AN INTRODUCTION TO AMATEUR RADIOJuly -August 1994*-FOR BEGINNERS OF ALL AGESVolume Four: No 4Available only by subscription from RSGB, Lambda House,Cranborne Road, Potters Bar, Herts. EN6 3JE
CONTENTSElNEWSSkater Nicola Gets 12-0 forMorse.operator on the OperationDrake expedition.la POSTER113 CONSTRUCTIONLOW LIGHT INDICATORSteve Ortmeyer, G4RAWshows you how to constructthis LED project.COVER PICTURE:AMATEUR RADIO PASSPORT TOADVENTUREAn interest in amateur radiocan lead to many interestingand exciting activities.The atmosphere and activity at theRSGB Woburn Rally captured at lastyear's event. Join us this year andyou may pick up some very good6bargains!commentNOW THAT THE weather hasimproved and we start to planpicnics out in the sunshine, itseems a good time to remindexisting and prospective radioamateurs that this is NationalField Day time of the year. Inthe Diary section (p22) you willsee that two field days are com-ing up - the first is the RSGBVHF National Field Day on the2 July, and the second is on the14REVIEWON THE AIRG4RAW's low light indicator.18CONSTRUCTIONA RECEIVERCONVERTER FOR50MHzTHE G4ZPYSTRAIGHT KEY2'S COMPANY/LOGExtends the range of yourBOOK/SHORT MORSEFrank Claytonsmith, G3JKS,tries out the G4ZPY StraightMorse Key.Our regular columns for thecommunications receiver tocover the 50MHz bands.listener and Novice. Plusmore amateur radio abbreviations.20U HAM FACTSTECHNICALAMPLITUDEBUILDINGTHE WHATS, WHYSAND WHEREFORESTry this method of makingA RELAXATIONEXPLAINEDyour own PCBs.OSCI LLATORIan Poole, G3YWX, explainsPRACTICAL CIRCUIT8CONSTRUCTION16John Case, GW4HWR, describes this oscillator usedMODULATIONthe basic principles of AMthe first method of trans-17 July and is the RSGB HFJ -ANTENNA FOR THEfor repeating certain se-mitting sound signals overLow Power Field Day.If you would like to go alongand see what Field Days are allabout, then contact your localclub and see if you can join in even if you cannot transmit yet,50MHz BANDRobert Snary, G4OBE,quences of events.radio.lagEl LETTERS AND DIARYshows you how to build this6 metre version of theBOOK REVIEWRECOMMENDEDRADIO READING123there is always plenty of helpWe take a look at some ofWIN A MORSE KEYrequired, and you will be madevery welcome.the books available from theRSGB.Win the super G4ZPY Morsereviewed on page 6.During the winter monthsIdecided to take a NoviceCourse, and I am delighted toannounce that my callsign hasjust been received - 2E1 DAY.One thing this proved was thatit is not very easy going 'back toschool' - but did enjoy thecourse, especially the construcItion and am planning to buildmy own simple transceiver. I'lllet you know which one, andJ -antenna.10NEWS FEATUREPUZZLE PAGEOPERATION DRAKE A RADIO HAMS TALEJim Heck, G3WGM, recounts his trip as a radioCONSTRUCTION CODEFOR THECOMPLETEBEGINNERREQUIRESA LITTLEEXPERIENCE.how I get on in due course!FOR THEMarcia Brimson, 2E1DAY,Editor.MOREEXPERIENCEDWAB aim to raise 1 0,000 for a Class 'D' lifeboat for the RNLI.Managing Editor: Mike Dennison; Editor: Marcia Brimson; Prod Ed: Sid Clark; Tech Ed: Peter Dodd; Draughtsman: Bob Ryan; Prod Asst: Jennifer Preston; Ed Asst: JohnDavies; Secretary: Erica Fry.D-i-Y RADIO is published six times a year by the Radio Society of Great Britain, Lambda House, Cranborne Road, Potters Bar, Herts. Filmset by JJ Typographics Ltd. Printed by Southernprint(Web Offset) Ltd. Radio Society of Great Britain, 1994. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the RSGB. All reasonable precautions are taken by the Radio Society to ensurethat the adviceand data given to our readers are reliable. We cannot however, guarantee it and we cannot accept legal responsibility for it. Prices quoted are those current as we go to press. ISSN No: 0959-843X.2D -I -Y RADIO July -August 1994
