TENTFor all Medical Entrance Examinations held across India.ChallengerNEET – UGVol. ICONBiologySalient Features SAM Exhaustive coverage of MCQs under each sub-topic.‘3562’ MCQs including questions from various competitive exams.Includes solved MCQs upto NEET-UG 2018, MHT-CET and various entranceexaminations from year 2015 to 2018.Includes NEET-UG 2019 and NEET 2019 (Odisha) Question Paper and Answer Keyalong with Hints.Concise theory for every topic.Hints provided wherever deemed necessary.Model Test papers for thorough revision and practice.Important inclusions: Problems to Ponder.PLE Printed at: India Printing Works, Mumbai Target Publications Pvt. Ltd.No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, C.D. ROM/Audio Video Cassettes or electronic, mechanicalincluding photocopying; recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the Publisher.P.O. No. 179207TEID: 13611
PREFACETarget’s ‘Challenger Biology: Vol-I’ is a compact guidebook, extremely handy for preparation of NEET-UG exam.TENTFeatures of each chapter: Theoretical Concepts presented in the form of pointers, tables, charts and diagrams that form a vital part of anycompetitive examination. Multiple Choice Questions segregated into two sections. Concept Building Problems – Contains questions ofvarious difficulty range and pattern. Practice Problems – Contains ample questions for thorough revision. Problems to Ponder: MCQs of different pattern created with the primary objective of helping students tounderstand the application of various concepts of Biology.Two Model Test Papers are included to assess the level of preparation of the student on a competitive level.NMCQs have been created and compiled with the following objective in mind – to help students solve complexproblems which require strenuous effort and understanding of multiple-concepts. The MCQs are a mix of questionsbased on higher order thinking, theory, and multiple concepts.COThe level of difficulty of the questions is at par with that of various competitive examinations like AIIMS, CPMT,TS EAMCET (Med. and Engg.), BCECE, AP EAMCET (Med. and Engg.) and the likes. Also to keep studentsupdated, questions from most recent examinations such as AIPMT/NEET, MHT-CET, K CET, GUJ CET, WB JEEMof years 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 are covered exclusively.NEET-UG 2019 and NEET 2019 (Odisha) Question Paper and Answer Key has been provided. Studentscan access the hints of this Question Paper given in the form of QR Code.The journey to create a complete book is strewn with triumphs, failures and near misses. If you think we’ve nearlymissed something or want to applaud us for our triumphs, we’d love to hear from you.PLEPlease write to us on : [email protected] book affects eternity; one can never tell where its influence stops.From,PublisherSAMEdition: SecondDisclaimerThis reference book is based on the NEET-UG syllabus prescribed by Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). We the publishers are making this reference book whichconstitutes as fair use of textual contents which are transformed by adding and elaborating, with a view to simplify the same to enable the students to understand, memorize andreproduce the same in examinations.This work is purely inspired upon the course work as prescribed by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT). Every care has been taken in the publication ofthis reference book by the Authors while creating the contents. The Authors and the Publishers shall not be responsible for any loss or damages caused to any person on account of errorsor omissions which might have crept in or disagreement of any third party on the point of view expressed in the reference book. reserved with the Publisher for all the contents created by our Authors.No copyright is claimed in the textual contents which are presented as part of fair dealing with a view to provide best supplementary study material for the benefit of students.
CONTENTNo.Topic NamePage No.The Living World12Biological Classification163Plant Kingdom4Animal Kingdom5Morphology of Flowering Plants6Anatomy of Flowering Plants7Structural Organisation in Animals8Cell : The Unit of Life9Biomolecules10Cell Cycle and Cell Division11Transport in Plants12Mineral Nutrition13Photosynthesis in Higher Plants31814Respiration in Plants34315Plant Growth and Development37116Digestion and Absorption39617Breathing and Exchange of Gases41918Body Fluids and Circulation43719Excretory Products and their Elimination46320Locomotion and Movement48621Neural Control and Coordination50922Chemical Coordination and Integration540Model Test Paper - I564Model Test Paper - II571NEET 2019 - (ODISHA): Question Paper & Answer Key577NEET 2019 - (UG): Question Paper & Answer Key582TENT1396799134167189SAMPLECON213241263295
Frequently Asked Questions Why Challenger Series?TENTGradually, every year the nature of competitive entrance exams is inching towards conceptualunderstanding of topics. Moreover, it is time to bid adieu to the stereotypical approach of solving aproblem using a single conventional method.To be able to successfully crack the NEET and JEE (Main) examination, it is imperative todevelop skills such as data interpretation, appropriate time management, knowing various methods tosolve a problem, etc. With Challenger Series, we are sure, you’d develop all the aforementioned skillsand take a more holistic approach towards problem solving. The way you’d tackle advanced levelMCQs with the help of hints, tips, shortcuts and necessary practice would be a game changer in yourpreparation for the competitive entrance examinations. What is the intention behind the launch of Challenger Series? CONThe sole objective behind the introduction of Challenger Series is to severely test the student’spreparedness to take competitive entrance examinations. With an eclectic range of critical andadvanced level MCQs, we intend to test a student’s MCQ solving skills within a stipulated timeperiod.What do I gain out of Challenger Series?After using Challenger Series, students would be able to:assimilate the given data and apply relevant concepts with utmost ease.b.tackle MCQs of different pattern such as match the columns, diagram based questions, multipleconcepts and assertion-reason efficiently.c.garner the much needed confidence to appear for various competitive exams.PLE a.Can the Questions presented in Problems to Ponder section be a part of the NEET/JEE (Main)Examination?MNo, the questions would not appear as it is in the NEET/JEE (Main) Examination. However, there arefair chances that these questions could be covered in parts or with a novel question construction.Why is then Problems to Ponder a part of this book?The whole idea behind introducing Problems to Ponder was to cover an entire concept in one question.With this approach, students would get more variety and less repetition in the book.SA Best of luck to all the aspirants!
