Working Paper 93London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Mark WinghamMarch 2018
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 93copyrightGreater London AuthorityMarch 2018Published byGreater London AuthorityCity HallThe Queens WalkLondon SE1 2AAwww.london.gov.ukTel 020 7983 4922Minicom 020 7983 4000ISBN 978-1-84781-678-8Cover photograph James ParkinsonFor more information about this publication, please contact:GLA EconomicsTel 020 7983 4922Email email@example.comGLA Economics provides expert advice and analysis on London’s economy and the economic issues facingthe capital. Data and analysis from GLA Economics form a basis for the policy and investment decisionsfacing the Mayor of London and the GLA group. GLA Economics uses a wide range of information and datasourced from third party suppliers within its analysis and reports. GLA Economics cannot be held responsiblefor the accuracy or timeliness of this information and data. The GLA will not be liable for any losses sufferedor liabilities incurred by a party as a result of that party relying in any way on the information contained inthis report.
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 93ContentsExecutive summary . 21Introduction . 42Definitions . 53Businesses . 84Labour market . 245Education . 466Tourism . 547International trade . 578Conclusions . 59Appendix 1: DCMS creative industries definition . 60GLA Economics1
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 93Executive summaryThis publication updates previous analysis looking at the economic contribution of London’sArchitecture sector. In addition to updating Working Paper 86, it adds to the wider evidencebase looking at the creative industries such as London’s Creative Industries – 2017 Update. Thisupdate also looks at the socio-economic characteristics of jobholders in London’s Architecturesector. That is in addition to economic output, the labour market, education and internationalcompetitiveness.Overall, some of the key points from this analysis include:Businesses The number of workplaces (i.e. the place of work like an individual office) in London’sArchitecture sector has been growing. There were 4,515 workplaces in 2017 of which nine inevery ten had parent enterprises (i.e. the business in its entirety which may include one ormore workplaces not necessarily in London) that were micro businesses employing less thanten employees. Across the UK, the annual turnover of the Architecture sector was approximately 6.7 billionin 2016. London’s Architecture sector produced 1.9 billion (constant 2015 prices) in gross valueadded (GVA) – a measure of the value of goods and services produced – in 2016. That wasthe equivalent of 0.5 per cent of the London economy and broadly in line with the size ofLondon’s Postal and courier activities ( 1.8 billion) and Motor trades ( 2 billion) sectors. London’s Architecture sector has grown 7.7 per cent per annum in real terms on averagebetween 2009 and 2016. That was faster than the rate of real growth for the creativeindustries and the London economy. Overall, more than two-fifths of the Architecture sector’s GVA for Great Britain was fromLondon in 2016.Employment There were 26,200 jobs in London’s Architecture sector (including HR and finance jobs) in2016. If only looking at architect occupations regardless of sector, there were 27,600 jobs.Combining the two definitions, there were 15,000 architects in London’s Architecture sectorin 2016. The gross median hourly wage excluding overtime in London’s Architecture sector was 18.33 in 2017. That was higher than the all-sector average of 16.72. Just under half (46.7 per cent) of jobs in London’s Architecture sector were taken by womenin 2016. This proportion (37 per cent) was lower when looking at architect jobs (regardlessof sector), however. There has been a lot of progress in recent years in closing the gender pay gap in London’sArchitecture sector. In 2017, the median hourly wage excluding overtime for men was 18.47 ( 2.51) compared with 17.84 ( 3.18) for women.GLA Economics2
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 93 Around two-fifths (42.4 per cent) of jobholders in London’s Architecture sector were aged16-34. One-third (33.3 per cent) of all jobs in London’s Architecture sector were taken by peoplewith a non-UK nationality in 2016. London’s Architecture and engineering sector (the lowest sector disaggregation possible)was less ethnically diverse than the all-sector average during the 2014 to 2016 period. Similarly, there was a lower proportion of jobholders with a non-Christian religion inLondon’s Architecture and engineering sector compared with the all other industries averagein the 2014 to 2016 period. There was no statistical difference in the proportion of jobholders who were disabled inLondon’s Architecture and engineering sector and the all other industries average between2014 and 2016. It is not possible to look at other socio-economic characteristics like sexuality and socioeconomic class due to data limitations.Education One-in-six (16.5 per cent) undergraduates and one-in-three (34.7 per cent) postgraduatesstudying Architecture, building and planning in the UK did so in London during the 2015-16academic year. Across the UK, 20.4 per cent of undergraduates and 37.6 per cent of postgraduatesstudying Architecture, building and planning degrees were international students.Tourism Estimates suggest that 2.8 per cent of domestic overnight and 4.2 per cent of domestic dayvisitors to London undertook activities related to architecture. However, there are potentialissues with these estimates particularly around attribution and double counting with othertourism activities. Overall, based on several simplifying assumptions, between 427.7 million and 497.8million of London’s GVA could be attributed to architecture-related tourism.International trade The UK is a net exporter of Architectural services. In 2016, the UK exported 439 million ofArchitectural services and only imported 41 million. The value of the Architectural services exports across the UK has grown at a nominal annualrate of 4.3 per cent on average between 2013 and 2016. Architecture sits within the wider Technical, trade related, operating leasing and otherbusiness services product group. Given this, approximately one-third of the UK’s exports forthis product group went to the EU in 2016. However, the destination of Architecture exportsspecifically may be different.GLA Economics3