C:10 -11r NewsIN 1894 SIR OLIVER Lodge madehis first radio transmission fromLewis's department store to theclock tower of the University of Liverpool. To commemorate the anni-versary Liverpool Amateur RadioSociety is running a special eventSkater Nicola Gets20 for Morsestation, GBOOL, from 9 to 13 July.CANBERRA COMMUNICA-14 -YEAR OLDNicola MullaneTIONS are offering their Turbologsoftware program at half the normalprice to Novices in full time educa-tion. More information from JohnLinford, G3WGV, Canberra Com-started takingMorse lessons in 1993 andhas recently passed her 12FOR THE 25th Anniversary ofwords per minute MorseTest. She still attends thethe Worked All Britain (WAB) AwardMorse class run by Brendan,Scheme an appeal has been set upGMOBWR, and is steadilyincreasing her speed.Nicola attends Bannockburn High School and, inmunications, tel: 0734 733745.to raise 10,000 to provide a Class'D' Lifeboat for the RNLI. To aidfundraising many special eventstations will be operational fromlifeboat stations throughout the UK.A MORSE CLASS for beginnerswill run in the Southend area frombetween studying for herschool exams, she has beenSeptember to Easter 95, taking stu-attending the Radio Amateurs Examination (RAE)dents up to 12 Words Per Minute.course run by Mervin,Details from Steve, G4UOL on 0702GMOGDL.334014 (evenings/weekends).It all started when her un-cal college. She and herAN RAE COURSE aimed at thecle Raymond called in to auncle took the exam in May.December 1995 examination is be-local radio club and decidedHer ambition is to obtainher class A licence and tooperate on HF. This will being run at the Lee Valley LeisureCentre, Edmonton, London N9. Forfurther details from the instructorSteve White, G3ZVW, on 081 8825125.to take the RAE course.When Nicola heard about itshe decided to join him, sothey both enrolled at the lo-can hold a full Amateur Radio Licence is 14.As well as her interest inamateur radio, Nicola is aproficient ice dancer - so sheno mean achievement as theis definitely someone whoyoungest age at which youkeeps herself busy!A HAM IN JAPANWHILST ON a visit to Ja-pan, Ian Marsh, G4INK,whose wife is Japanese,couldn't resist trying to meetsome local radio amateurs -despite the fact that hespeaks very little Japanese.On a walk through the local park he noticed JH3001Wahid Public School is the first school in Pakistan with an amateur radiolicence. Many of the 400 students, will benefit from being trained in electronicsusing amateur radio. The school urgently needs funds/equipment. If you canhelp, contact Wahid Public School, 1010 -1011, G/10 - 4, Islamabad, Pakistan.D -I -Y RADIO July -August 1994operating, and couldn't resist talking to him - in English. Fortunately, he understood and their friendshipled to Ian meeting other radio amateurs, in particularYutaka, JA3QS. Now Ian isback home in the UK he isbrushing up his Morse in thehope of keeping in touch withhis new found friends.3
THE KITS WITH ALL THE BITS!BRITAIN'S BEST SELLING AMATEUR RADIO MAGAZINEGuaranteed complete to the last nut!COMPACT 80m CW ORP Tx/RxDTR3 Kit - 87.50 Ready Built - 140.00* Stable VFO * Sidetone * Audio Filter* Requires 12/14 VDC * Very detailedInstructions * Black steel case * Printed panelPlease add 4 p&p to all pricesCOMPANION ANTENNATUNING UNITSRegular features include:Novice NatterReviews of the latestequipmentTransceiver and testequipment constructionBits and Bytes - TheComputer In Your ShackValve and VintageAntenna WorkshopRadio diary, competitionsand much morepw publishing ltd.Arrowsmith Court, Station Approach,TU1 Kit - 41.25 Ready Built - 57.50TU2 Kit - 51.00 Ready Built - 72.00Please add 4 p&p to all prices* Large dia. coil * High grade capacitor * Built In balun * Circuits to match yourantenna * Up to 30 Watts of CW * TU2 has sensitive ORP/SWR meter.Send SAE for brochure or call Alan G4DVW on 0602 382509LAKE ELECTRONICS7 Middleton Close, Nuthall, Nottingham NG16 1BX(callers by appointment only)Tr?ElKANGA's QRP KITSKits for RECEIVERS from only 3.95, TRANSMITTERS from just 4.95and full TRANSCEIVERS from just 32.95. A great selection of TESTEQUIPMENT too. Including items that have appeared in RadCom suchas Ian G3ROO's COMB CALIBRATOR (E16.95) and the amateur bandSYNTHASIZER ( 59.95). Lots more so send an SAE for our freecatalogue.Kanga ProductsSeaview House Crete Road East Folkestone CT18 7EGE -Mail kanga.demon.co.ukTel/Fax 0303 891106Novice RAE ClassesFor details of a Novice RAE Course starting nearBroadstone, Dorset BH18 8PWyou contact the RSGB NOW!Tel: 0202 659910 Fax: 0202 659950A RSGB, Lambda House, Cranborne Road,vr Potters Bar, Herts, EN6 3JE.C.M.HOWESCOMMUNICATIONSEASY TO BUILD HOWES KITS!Mail Order to: Eydon, Daventry,Northants NN11 3PTTel: 0327 60178TRF3Easy to build TRF receiver with AM, SSB & ON shortwave reception from 5.7 toTRF3 Kit plus HA33R Hardware: 41.4012.8MHz in 3 bands.DcRxSingle Band S513/CW receiver for 160,80, 40 