02 Biological Classification2.0Introduction2.4Kingdom Plantae2.1Kingdom Monera2.5Kingdom Animalia2.2Kingdom Protista2.62.3Kingdom FungiTENTChallenger Biology Vol - I (Medical)2.0 Introduction Linnaeus (1758): All the organisms were divided into two kingdoms.Two KingdomsAnimaliaPlantaeR. H. Whittaker (1969): Classified organisms based on cell structure, thallus organisation, mode ofnutrition, reproduction and phylogenetic relationship.N Viruses, Viroids and LichensProkaryotic OrganismsKingdom : MoneraCOLiving OrganismsEukaryotic OrganismsPLEUnicellularKingdom : ProtistaMulticellularKingdom : FungiKingdom : PlantaeKingdom : AnimaliaCharacteristics of the Five KingdomsFeaturesCell ic(Polysaccharide amino acid)AbsentPresent (in some)Present(Non ic(chemosynthetic andphotosynthetic) andheterotrophic(saprophytic /parasitic)Autotrophic(Photosynthetic)and heterotrophicMulticellular/loose rgan/organ systemHeterotrophic(Holozoic/saprophytic)MCell wallSANuclearmembraneBodyOrganisationMode ofnutrition 16Five KingdomsAutotrophic(Photosynthetic)Three domain of life:This system was proposed by Carl Woese in 1990.This system divides Kingdom Monera into two domains and the eukaryotic kingdoms remain in the thirddomain.
Chapter 02: Biological ClassificationThus, it makes six kingdom classification.Domain Bacteria Kingdom EubacteriaLiving OrganismsDomain Archaea Kingdom ArchaebacteriaKingdom ProtistaDomain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae2.1 Kingdom MoneraMonera(Bacterial Kingdom) ArchaebacteriaMost primitiveCell membrane contains branchedchain lipids, they can bear extremesof heat and pH.Halophiles(salt loving) Eubacteria Live in extreme salty areas MethanogensObligate anaerobesFound in marshy areasPresent in gut of several ruminantsResponsible for methane productionin biogas fermenter.MycoplasmaThey are the smallest living cellsknown.They lack a cell wall.They can survive without oxygen(anaerobic).Many are pathogenic.M ThermoacidophilesFound in hot springsAble to tolerate high temperature aswell as high acidityPLE SA Photosynthetic bacteriaAlso called as Blue-green algaePresence of chlorophyll- aUnicellular, colonial or filamentousFreshwater/ marine/ terrestrial algaeColonies surrounded by gelatinoussheathSome of them can fix atmosphericnitrogen in specialised cells calledheterocysts. e.g. Nostoc, AnabaenaCO True bacteriaThey show presence of a rigid cellwall and flagellum (if motile).N TENTKingdom FungiKingdom Animalia Chemosynthetic bacteriaOxidisevariousinorganicsubstances such as nitrates (NO3),nitrites (NO2) and ammonia (NH3)and prepare their organic food.They use the released energy forATP production.Play a major role in recyclingnutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus,iron and sulphur.Heterotrophic bacteriaMost abundant in nature.Majority are decomposers.They help in making curd frommilk, production of antibiotics,fixing of nitrogen in legume roots,etc.Some are parasitic (pathogens); maycause diseases like cholera, typhoid,tetanus, citrus canker, etc.2.2 Kingdom Protistai.ii.Mostly aquatic, include single celled eukaryotes.Well defined nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles, some have flagella or cilia.17
Challenger Biology Vol - I (Medical)Classification of Kingdom Protista:FeaturesFound theticDinoflagellatesMostly marine(few occur infresh water)PhotosyntheticMost of them donot possess cellwall, except forfew such asdiatoms.Theyhave silicaceousshell or frustules(made up ofsilica, celluloseandpecticcompounds), thusdo not decayeasily.Cell wall consistsoftwooverlappinghalvesfittedtogether like asoap box.Lack flagellaCell wall has stiffcellulose plates onthe outer surface.FlagellaMDiatoms andgolden algae(desmids) Duetodeposition andaccumulationof cell wallsofdiatomsover billionsofyears,‘diatomaceousearth’isformed. Diatomaceousearth is grittyand hence icThallusiswithoutcellwall but sporeshave true walls.COPLECell wall/membraneSlime MouldsDamp, shadyplacesNMode ofNutritionEuglenoidsFresh in presence ion).Proteinaceous,flexible layercalled pellicleispresentinstead