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TIER 2 and TIER 3 VOCABULARY TERMS – COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDSADD TO:combineIf you combine things, you put them together.deepenIf you deepen your knowledge of something, you learn more about it or strengthenwhat you already know.improveIf you improve something, you make it better.incorporateIf you incorporate something, you add it or include it.integrateIf you integrate something, you combine it with other things to form a complete whole.introduceIf you introduce something, you present if for the first time.ARRANGE:arrangeIf you arrange items, you place each one in a particular place or location.listIf you list things, you write them down or say them one after the other.organizeIf you organize things, you arrange them in a certain order or plan them in a certainway.sortIf you sort items, you put them into different groups based on what they are like.COLLABORATE:collaborateIf you collaborate, you work together with other people.contributeIf you contribute, you give or add something to a situation.engageIf you engage in something, you participate in it. If you engage someone in something,you keep him or her interested in it.interactIf you interact with someone, your actions affect each other.participateIf you participate in something, you take part in it.shareIf you share information, you let someone else know about it.COMPARE/CONTRAST:associateIf something is associated with something else, the two are connected or related insome way.categorizeIf you categorize items, you put them in groups.classifyIf you classify things, you organize them into groups based on their attributes.

compareIf you compare things, you identify ways that they are the same.connectIf you connect things, you make a link between them.contrastIf you contrast things, you find the differences between them.differentiateIf you differentiate between two things, you show how they are different.discriminateIf you discriminate between things, you see or perceive a difference between them andtreat them differently based on the difference.distinguishIf you distinguish something, you recognize it for a specific reason.linkIf you link things together, you connect them.matchIf you match things, you pair up two things that are alike in some way.relateIf you relate things, you find connections between them.CREATE:accomplishIf you accomplish something, you do it successfully.achieveIf you achieve something, you succeed at it.buildIf you build something, you join separate items or concepts together to createsomething new.composeIf you compose something, you put it together using several separate parts.constructIf you construct something, you build it by putting separate parts together.createIf you create something, you make it for the first time.developIf you develop something, you work on it over a period of time, during which it grows orchanges.draftIf you draft something, you write it down for the first time, with the intention of revisingit.formIf you form something, you create it.generateIf you generate something, you bring it into being or existence.initiateIf you initiate something, you make it begin.produceIf you produce something, you make it.publishIf you publish something, you prepare and distribute it.recordIf you record something, you create a written, audio or video version of it that can belooked at or listened to in the future.

stimulateIf you stimulate something, you encourage it to be more active.DECIDE:chooseIf you choose something, you pick that thing instead of something else.decideIf you decide something, you think about several choices and then choose one of them.selectIf you select something, you choose it.DEFINE:defineIf you define something, you explain what it means very clearly and specifically.delineateIf you delineate something, you show where it is or what it is.determineIf you determine something, you discover it or decide on it.discernIf you discern something, you see or perceive how it is different.establishIf you establish something, you create it or show that it is true.exemplifyIf you exemplify something, you give examples of it.identifyIf you identify something, you say what it is.interpretIf you interpret something, you figure out what you think it means.labelIf you label something, you assign a name, number, or symbol to it.locateIf you locate something, you find it or figure out where it is.nameIf you name something, you say what it is.recallIf you recall something, you remember it.recognizeIf you recognize something, you know what it is because you have seen it before.ELABORATE:broadenIf you broaden something, you make it bigger.deriveelaborateIf you derive something, you take information from a specific source and use it logicallyto create something new.If you elaborate on something, you tell more about it.enhanceIf you enhance something, you make it better.expandIf you expand something, you make it larger.