or 20M Amateur Bands or 5.45MHzHF Air.DcRx & DCS2 Kits plus HA8OR Hardware: 57.70DXR10 Three Amateur Bands, 10, 12 & 15M SSB & ON receiver with excellent sensitivityand dynamic range. DXR10 & DCS2 Kits plus HA1OR Hardware: 64.30(Companion transmitter kits are also available for our amateur band receivers).PLEASE ADD 4.00 P&P to your order totalExperimenter's Medium Wave and "Top Band" receiver.Complete kit with hardware to build a super portable receiver covering the medium wavebroadcast band plus 160M amateurs. Easy to build with good performance. An excellentfirst project. Includes all parts except the battery. MW1: 29.90 (plus 4.00 P&P).HOWES KITS contain good quality printed circuit boards with screen printed partslocations, full, clear instructions and all board mounted components. Sales, constructionaland technical advice are available by phone during office hours. Please send an SAE for ourfree catalogue and specific product data sheets. Delivery is normally within seven days.73 from Dave G4KQH, Technical Manager.Amateur Radio and the RSGBRADIO AMATEURS are qualified radio operators who are licensed to talk to otherThe Society looks after the interests of radio amateurs throughout the UK.operators, often in distant countries, from their own homes. Amateur radio is aTalks between the RSGB and the Government's Radiocommunications Agencyhobby for all ages but it is different from CB radio because a very wide variety ofhave resulted in the popular amateur radio Novice Licence.frequencies (wavelengths) can be used, and contacts can be in different 'modes';In particular the RSGB is keen to encourage the experimental side ofby Morse code or teleprinter, between computers or even television. Manyelectronics and radio, and the Society's monthly magazine Radio Communicationamateurs build all or part of their station equipment.is sent free to all members. We're having lots of fun with our hobby, so why not join us?The Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB) is the national society for all radioIf you would like more information on the RSGB or the Novice Licence, writeamateurs (transmitters and listeners) in this country. It has over 30,000 members,for an Information Pack to Sylvia Manco (enclosing a large stamped self-including many in overseas countries.addressed envelope), at:RSGB, Lambda House, Cranborne Road, Potters Bar, Herts EN6 3JE.4D -/-Y RADIO July -August 1994
Construction FeatureLow LightIndicatorBy Steve Ortmayer, G4RAWONE OF THE variousrelease of electrons within the material.If a PCC is connected in series with a resistor, acrossa battery, the voltage across the PCC will depend onthe light level. In this circuit the PCC is in series withthe variable resistor RV1. In bright lightconstruction techniquesdescribed in Ham Facts(page 7) uses tag boards. The alarmcircuit (Fig 1) described here usesthe voltage across the PCC is lowsuch a technique and for this reason isbecause its resistance is low. When it isdark the voltage rises because theresistance of the PCC is high. Thisincreased positive voltage will causecalled the 'Tag Alarm'.This gadget will switch on a flashing light emittingdiode (LED) when it gets dark to give an indication thatan alarm is in operation, or it can be used on its own as adeterrent.The operation of this circuit is based on a componentcalled a Photo -conductive Cell (PCC). In bright light theresistance of the PCC is low - about 1 kSZ. In the dark itsresistance is high, up to 10Ma These cells are made froma substance knownas Cadium SulphideRIRV122kpre-setand areenclosed in a small(CdS)I220R4.FlashingI / LEDR29VPP3battery1kTR1container. CadiumSulphide4.442N3053UDRORP12glass or plasticisaninsulator in the dark.It becomes a con-T5505 0Y107Fig 1: Circuit diagram.ductor when lightfalls on it due to thethe transistor to conduct, causingcurrent to pass through the flashing LED. R1 limits thecurrent through the LED so that the transistor and the LEDare not damaged. The point at which enough current flowsthrough the transistor to cause the LED to flash can be setby adjusting variable resistor RV1.CONSTRUCTIONTHE PROJECT IS made on an 8 -tag tagboard (Fig 2). Thetags need a lot of heat from the soldering iron so take carenot to damage the components. The lead of a componentbeing soldered into place should be held using a pair ofnarrow nose