of acell wall.Twoflagellae:Onelieslongitudinally andother transverselyinafurrowbetween the wallplates,aids in locomotionGonyaulax(reddinoflagellate) Appearyellow-green,brown, blueorred(depending onthe pigments) Reddinoflagellates undergorapidmultiplicationand make seaappearredProtozoans Heterotrophs,liveaspredatorsorparasites. Fourmajorgroupsofprotozoans:i. AmoeboidProtozoans:a. Live in freshwater,seawater,moistsoil.b. Moveandcapturetheirprey by usingpseudopodia(false feet)eg: Amoeba,Entamoebaetc.ii. FlagellatedProtozoans:a. Free living orparasiticb. They possessflagellac. Cause diseasessuchassleepingsicknesseg:Trypanosomaiii. CiliatedProtozoans:a. Aquaticb. Presenceofmany cilia formovement.c. They have acavity (gullet)that opens tothe outside ofthe cell surface.d. Theyshowcoordinatedmovement ofcilia,whichhelps in themovement ofwater and foodtobetransported intothe gullet.eg: ParamoeciumTENTiii.Two flagellae:long and shortThesporesgerminatetoproduce swarmcells which arebiflagellate.EuglenaPhysarum Pigmentsare identicalto that ofthe higherplants. SaprophyticprotistsUndersuitableconditionform ditions,plasmodium
Chapter 02: Biological Classification(red tides)Releasestoxins (cankill owbioluminescence,(i.e. they emitlight) 2.3 Kingdom FungiEukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms.Filamentous (except Yeasts: unicellular).Cell walls are composed of chitin and polysaccharides.Fungi are multicellular decomposers.a.Saprophytes: absorb soluble organic matter from dead substrates for nutrition.b.Parasites: depend on living plants and animals.c.They can also live as symbionts in association with algae (Lichens) and with roots of higher o formiv. Sporozoansa. Theyshowfruitinginfectiousbodies whichsporelikebear spores atstage.their tips.Extremelyeg: Plasmodiumresistant and(malarialcan surviveparasite).formanyyears underadverseconditions.TENT be used inpolishing,filtrationofoilsandsyrups.Diatoms arethechiefproducers inthe oceans.Asexual(Through aSporangiosporesZoosporesPLESexual ReproductionPlasmogamy vii.Karyogamy Fusion of two nuclei.Meiosis Occurs in zygote resultingin haploid spores.Fungi are classified on the basis of morphology of the mycelium, mode of spore formation and fruitingbodies.Classification of Fungi:Mvi.Fusion of protoplasmsbetween two motile or nonmotile gametes.Steps involvedSAFeaturesCommon nameMycelium(Network ofhyphae – long,slender, threadlike structure)AsexualreproductionPhycomycetesAlgal fungiAseptate, coenocytic(Hyphae are otile zoospores, nonmotileaplanosporesproduced endogenouslyin sporangiumAscomycetesSac fungiSeptate (hyphaewith septae orcrosswalls),branchedBasidiomycetesClub fungiSeptate, branched;secondarymyceliumisdikaryoticConidia produced Generallyexogenously onfoundcondiophores.They are also calledas thallic spores.notDeuteromycetesImperfect fungiSeptate, branchedConidia19
Challenger Biology Vol - I (Medical)Fruiting bodyPlasmogamyoccurs fusion oftwo vegetative cells give rise tobasidium karyogamyandmeiosis occurs )Either absent or notknownProduces zygosporesAscocarpMucor, Rhizopus, Albugo Penicillium (usedfor preparation ofantibiotics), Yeast,Aspergillus,Claviceps,Neurospora (usedinbiochemicaland genetic work);MorelsandTruffles mCONExamplesAscosporesareproduced in saclike asci(sing. formationoccurs due to isogamy(similar gametes fuse) oranisogamy(dissimilargametes fuse) or oogamy(small flagellated malegameteandnonflagellatedfemalegamete fuse)These are found:in aquatic habitats on decaying wood inmoist and dampplaces as obligate parasiteson plants. MulticellularSaprophytic Decomposers Parasitic orcoprophilous(growing on dung) PLEOther features Commonlyknown forms ofbasidiomycetesare mushrooms,bracket fungi orpuffballs.Grow in soil, onrotten wood, etc.Sometimes theymayactasparasites whentheyareinlivingplantbodies.e.g. rusts andsmuts. Most of themaredecomposers.They help inrecyclingofminerals.SAM2.4 Kingdom Plantaei.Plants are eukaryotic, chlorophyll containing organisms.(A few members are partially heterotrophic, e.g. Bladderwort and Venus fly trap are insectivorous plants,Cuscuta is a parasite.)ii.Cells have chloroplasts and cell wall made up of cellulose.iii.Life cycle of plants has 2 phases: the diploid sporophytic and haploid gametophytic phase.They alternate their phases with each other. This phenomenon is called alternation of generation.AlgaeKingdom PlantaeBryophytesPteridophytes2.5 Kingdom Animaliai.ii.20They are heterotrophic, eukaryotic organisms.They are multicellular and lack cell walls.GymnospermsAngiosperms