EVALUATE:assessIf you assess something, you estimate its value or quantity.checkIf you check something, you make sure that it is accurate.critiqueIf you critique something, you look at it carefully to find things that could be improved.evaluateIf you evaluate something, you decide if it is good or bad or right or wrong.judgeIf you judge something, you form an opinion about it.EXECUTE:advanceIf you advance something, you move it forwardcalculateIf you calculate something, you think very carefully about all of its details and create a plan tomake it happen. If you calculate something in math, you figure out a solution using numbersand mathematical operations.computeWhen you compute something, you figure out an answer or solution using math.conductIf you conduct something, you plan and do it.employIf you employ something, you use it to accomplish a task.executeIf you execute something, you do it.navigateIf you navigate something, you find your way through it.EXPLAIN:answerIf you answer someone or something, you respond with information you think is correct ortrue.articulateIf you articulate something, you express it clearly.clarifyIf you clarify something, you explain it in a way that makes it easier to understand.communicate If you communicate, you share information with others, usually by speaking or writing.conveyIf you convey something, you communicate it.describeIf you describe something, you explain what it is like.explainIf you explain something, you give information about it or reasons for it that make it easier tounderstand.expressWhen you express something, you show or tell about it.informIf you inform someone of something, you tell him or her facts or information about it.

narrateIf you narrate something, you describe a sequence of events.presentIf you present something, you show or give it to someone.recountIf you recount a story or event, you describe what happened.reportIf you report something, you tell about it.respondIf you respond to something, you react to it.retellIf you retell something, you tell it again.stateIf you state something, you say it clearly and definitely.summarizeIf you summarize something, you tell the most important information from it.synthesizeIf you synthesize information, you combine it in a logical way.HYPOTHESIZE:anticipateIf you anticipate something, you predict that something will happen and prepare for it.approximateIf you approximate something, you make a guess about its size or value.conjectureIf you conjecture, you say something that you think is true but aren’t completely sure about.considerIf you consider something, you think carefully about it.estimateIf you estimate something, you guess about its amount or size without trying to be exact.experimentIf you experiment, you do a scientific test to find out something specific.exploreIf you explore something, you try to find out more about what it is like.hypothesizeIf you hypothesize about something, you say what you think will happen or be proven true.poseIf you pose something, you present it.predictIf you predict something, you say that you think it will happen.testIf you test something, you try it out to see how well it works.INFER:concludeIf you conclude something, you decide whether it is true or correct after considering relatedinformation. Conclude also means to end something.deduceIf you deduce something, you figure out that it is true because you know other things are true.generalizeIf you generalize, you take what you know about one situation or thing and apply it to othersituations or things.

inferIf you infer something, you decide that it is true after gathering and considering informationabout it.reasonIf you reason, you thing about something in an orderly, logical way.MEASURE:gaugeIf you gauge something, you measure it.measureIf you measure something, you describe its size using units.quantifyIf you quantify something, you say how much of it there is using numbers.PROBLEM SOLVE:figure outIf you figure out how to do or solve something, you find a way to do it.overcomeIf you overcome something, you stop it from being an obstacle to your goal.problem solve If you problem solve, you figure out how to overcome obstacles and find a solution.resolveIf you resolve a problem, contradiction, or issue, you find a solution for it.solveIf you solve something, you find an answer or a solution for it.surmountIf you surmount something, you overcome it.PROVE/ARGUE:argueIf you argue for or against something, you try to convince someone who disagrees with youthat something is right or wrong using reasons and evidence.assertIf you assert something, you say it confidently.challengeIf you challenge something, you question it or dispute it.claimIf you claim something, you say it is true.confirmIf you confirm something, you make sure that it is true.defendIf you defend something, you say why you think it is true.disagreeIf you disagree, you have a different opinion than someone or something.justifyIf you justify something, you explain why it is reasonable or appropriate.persuadeIf you persuade someone to do something, you convince him or her to do it.promoteIf you promote something, you help it succeed.proveIf you prove something, you give evidence to show that it is true.

qualifyIf you qualify something, you tell about an exception to it or add some information to it tomake it less general.specifyIf you specify something, you describe or explain it clearly and in detail.supportIf you support something, you help it succeed.verifyIf you verify something, you make sure that it is true.PULL APART:analyzeIf you analyze something, you look closely at each of its parts and see if they fit together in away that makes sense.decomposeTo decompose something means to take it apart.decontextualize To decontextualize something, you think about it apart from its normal surroundings.diagnoseIf you diagnose something, you figure out what is wrong with it.examineIf you examine something, you look at it closely.grappleIf you grapple with something, you struggle to figure it out.investigateIf you investigate something, you study or examine it closely.partitionIf you partition something, you divide it into parts.probeIf you probe something, you explore or examine it closely.REDO:redoIf you redo something, you do it over again.repeatIf you repeat something, you do it again.rereadIf you reread something, you read it again.revisitIf you revisit a topic, you think about or talk about it again.REFERENCE:acknowledgeIf you acknowledge something, you show that you agree that it exists.citeIf you cite something, you quote, paraphrase, or refer to it.consultIf you consult something or someone, you ask for advice or information.plagiarizeIf you plagiarize something, you copy it without giving credit to the original author.referIf you refer to something, you direct attention to it by specifically mentioning it.

