Gerund, Definition, Examples, Uses, Rules, Exercise Or .

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PerformdigiGerund, Definition,Examples, Uses, Rules,Exercise or worksheetGerund, definition, examples of gerund, gerund exercise or worksheet, forstudents, for class 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, uses, rules, pdf.Definition: A gerund is a word ending with ‘ing’ and has the force of a nounand a verb. It is also known as verbal noun.It is denoted by ‘V1 ing’. It acts as a noun and a verb. Hence Gerund inalso called Verb-Noun.1. Swimming is a good exercise.2. I learnt driving.3. I like watching television. In sentence 1, ‘Swimming‘ (V1 ing) act as subject. In sentence 2, ‘Driving‘ (V1 ing) is object. In sentence 3, ‘Watching‘ is the object of verb ‘like’ but if televisionis taken as an object, then ‘watching’ acts as verb. Thus ‘V1 ing’ isboth noun and verb.Note: With the following verbs/adjectives/ phrases ‘V1 ing’ is usedafter ‘to’.Examples: Verb used to, accustomed to, averse to, with a view to,addicted to, devoted to, in addition to, look forward to, object to, owing to,given to, taken to, prone to.1. He is addicted to smoking.2. I am looking forward to meeting you.PERFORMDIGI Gerund pdf

Performdigi3. He was used to driving on the right when he was in London.In other words, after all the prepositions (including ‘to’), if a verb comes, theverb has to be in ‘V1 ing’.Examples:1. I am looking forward to meeting you.2. He is given to drinking.3. He is prone to making the same mistake again and again.4. He got used to driving on the right when he was in London.But in modals ‘V1’ comes after ‘used to’.I used to drive on the drive.Difference between d & eSentence (d): If verb comes before ‘used to’.Sentence (e): If verb does not come before ‘used to’.Sentence (d): It denotes a habit.Sentence (e): It denotes a routine action of past.Sentence (d): It can be used in any tense. The verb and its form thatprecedes ‘used to’ determines the tense of the sentence.Sentence (e): It can be only in past tense.Examples:1. Writing is my profession.2. Celebrating various festivals is a common feature of the Hindu culture.3. I enjoy teaching English.Uses of Gerund As subject of a verb.Examples:1. Walking is a good exercise for health.2. Reading books increases our knowledge.3. Working hard makes you successful. Object of a transitive verb.Examples:1. He dislikes sleeping long.2. She hates worrying about the future.3. I prefer studying computer science. Object of a preposition.Examples:1. I am tired of applying for jobs.2. He is afraid of telling the truth.3. My father is addicted to drinking. Complement of a verbExamples:1. My aim in life is becoming a writer.2. Her objective is starting a home for parentless children.3. What I want to do in life is achieving something useful for all. In place of infinitive.PERFORMDIGI Gerund pdf

PerformdigiInfinitiveGerundTeach me to speak.Teach me speaking.To advise is easier than to.Advising is easier than practicing.To read is easier than to write.Reading is easier than writing.To save is to earn.Saving is earning. The difference between the gerund and participle should benoted carefully.GerundParticipleShe is tired of writing.Writing letters to her husband, she forgoteverything.I was prevented from meetingMeeting Padma for the first time, I decided toPadma.marry her.Respecting our parents is ourduty.Respecting her words, I never tried to meether. Gerund may be used like an ordinary noun.Examples:1. The planning of time helps us succeed in life.2. The collection of taxes is the duty of the Government.3. The loving of children delights me.The possessive Case of the noun and pronoun should be used beforegerunds.Examples:1. She insisted on me paying the money. (Incorrect)2. She insisted on my paying the money. (Correct)3. Padma objected to Vijaya talking like that. (Incorrect)4. Padma objective to Vijaya’s talking like that. (Correct)5. I am sorry for him having spent life uselessly. (Incorrect)6. I am sorry for his having spent life uselessly. (Correct)Note: The Possessive case should not be used with the gerund in thefollowing cases:PERFORMDIGI Gerund pdf