pliers. This prevents heat from the solderingiron damaging the components. When the circuit is completecheck, the wiring and connect a PP3 battery. I did not botherwith an on/off switch but you can include one if you wish.Adjust RV1 so when you put your finger over the PCC theLED starts to flash. I housed the project in a small plasticbox with holes cut for the PCC and LED.COMPONENTSResistorsR11kR2RV1220R22k pre-set potentiometerSemiconductorsLDR1TR1LED1ORP12 Light dependent resistor2N3053 NPN transistorFlashing LEDAdditional ItemsPlastic box, tagstrip with 8 tags, and a PP3 battery connectorA kit of parts is available from JAB Electronics (see theiraddress on page 7) at 6.50 inc P&P.Fig 2: Component layout on tagstrip.D -I -Y RADIO July -August 19945
4iEquipment ReviewThe G4ZPY StraightMorse KeyBy Frank Claytonsmith, G3JKSessential requirements forTHE FIRST THING youspeed are: little weight andnotice about this keyits impressiveappearance, the highlypolished brass metalworkinertia, (long levers havestanding out magnificentlyagainst a backcloth of thegrey -green slate base. Itbrought back memories offlexing; little friction inbearings; no side play inisthe steam locomotives on the old Great Western Railwaywith their dark green boilers capped with polished brasschimneys and safety valves. There is no doubt in my mindthat this key will enhance any operator's shack and it will benatural to want to use it.EXCELLENT PERFORMERWE ALL KNOW that appearances can sometimes bedeceptive, but that is not the case here! The key's fineappearance is matched by excellent performance whichmakes you want to have more contacts simply for the sheerpleasure of using it.more inertia than short onesof the same weight); no leverbearings; small contact gap.This key goes a long wayto meeting these needs. It has a relatively short lever, lightyet very stiff. The bearings, which are self-lubricating, arevery free and have no obvious side movement (somedesigns use ball bearings but the amount of movement ina key is inadequate for these to do a proper job and they canact as a trap for dirt and grit).The contacts have a good matching profile as well hasbeing capable of being set accurately with a fine threadadjustment screw of 40 turns per inch (TPI) a feature sadlylacking in some expensive products. Finally, a fine threadis also used for setting the spring tension. With thesefeatures I was able to set the key to my liking and operatecomfortably at 25WPM.One of the first considerations when putting a key intouse is how to stop it sliding about - the author has madegood use of blu-tack for years. In this case the grey -green ANY COMPLAINTS . . .slate base is not only good to look at but is heavy and is APART FROM THE price? Very few. A clampingunlikely to move easily. Any further tendency to move is arrangement fortaking any physical strain on the connectingcontrolled by an anti -slip surface fixed to the underside of leads would be useful but would probably detract from theappearance as well as increasing the price. During prolongedthe base. It did not slip when I used it.operating the sharp curvature of the side of the flat toppedLESS FATIGUE IN USEknob started to irritate the fingers a little. A more gentleMANY KEYS ARE designed in such a way that the overallheight of the knob above the table surface is excessive.Subsequently the weight of the operator's forearm is notwell supported by the table, which results in an aching armand an urge to cut the QS0 short. I felt very little fatigue afterseveral lengthy QSOs.I like to use fast Morse and experience over many yearstells me that the real measure of any key or paddle is foundwhen pushing it to its limits - a design which is satisfactoryat 10WPM can be really difficult to operate at 25WPM. The6profile would probably alleviate this effect. Finally, it was feltthat the plastic knob and skirt detracted somewhat fromsuch a quality looking product - it deserves better.However, this is a first class key, both to use and talookat. I am only sorry this one had to go back.The G4ZPY Pump (straight) Morse Key costs 45 4P&P (UK), and is available from G4ZPY Paddle Keys, 41Mill Dam Lane, Burscough, Ormskirk, Lancs L40 7TG. Tel/Fax: 0704 894299. [See page 23 for how to win this key Marcia].D -I -Y RADIO July -August 1994