referenceIf you reference something, you mention it in a formal way.traceIf you trace something, you follow it closely.SEEK INFORMATION:acquireIf you acquire something, you obtain it or gain it.askIf you ask a question, you are trying to find an answer or get some information.captureIf you capture something, you describe it vividly and accurately.compileIf you compile something, you collect information and put it together.detectIf you detect something, you notice or find it.elicitIf you elicit a response or feeling from someone you draw it out of him or her.encounterIf you encounter something, you experience it.evokeIf you evoke something else, it brings it to mind.find outIf you find out about something, you learn about it.gatherIf you gather things, you collect them together in a group.listenIf you listen to someone, you hear and try to understand what he or she is saying.noteIf you note something, you notice it or write it down.noticeIf you notice something, you become aware of it.observeIf you observe something, you see it happen or you look carefully to find out what will happen.questionIf you question something, you express doubt or skepticism about it.requestIf you request something, you ask for it.researchIf you research something, you look for information about it.searchIf you search for something, you look for it.seekIf you seek something, you try to find it or obtain it.studyIf you study something, you work to learn about it.SEE THE BIG PICTURE:comprehendIf you comprehend something, you understand it completely.contextualize If you contextualize something, you think about its normal surroundings.

orientIf you orient people to something, you show them where they are relative to what they know.understandIf you understand something, you know what it means, how it occurs, why it happens, or whyit is important.SYMBOLIZE:act outWhen you act out something, you move your body to show what it looks and sounds like.chartWhen you chart something, you measure it over time and keep track of those measurementson a graph or in a table.conceptualize When you conceptualize something, you form an idea of it in your brain.demonstrateIf you demonstrate something, you show how to do it.depictIf you depict something, you create a picture of it.diagramIf you diagram something, you draw a picture of it using mostly lines and simple pictures,words, or numbers.graphIf you graph something, you create a picture that represents it using a grid or horizontal andvertical lines.illustrateIf you illustrate something, you use images to explain it.imagineIf you imagine something, you form a mental image or idea of it.mapIf you map something, you create a diagram or picture that shows what it looks like.modelIf you model something, you create a structure or system that illustrate it.representIf you represent something, you create a sign or symbol that reminds people of the originalidea or object.symbolizeIf you symbolize something, you create an image, gesture, or word to represent it.visualizeIf you visualize something, you create a picture of it in your head.THINK METACOGNITIVELY:appreciateIf you appreciate something, you understand why it is important.attendIf you attend to something, you pay attention to it.designIf you design something, you create a plan for it.monitorIf you monitor something, you check its progress over a period of time.persevereIf you persevere with something, you keep doing it even though it is difficult.planIf you plan to do something, you decide in advance what you are going to do.

prepareIf you prepare for something, you get ready for it.reflectIf you reflect on something, you think about it.self-correctIf you self-correct, you fix a mistake you made.TRANSFORM:accentuateWhen you accentuate something, you make it stand out so it’s easier to see or notice.adaptIf you adapt something, you change it so that you can use it differently.adjustIf you adjust something, you change it a little.alterIf you alter something, you change it.applyIf you apply something, you use it for a specific purpose.conformIf you conform, you make your actions match what something or someone says.convertIf you convert something, you change it from one form to another.editIf you edit something, you look for and correct mistakes in it.emphasizeIf you emphasize something, you draw attention to it because it is important.manipulateIf you manipulate something, you control it or move it around for a specific purpose.modifyIf you modify something, you change it a little, usually to make it better.paraphraseIf you paraphrase something, you say it using different words.rearrangeIf you rearrange items, you change where they are placed or located.refineIf you refine something, you make it clearer, better, or more precise.replaceIf you replace something, you take it away and put something else in its place.reviseIf you revise something, you change it to make it better or more accurate.rewriteIf you rewrite something, you write it differently.shapeIf you shape something, you make it look a particular way.shiftIf you shift something, you move it.simplifyIf you simplify something, you make it smaller or easier to understand.strengthenIf you strengthen something, you make it stronger.substituteIf you substitute something, you use it in place of something else.tailorIf you tailor something, you make it appropriate for a specific reason.

transformIf you transform something, you change it.translateIf you translate something, you express it in a different way.updateIf you update something, you add information to it or make it more current.