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 931IntroductionGLA Economics published for the first time estimates of the economic contribution of London’sArchitecture sector in 2017. Working Paper 86 looked at indicators such as the number ofarchitectural businesses, the number of job in the Architecture sector and how architecturesupports London’s international competitiveness1. This paper provides an update to thesemetrics as well as new socio-economic information about the jobholders working in London’sArchitecture sector.This publication also sits alongside other GLA Economics work looking at the creativeindustries2.To remain consistent with earlier work, the definition of the Architecture sector used in thispaper is unchanged. The main definition is the same as that used by the Department forCulture, Media & Sport (DCMS) which can be used with various official statistics datasets. Otherdefinitions come from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) subject categories and theOffice for National Statistics (ONS) trade classifications. These definitions and data sources areoutlined in the next chapter.After this, Chapters 3 to 7 look at London’s Architecture sector in terms of its businesses,employment, the number of people studying architecture and how the sector helps supports thecapital’s international competitiveness. The final chapter summarises the main findings in thispaper.12Wingham, M (2017). London’s architectural sector, GLA Economics Working Paper 86.Rocks, C (2017). London’s creative industries – 2017 update, GLA Economics Working Paper 89.GLA Economics4
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 932DefinitionsThe definitions used in this paper are consistent with those in the previous update. These areset out in this chapter.DCMS definitionThe main definition used in this paper was developed by DCMS for the creative industries. Thisenables comparison with other pieces of work including previous GLA Economics analysis. At itscore, the DCMS definition of creative industries is based on the definition set out in theGovernment’s 2001 Creative Industries Mapping document3. This stated that creative industriesare those “ which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have apotential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation ofintellectual property.”From this, DCMS developed a statistical definition of creative industries which reflects the abovestatement4. Their methodology can be thought of in two steps. The first was to identify theoccupations typically associated with being creative using Standard Occupation Classifications(SOC). Then the ‘creative intensity’ – that is, the number of creative jobs (using the creativeoccupation definition) divided by the total number of jobs – is calculated for every industryusing Standard Industry Classifications (SIC). If industries have more than 6,000 jobs and have acreative intensity of more than 30 per cent (with a small number of exceptions), then they areconsidered to be creative industries.The full creative industries definition is shown in Appendix 1, though the relevant definitionsrelating to architecture are shown below.Table 1: Architecture industry definitionCreative industries groupArchitectureSIC 0771.11which consists of:71.11/171.11/2DescriptionArchitectural activitiesArchitectural activitiesUrban planning and landscape architectural activitiesSource: DCMS SectorsTable 2: Architectural occupations definitionCreative occupations groupArchitectureSOC 102431243224353121DescriptionArchitectsTown planning officersChartered architectural technologistsArchitectural and town planning techniciansSource: DCMS SectorsUltimately, by using these definitions together or separately, the Architecture sector can becharacterised in several ways. For example, and as shown in Figure 1:34DCMS (2001). Creative industries mapping documents 2001, 9 April 2001, pg.5.DCMS (2016). Creative industries economic estimates methodology, 10 February 2016.GLA Economics5
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 93 Architectural occupations: architectural jobs in London regardless of whether they are in thearchitecture industry or not (i.e. they could be in other industries like construction andpublic administration). Architectural industries: all jobs within the architecture industries, so this can includearchitects, HR and finance occupations. Architectural occupations in the architectural industries.Figure 1: The Architecture sectorIncludes other occupations like HR andfinanceArchitecturalindustriesArchitectural occupations inother industries ral occupations in architectural sectorsNote: not drawn to scaleHESA definitionAnother definition of architecture comes from the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA).They collect information about the higher education sector and, as such, the definition is basedon the subject area of the courses undertaken by undergraduates and postgraduates5.Specifically, it uses the Joint Academic Coding System (JACS) which categorises subjects in ahierarchy up to four digits. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) self-report the subject areas,but there is no requirement for further education providers to provide this information.The relevant definitions for architecture courses are shown below6. In this paper, the subjectarea – Architecture, building and planning – has been used as this is the most commonlyavailable breakdown within the various HESA datasets. That said, where possible, this isdisaggregated into the principle subjects (i.e. Architecture). It is not possible to go further downto the specific subjects.HESA (2017). Students 2016/17.While ‘K200 Building’ may not initially look like it would be classified as architecture, it refers to the study of building materialsand techniques. This is similarly the case using the industry definition.56GLA Economics6
