codon. This process of copying the triplet code onto the mRNA is called transcription. If the sequence of the DNA triplet i

I II III IV A DNA Replication Mitosis Meiosis Fertilisation B DNA Replication Meiosis 1 Meiosis 2 Fertilisation C Fertilisation Meiosis Mitosis DNA Replication D Mitosis Meiosis 1 Meiosis 2 DNA Replication 4.4 In analysing the number of different bases in a DNA sample, the following result would be consistent with the base-pairing rules: .

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