TIER 3 VOCABULARY TERMS FROM THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDSENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS – READINGQUESTIONING, INFERENCE AND INTERPRETATION:o analysiso explicito citeo implicitotextual evidenceTHEMES AND CENTRAL IDEAS:o emergeo judgmento objective summaryooopersonal opinioncultural themehistorical themeooopastoral themerecurring themeuniversal themeSTORY ELEMENTS:o climaxo conflicto episodeo incidento physical descriptiono provokeooooooresolutionstory elementsubordinate ncher sentencedramatic elementexternal/internal conflictmotivationred herringCONNECTIONS:o analogyo nWORD IMPACT AND USE:o analogyo associationo biblical allusiono connotationo connotative meaningo contexto degree of certaintyo denotationo denotative meaningo emphasiso figurative meaningo formalo humor impact informalo literal languageo literal meaningoooooooooooooooliterary allusionmythological allusionnonliteral meaningshade(s) of meaningslangstate of mindstyletoneaesthetic impactambienceambiguitycontrasting expressionscultural expressioncultural influencecultural nuanceooooooooooooocumulative impactemotional appealeuphemismevokeliterary devicenuanceoxymoronparableparadoxsense of placesense of timetruth in advertisingverbal ironyACADEMIC VOCABULARY:o emotiono state of beingo addition relationshipooocompare/contrastlogical relationshipcontextoooinferred meaningspecialized languagetechnical meaning

TEXT STRUCTURE AND FEATURES:o chronologyo meter (of a poem)o stage directiono symbolismo footnoteo juxtapositiono page formato resolutiono soliloquyo sonneto subliminal messageo subploto tempoooooooooooooowritten exchangeballadblurring of genrescomedycoupletdigressive timedirect addressdivided quotationdramatic dialogueexpositionextended quotationflashbackhierarchic structureooooooooooooPOINT OF VIEW/PURPOSE:o account (version of astory)o similarityo author’s purposeo dramatic ironyo humoro influenceo native cultureo objective viewo perspectiveoooooooooopositionstereotypesubjective viewsuspenseunderstatementviewpointconflicting evidenceconflicting viewpointsauthor’s biasbelief systemo clarity of purposeo cultural experienceo drastic mood changeo limited point of viewo omniscient point of viewo parodyo personao rhetorico sarcasmo satireVISUAL/AUDITORY MEDIA AND INFORMATION SOURCES:o film producero audio versiono filmed productiono faithful representationo formato media/mediumo lectureo multimediao lightingo musicalo live productiono quiz showo logoo scriptwritero mass mediao speecho multimedia presentationo video versiono news broadcasto almanaco news bulletino broadcasto oral traditiono broadcast advertisingo political cartoonisho camera angleo political speecho camera focuso portrayalo camera shoto productiono catalogo quanitative formato children’s programo sitcomo current affairso staged versiono documentaryo talk showo electronic mediao time lapseo filmo visual formato film directorooooooooooooooooooooointerior monologuelyric poemmemorandumodeopening monologueoverviewparallel plotsstream of consciousnesssurprisetemporal changetensiontragedyadvertising codeadvertising copycelebrity y (CGI)consumer documentcourt opiniondictationdrama-documentaryFCC regulationfilm reviewfilter (in photography)media-generated imagepackagingproduction costreaction shotset designsoap operasomber lightingtheatervisual text