Chapter 02: Biological Classificationiii.iv.v.vi.vii.viii.They directly or indirectly depend on plants for food.They digest their food in an internal cavity and store food reserves as glycogen or fat.Mode of nutrition: holozoic (by ingestion of food)Sexual reproduction: copulation of male and female followed by embryological development.Higher forms show elaborate sensory and neuromotor mechanism.Most of them are capable of locomotion.2.6 Viruses, Viroids and Lichensiii.TENTNii.Viruses:a.Non cellular.b.They have an inert crystalline structure outside the living cell (host).c.They are obligate parasites.d.They infect host cell and take over its machinery and replicate inside the host.e.Genetic material is either DNA or RNA. No virus contains DNA and RNA both.f.Viruses that infect plants have single stranded RNA and viruses that infect animals have eitherssRNA, dsRNA or dsDNA.g.Capsid is the protein coat and is made up of capsomers (small protein units) protecting nucleic acid.Hence, viruses are known as nucleocapsid.h.Viruses that infect bacteria are known as Bacteriophages which contain dsDNA.i.Viruses cause diseases like mumps, small pox, herpes, polio and influenza. AIDS in humans is causedby Human Immuno Virus or HIV.j.In plants, mosaic formation, leaf rolling and curling, yellowing of vein, dwarfing and stunted growthare symptoms of viral disease.Viroids:a.Smaller than viruses.b.Potato spindle tuber disease is caused by potato spindle-luber viroid (PSTV).c.RNA is single stranded, lacks protein coat and of low molecular weight.Lichens:a.Symbiotic associations between algae and fungi.b.Algal component phycobiont is autotrophic whereas fungal component mycobiont is heterotrophic.c.Lichens are good indicators of pollution. Do not grow in polluted area.COi.PLEMemory MapArchaebacteria SAKingdom MoneraHeterotrophic bacteriaChemosynthetic bacteriaPhotosynthetic bacteria(Cyanobacteria)Eubacteria (True ytesAlgaeKingdom PlantaeKingdom AnimaliaFIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATIONKingdom FungiPhycomycetes (Algal fungi)Kingdom ycetes (Sac fungi)Basidiomycetes (Club fungi)Deuteromycetes (Imperfect fungi)Slime mouldsProtozoans21
Challenger Biology Vol - I (Medical)Concept Building Problems2.0 IntroductionComplete the following table and opt for the appropriate answer.ProtistaEukaryoticCell wall(iii)Present in some(ii)PresentPresentAbsentNuclear membrane(A)(B)(C)(D)The drawbacks or limitations of two kingdomclassification is/are(A) photosynthetic and non-photosyntheticorganisms are placed together(B) that it cannot distinguish betweenunicellular and multicellular organisms(C) that it cannot distinguish betweeneukaryotes and prokaryotes(D) all of the abovePhylogenetic system of classification is based on(A) floral characters(B) morphological features(C) chemical constituents(D) evolutionary relationshipsBefore the Five Kingdom Classification wasproposed by R.H. Whittaker, under whichKingdom were bacteria placed?(A) Monera(B) Animalia(C) Plantae(D) Protista5.According to five kingdom classification,Protista comprises(A) both unicellular and multicellulareukaryotes(B) all prokaryotes(C) all unicellular eukaryotes(D) both prokaryotes and eukaryotesSAM4.6.Which of the following in five kingdomclassification system does n
Biology Vol. I NEET – UG Salient Features Exhaustive coverage of MCQs under each sub-topic. ‘3562’ MCQs including questions from various competitive exams. Includes solved MCQs upto NEET-UG 2018, MHT-CET and various entrance examinations from year 2015 to 2018. Includes NEET-UG 2019 and NEET 2019 (Odisha) Question Paper and Answer Key