PerformdigiGerund in the passive form.Examples:1. I was shocked at Rajiv Gandhi being assassinated. (Correct)2. We were delighted at Mother Teresa being awarded Noble PeacePrize. (Correct)3. I was shocked at Rajiv Gandhi’s being assassinated. (Incorrect)4. We were delighted at Mother Teresa’s being awarded Noble PeacePrize. (Incorrect) Noun denoting a lifeless thing.Examples:1. There is no chance of the snow falling. (Correct)2. There is no chance of the snow’s falling. (Incorrect)3. There is possibility of the election taking place. (Correct)4. There is possibility of the election’s talking place. (Incorrect) Gerund RulesRule 1A gerund is not preceded by the and followed by of.Examples:1. The playing chess is his passion. (Incorrect)2. Playing of chess is his passion. (Incorrect)3. Playing chess is his passion. (Correct)Rule 2A verbal noun is followed by of and preceded by the.Examples:The playing of chess is his passion(Correct; because ‘the playing of‘ is now verbal noun and not ‘gerund‘)Rule 3Verbal noun can be used in place of Gerund. But if there are two verbalnouns or gerunds in a sentence, both should be either verbalnoun or gerund to maintain parallelism.Examples:1. I dislike cooking food and the washing of clothes. (Incorrect)2. I dislike cooking food and washing clothes. (Correct)Rule 4The following verbs take gerund in place of infinitive.differ, resent, help, suggest, deny, finish, enjoy, dislike, mind, risk, dread,remember,avoid, postpone, start, stop, etc.Examples:1. Why did you dread going to forest without a gun?2. I do not mind having a cup of tea.3. I enjoy reading English novels.4. Have you postponed going to Delhi?PERFORMDIGI Gerund pdf

PerformdigiRule 5The verbal noun should be qualified by an adjective and the gerund byan adverb.Examples:1. The reading of a book rapidly is useless. (Incorrect)2. The rapid reading of a book is useless. (Correct)3. Rapid reading a book is useless. (Incorrect)4. Reading a book rapidly is useless. (Correct)Rule 6A gerund and not an infinitive is used after such verbs and particles asare followed by their appropriate prepositions.Examples:He insisted to go there alone. (lncorrect)He insisted on going there alone. (Correct)He prevented me to go there alone. (Incorrect)He prevented me from going here alone. (Correct)Rule 7The noun or pronoun governing a gerund should be put in the possessivecase.Examples:1. I dislike you going there. (Incorrect)2. I dislike your going there. (Correct)3. I do not mind Ram attending the party. (Incorrect)4. I do not mind Ram’s attending the party. (Correct)Rule 8But, when a noun or a pronoun happens to be separated by several wordsfrom gerund to which it belongs, possessive case is not used.Examples:1. He begged of my favour of granting him leave. (Incorrect)2. He begged of me the favour of granting him leave. (Correct)3. The party was handicapped by one’s of their bestplayers being ill. (Incorrect)4. The party was handicapped by one of their bestplayers being ill. (Correct)Gerund Exercise or worksheet1. am fond of .She is afraid of .is injurious to English is not easy.Stories is a difficult task.She prevented me from her.I prefer to .I enjoy .PERFORMDIGI Gerund pdf

Performdigi9. I am confident of first class.10.She is addicted to India is very traditional and based on blind faith.12.up early is a good habit.13.children is a cruel act.14.She likes with children.15.I am tired of long distance.Exercise 2Correct the following sentences.1. He is sorry for me failing in the exam.2. You cannot force me forgetting Kumari.3. There is risk of Raju’s losing the job.4. There is a chance of the rain’s coming.5. I look forward to receive a reply from Kumari.6. It is no use to wait for the bus.7. Don’t give up to teach her.8. The doing this work is very difficulty.9. Writing of a letter is a simple thing.10.She prevented me to meet her daughter.PERFORMDIGI Gerund pdf

(Correct; because ‘the playing of‘ is now verbal noun and not ‘gerund‘) Rule 3 Verbal noun can be used in place of Gerund. But if there are two verbal nouns or gerunds in a sentence, both should be either verbal noun or gerund to maintain parallelism. Examples: 1. I dislik

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