ARGUMENT AND REASONING:o appeal to authorityo appeal to emotiono appeal to logico conclusions (in anargument)o counter argumento glittering generalityo irrelevanto logic/logicalo logical tack ad hominembandwagoncircumlocutionexaggerated claimfallacious reasoningfalse causalityLITERARY COMPARISONS AND SOURCE MATERIAL:o publication dateo account (version of ao supernatural talestory)o tabloid newspapero almanaco trickster taleo Bibleo allegoryo biographical sketcho American literatureo citationo ancient literatureo cross-referenceo British literatureo editorialo copyright lawo essayo credito feature storyo epico historical fictiono excerpto historical novelo feature articleo life storyo historical significanceo periodicalRHETORICAL CRITICISM:o similarityo concepto conflicting informationo criticismo documento emphasiso interpretationooooooooofalse statementfaulty mode of persuasionlegal reasoninglogical l assumptionpremiseprincipleo Homeric Greek literatureo medieval literatureo modern literatureo neoclassic literatureo primary sourceo religious literatureo romantic period literatureo secondary sourceo Shakespeareo traditional literatureo warrantyo world literatureooooooological ntrolling ideacritical standarddeconstructooooooofaulty mode of persuasionliterary criticismliterary significancerhetorical devicerhetorical featurerhetorical questionstructural analysisooooooooological argumentlogic/logicalobjective toneopposing claimreasoningthesisthesis statementvalidattack ad hominemoooooooooattend (pay attention to)biascircumlocutiondisciplinelimitationlogical NCY:o literary nonfictiono speed readingo speed writingWRITINGArgumentative:o clarification\accuracyo alternate claimo appeal to authorityo appeal to emotiono appeal to logico counter argumento counterclaimo credible/credibilityo fair

INFORMATIVE/EXPLANATORY:o clarificationo observationo accuracyo analysiso classificationo lobjective tonepreviewtechnical directionsooooootechnical /significanceNARRATIVE:o observationo pacingo reflectiono contextoooopersonal narrativeresolutionsuspensetime frameooautobiographical narrativebiographical narrativeTASK, PURPOSE AND AUDIENCE:o deadlineo private audienceo public audienceo sales techniqueo special interestso styleo target audienceoooooootoneviewer perceptioncohesionethicsexpressive writingfriendly audiencehostile audienceooooooojob applicationjob interviewmarketingnegotiateperformance reviewpolicy statementresumeREVISE AND EDIT:o composition structureo focuso peer-response groupo redundancyoooorewritestrengthenwordinessclarity of purposeoocriteriaredraftTECHNOLOGY:o word processingo citationo desktopo efficiento hardwareo programmingoooooosoftwarestatus indicatorclouddisplaydynamicfeedbackooooosecure sitesoftware updatewriting producttext boundaryURL (uniform resourcelocator)RESEARCH:o citationo conclusions (in anargument)o explorationo focuso inquiryo knowledge baseo logo plagiarismooooooooopublic opinion trendrefocusresearch paperresearch projectresearch questionresource materialself-generated questionthesisthesis statementooooooooartifactfield studyliterature reviewmethodologymicroficheprimary sourcequestionnairesecondary source

ACCESS AND ORGANIZE INFORMATION:o accuracyo bibliographyo conclusions (in anargument)o credible/credibilityo dataooooooefficientplagiarismrelevantstandard citation formatadvanced searchanecdotal scriptingooooooannotated bibliographyauthoritativeconceptual mapflow of ideaslimitationoverrelianceSPEAKING AND LISTENING:o clarificationo elaborationo observationo reflectiono active listeningo conclusions (in anargument)o discourseo diverseo etiquetteo explicito facilitatorooooooooooooformalgain the rationsmall talkverbal cuecollegial democraticdivergentpersonal spacepersuasion/persuasivepoint of agreementpoint of onlogic/logicallogical argumentreasoningcommercial motivemotivepolitical motivesocial oofallacious reasoningfalse causalityfaulty mode of persuasionincongruitylogical fallalcyovergeneralizationphilosophical assumptionpoint of emphasispremiserhetoricslanted lidcircumlocutionexchange of ideasline of reasoningooproposition of fact speechproposition of problemspeechproposition of valuespeechsupporting evidenceEVALUATE PRESENTED INFORMATION:o clarificationo accuracyo appeal to authorityo appeal to emotiono appeal to logico credible/credibilityo datao extraneous informationo glittering generalityo inconsistencyo irrelevanto issueoSPEECH WRITING:o speecho conciseo discourseo emphasiso formalo jargono logic/logicalo perspectiveoo