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 93Table 3: Architecture-related higher education courses definitionJACS 3subject areaK100Architecture,building andplanningJACS 3 principle subjectJACS 3 subjectK100 ArchitectureK110 Architecture design theoryK120 Interior architectureK130 Architectural technologyK190 Architecture not elsewhere classifiedK210 Building technologyK220 Construction managementK230 Building surveyingK240 Quantity surveyingK250 Conservation of buildingsK290 Building not elsewhere classifiedK310 Landscape architectureK320 Landscape studiesK330 Landscape designK340 Garden designK390 Landscape and garden design not elsewhere classifiedK410 Regional planningK420 Urban and rural planningK430 Planning studiesK440 Urban studiesK450 HousingK460 Transport planningK490 Planning not elsewhere classifiedK990 Architecture, building and planning not elsewhereclassifiedK200 BuildingK300 Landscape and gardendesignK400 PlanningK900 Others in architecture,building and planningSource: HESAThis paper also uses information from the Research Excellence Framework (REF) to show thequality of and funding amounts for research. This information is broken down by 36 subjectareas7 with the one relating to architecture the most (and therefore used in this paper) beingArchitecture, built environment and planning. No further breakdowns are available.ONS international trade definitionWhile the majority of ONS datasets use the SIC and SOC classifications meaning the DCMSdefinition of architecture can be used, a different product classification is used for theinternational trade in services statistics. The ONS produces the International Trade in Services(ITIS) data in accordance with the International Monetary Fund’s Balance of Payments manual8which sets out the classification of 52 service products that are traded9. One of these serviceproducts is Architectural activities which will be used as the principle definition in this paper.While surveying could also be counted in this definition, following a reclassification of productsin 2012, it is now included in the Scientific and Other Technical Services (including Surveying)which is too broad for sment/ONS (2015). International trade in services: quality and methodology information, 30 January 2015.9See Table 5 of the ONS International trade in services release for a list of all 52 service product einservices/2014).78GLA Economics7
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 933BusinessesKey points There were 4,515 workplaces (i.e. the place of work like an individual office) in London’sArchitecture sector in 2017. More than a quarter of the UK’s architectural workplaces were in London and this sharehas been growing over time. Almost nine in every ten workplaces had parent enterprises (i.e. the business in its entiretywhich may include one or more workplaces not necessarily in London) that were microbusinesses employing less than ten employees in 2017. Consequently, a similar proportionhad annual turnover of 1 million or less. Across the UK, the annual turnover of the Architecture sector was approximately 6.7billion in 2016. London’s Architecture sector produced 1.9 billion (constant 2015 prices) in gross valueadded (GVA) – a measure of the value of goods and services produced – in 2016. Thatwas in line with the size of London’s Postal and courier activities ( 1.8 billion) and Motortrades ( 2 billion) sectors. London’s Architecture sector has grown 7.7 per cent per annum in real terms on averagebetween 2009 and 2016. That was faster than the rate of real growth for the creativeindustries and the London economy. More than two-fifths of the Architecture sector’s GVA for Great Britain was from Londonin 2016.This chapter looks at the number and location of architectural practices in London. Thesebusinesses contribute to London’s economy in terms of their fee incomes or revenues which is aproxy for the value of the output that they produce. Consequently, the economic contributionof architecture is also discussed in this chapter.Number of businessesThere were 4,515 workplaces in London’s Architecture sector in 2017. This was more than aquarter (26.7 per cent) of the UK total. That is by far the highest share for any UK region, withthe next largest being the South East with 15.8 per cent (2,675 workplaces).GLA Economics8
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 93Map 1: Workplaces in the Architecture sector by UK region in 2017Source: ONS Inter-Departmental Business RegisterThe number of workplaces in London has been increasing over time. It has increased from 3,905workplaces in 2015 to 4,515 in 2017. That was an average rate of growth of 7.5 per cent, whichwas faster than the UK average of 5.3 per cent. Data is available back to 2001, but comparisonswith years prior to 2015 are not on a like-for-like basis due to methodological changes.GLA Economics9
London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018Working Paper 93Table 4: Number of workplaces in the Architecture sector by UK region between 2001and 2017Region200120052010201520162017CAGR(15-17)North East1451652603803953901.3%North West4706159351,2401,2551,2952.2%Yorkshire and The Humber3255006459309751,0204.7%East Midlands2754006008008358905.5%West 157.5%South East9151,2351,7552,4102,5652,6755.4%South thern Ireland2953754253803803850.7%UK ��s share of UK22.0%23.0%23.1%25.6%26.3%26.7%n/aNote: Improvements to the data collection process means that the historic data is not directly comparable. This isparticularly the case when major changes were implemented in 2011 and 2015. Source: ONS Inter-DepartmentalBusiness RegisterDespite this, architecture only accounted for 0.8 per cent of all workplaces in London during2017 (up from 0.35 per cent in 2001).While architectural workplaces can be found across London, a larger proportion of them can befound in i
Architecture sits within the wider Technical, trade related, operating leasing and other business services product group. Given this, approximately one-third of the UK’s exports for this product group went to the EU in 2016. However, the destination of Architecture exports specifically may be different. London's Architecture Sector - Update 2018 Working Paper 93 GLA Economics 4 1 .
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