sm - -yrHam FactsPractical CircuitBuildingUsing PCB pads will keep your project tidy the easy way.making up circuits that are even cheaper and more flexible.One way is to make supports, or pads, for the circuit wiringusing small squares of copper clad board (the material usedfor making PCBs)(Fig 1). The components and wiring areMOST COMMERCIALLY MADE electroniccircuits use printed circuit boards (PCBs). Theseare made by chemically etching the circuit wiringon to copper clad board. Certainly, the PCBs look neat, withthose lines and circles of etched copper. The componentscan be easily fixed into position and all the wiring is takencare of by the PCB.then soldered to these pads. Earth connections can bemade by soldering to the nearest convenient point of themain board.You can use either single or double -sided copper cladboard. The size of the pads is not critical but we suggest 1 /For the home constructor and experimenter PCBs dohave some disadvantages. A corrosive chemical must beused for etching the copper to make the circuit. The safestof these chemicals is ferric chloride but its use still requiresa special working area and safety measures, and it is notpractical for kitchen table electronic construction. A further4in (6.0mm) square. Cut the pads with a junior hacksawusing a small vice to hold the board while you cut it.Once the pads are prepared they can be fixed to the mainboard using epoxy cement. In Fig 1 a there is a layout formaking an oscillator.Try comparing the layout in FigCopper sidela with the circuit in Fig 1 b.When you have decided whereGlue pads toall the tabs have to go to make upmain boardyour own circuit clean and tin thedisadvantage is that once a circuithas been built on a PCB then it isdifficult to make changes ormodifications.ALTERNATIVESTHERE ARE SOME commercialtabs. This will make the placementalternatives to PCBs. Theseand soldering of the componentseasier. The base or main boardinclude strip, or Veroboard, whichare used in quite a lot of projectsdescribed in D-i-Y Radio, see pagefor the circuit can be a piece ofcopper clad board or an enclosuresuch as a tobacco tin.16 in this edition. Alternatively,there are special prototypeboards, described in D-i-Y Radio,Vol 3: No 3.Solder tag boards can also beWhen(a) 9Vinterconnecting wires as short aspossible. This flexible arrangement of pad supports is a goodcompromise between cos
OSCI LLATOR John Case, GW4HWR, de-scribes this oscillator used for repeating certain se-quences of events. lag BOOK REVIEW RECOMMENDED RADIO READING We take a look at some of the books available from the RSGB. CONSTRUCTION A RECEIVER CONVERTER FOR 50MHz Extends the range of your communications receiver to cover the 50MHz bands. 20 G4RAW's low light indicator. 18 TECHNICAL AMPLITUDE MODULATION .
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1.2 48kw/65hp 1990 1994 dh 10x825-du 1.3 58-65kw/79 -88hp 1990 1994 dh 10x825du 1.3, 1. 51983 1994 a c a rbu do simple 1 0x8 -du a 4x 10x850-du a alt 5 h 10x865-du a o 10x875-du 1.5 70-77kw/ 105-95hp 1990 1994 dh 10x825-du 1.7 1986 1994 a 10x850-du aa 13x950-du 1.7 16v 101kw/137hp 1990 1994 dh 10x825-du alfa 33 16v 1.7 16v 1990 1994 a 1 0x85 -du aa 13x950-du alfa 6 2.0 a 10x915-du
Find the volume of each cone. Round the answer to nearest tenth. ( use 3.14 ) M 10) A conical ask has a diameter of 20 feet and a height of 18 feet. Find the volume of air it can occupy. Volume 1) Volume 2) Volume 3) Volume 4) Volume 5) Volume 6) Volume 7) Volume 8) Volume 9) Volume 44 in 51 in 24 ft 43 ft 40 ft 37 ft 27 .
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Printable Math Worksheets @ www.mathworksheets4kids.com Find the volume of each triangular prism. 1) Volume 36 cm 25 cm 49 cm 2) Volume 3) Volume 4) Volume 5) Volume 6) Volume 7) Volume 8) Volume 9) Volume 27 ft 35 ft t 34 in 21 in 27 in 34 ft 17 ft 30 ft 20 cm m 53 cm 21
2.1 (a) One simple answer: choose the mean temperature in June 1994 as the forecast for June 1995. That is, 17.2 C. (b) The time plot below shows clear seasonality with average temperature higher in summer. Month Celsius 1994 Jan 1994 Feb 1994 May 1994 Jul 1994 Sep
2145 14 H.P. Onan Elite Single Hydro 1994 2160 16 H.P. Vanguard Twin Auto Gear 1994 2165 16 H.P. Vanguard Twin Hydro 1994 2185 18 H.P. Command Twin Hydro 1994. NOTES: 1 MODEL: 2130 YEAR: 1994-1995 Factory Model Number: 134-212F100, 135-212F100 12.5 H.P. Auto Gear Drive