PRESENTATION AND DELIVERY:o formal Englisho multimediao speecho clarificationo audibleo deliveryo enunciationo formal languageo informal languageo intonationo layoutoooooooooooomanner of speechnative speakernonverbal cuephysical gestureprojectionrecitationsound systemspeech patternvisual aidvisual displayvoice inflectionoooooooooooarticulationaudio elementdictiondirectionalityinteractive elementmodulationpoisespeech actionsubvocalizetextual element/featurevisual elementoooooooooooooobject pronounobjective casepassive voiceperfect tenseprogressive tensepossessive casereflexive pronounrelative adverbsubject pronounsubjective caseusageconditional moodgerundoooooooooooimperative moodindicative moodinterrogative moodnoun clause/phraseparallel structureparticiplesubjective moodconjunctive adverbinfinitivemodal hrase groupingabsolute phrasedependent clauseindependent clausenonrestrictive clauseoooooparticipial phraserelative clauserestrictive clausesyntaxverb phraseoodashhyphenooellipsistag questionLANGUAGEGRAMMAR:o collective nouno coordinate adjectiveo correlative conjunctiono modifiero predicateo proper adjectiveo relative pronouno subordinating conjunctiono active voiceo dangling modifiero demonstrative pronouno indefinite pronouno intensive pronounSENTENCES:o declarative sentenceo imperative sentenceo interrogative sentenceo adjectival clauseo adjectival phraseo adverbial clauseo adverbial phraseCAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION:o acronymo parenthesesSPELLING:o syllabic system

LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS:o sentence patternso business lettero dialecto contexto mechanics (language)o polite formo stresso styleoooootonevernacularAmerican sciplineooooModern LanguageAssociationregisterstyle manualstyle sheet formatsyntaxCONTEXT CLUES:o contexto context clueootextual clueword functionooword positionsociocultural contextWORD ORIGINS AND ROOTS:o Anglo-Saxon affixo Anglo-Saxon rooto derivationo derivational suffixooooword borrowingword origincognateinfinitiveooinflectionword change patternooitem/category relationshippart/whole relationshipologographic systemoocounting procedurecombinationopermutationPLACE VALUE:o base 10o base 60o nondecimal numerationsystemoooonumber systemreference setbase ebinary systemonatural numberFRACTIONS:o converto reciprocaloocomplex fractionmagnitudeofraction inversionoooREFERENCE MATERIALS:o etymologyo Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literatureo standard usageWORD RELATIONSHIPS:o analogyo homonymMATHEMATICSNUMBER AND QUANTITYCOUNTING:o cardinal numbero ordinal numberCOMPARE NUMBERS:o relative magnitudeADDING AND SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS:o properties of operations

MULTIPLYING AND DIVIDING FRACTIONS:o non-zeroo resizeo properties of operationsDECIMAL CONCEPTS:o converto base 10o base 60ooodecimal notationpower of 10significant digitsobase eRATIOS AND UNIT RATES:o coordinate planeo origino percento constant differenceo double number linediagramo equal ratiosooooooopercents above 100percents below 1proportionproportional gainraterate of changeratiooooostrip diagramtape diagramunit rateconstant ofproportionalityproportional relationshipcommon ratioRATIONAL AND IRRATIONAL NUMBERS:o converto coordinate planeo repeating decimalo absolute valueo horizontal number linediagramo integerooooooomagnituderational numberrational number systemreal-world contextsigned numberstatement of inequalitystatement of orderooooovertical number linediagramrepeating digitdecimal expansionirrational numberrational approximationEXPONENTS AND ROOTS:o numerical expressiono square rooto square root symbolo cube numbero cube root symboloooooirrational numberperfect cubeperfect squarescientific notationcostoooooexponential functionprofitradicalreal numberrevenueQUANTITIES:o absolute erroro compound interesto data displayooodescriptive modelinglevel of accuracylimitationooorelative errorscalarvectoroooconjugate complexnumberimaginary numbern

TIER 2 and TIER 3 VOCABULARY TERMS – COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS . ADD TO: combine . If you . combine. things, you put them together. deepen If you deepen your knowledge of something, you learn more about it or strengthen what you already know. improve If you improve something, you make it better. incorporat