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LEAVING CERTIFICATE PROGRAMMESAims and Principles1. The general aim of education is to contributetowards the development of all aspects of theindividual, including aesthetic, creative, critical,cultural, emotional, expressive, intellectual, forpersonal and home life, for working life, forliving in the community and for leisure.2. Leaving Certificate programmes are presentedwithin this general aim, with a particularemphasis on the preparation of students for therequirements of further education or training, foremployment and for their role as participative,enterprising citizens.3. All Leaving Certificate programmes aim toprovide continuity with and progression from theJunior Certificate programme. The relativeweighting given to the various components —e.g. personal and social (including moral andspiritual) development, vocational studies andpreparation for further education and for adultand working life — within the programmes mayvary.4. Programmes leading to the award of the LeavingCertificate are of two years duration and areoffered in three forms:i. The Leaving Certificate (Established)ii. The Leaving Certificate Vocational Programmeiii. The Leaving Certificate Applied5. All Leaving Certificate programmes, incontributing to a high quality education,emphasise the importance of : self-directed learning and independentthought a spirit of inquiry, critical thinking, problemsolving, self-reliance, initiative and enterprise preparation for further education, for adultand working life lifelong learning.The Leaving Certificate (Established)The Leaving Certificate (Established) programmeoffers students a broad and balanced educationwhile allowing for some specialisation.Syllabuses are provided in a wide range ofsubjects. All subjects are offered at Ordinary andHigher levels. In addition, Mathematics and Irishare also offered at Foundation level.The certificate is used for purposes of selectioninto further education, employment, training andhigher education.The Leaving Certificate VocationalProgramme (LCVP)The Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme isan intervention within the Leaving Certificate(Established). LCVP students study a minimumof five subjects (at Higher, Ordinary orFoundation levels), including Irish and twosubjects from specified vocational subjectgroupings. They are also required to take arecognised course in a Modern Europeanlanguage, other than Irish or English. In additionLCVP students take three Link Modules onEnterprise Education, Preparation for Work andWork Experience.In particular, the LCVP aims to foster in studentsa spirit of enterprise and initiative and todevelop their interpersonal, vocational andtechnological skills.The Leaving Certificate AppliedThe Leaving Certificate Applied is a distinct,self-contained Leaving Certificate programme.It is designed for those students who do notwish to proceed directly to third level educationor for those whose needs, aspirations andaptitudes are not adequately catered for by theother two Leaving Certificate programmes. TheLeaving Certificate Applied is structured aroundthree main elements – Vocational Preparation,Vocational Education and General Education which are interrelated and interdependent. Thisprogramme is characterised by educationalexperiences of an active, practical and studentcentred nature.


L E A V I N G C E R T I F I C AT E R U S S I A N S Y L L A B U S PreambleA Common Syllabus FrameworkThe Leaving Certificate Russian syllabus is set out inthe context of a common syllabus framework for theteaching and examining of French, German, Spanishand Italian. The syllabus is "communicative" in thesense that it is based on the purposes to whichlearners are likely to want, need or expect to put theknowledge and skills they acquire in class to use, andin the sense that the objectives detailed in the syllabusare expressed in terms of language use. It is not,however, "communicative" in the narrow sense ofconfining itself to oral face-to-face communication.Nor does it presuppose a rejection of explicit teachingabout the target language and culture; indeed, itpresupposes quite the contrary.

L E A V I N G C E R T I F I C AT E R U S S I A N S Y L L A B U S CONTENTSIntroductionGeneral Aims1. Behavioural ObjectivesBasic CommunicativeProficiency2. Behavioural ObjectivesLanguage Awareness3623Learning about language from targetlanguage material24Exploring meaning25Relating language to attitude267Meeting and getting to know peopleand maintaining social relations8Discussing family and home9Talking and writing about your experienceof the target language27Consulting reference materials (e.g. dictionariesAsking about and describing the general natureand grammars) relating to the vocabulary andof the region or locality in which someone lives10Talking about learning11Enquiring about and describing work12Enquiring about and discussing leisure pursuits13Making plans and discussing future action14Talking about events in people's lives15target languageCoping with travel and transport16Reading extracts from modern literary textsBuying goods and services17(notably novels, short stories, poems and plays)283. Behavioural ObjectivesCultural Awareness29Learning in the target language about thepresent-day culture associated with thein the target languageFacilitating, encouraging or impedinga course of actiongrammar of the target language183031Describing and discussing everyday life inthe target language communityUnderstanding, expressingfeelings and attitudes19Understanding, describing and discussing aspectsManaging a conversation20of the relations between the target languageEngaging in discussion21Passing on messages22community and Ireland3233Understanding, describing and discussingin general terms issues that transcend1cultural divisions344. Assessment35


L E A V I N G C E R T I F I C AT E R U S S I A N S Y L L A B U S or all three components. Many of the activities listedin Section 2 Language Awareness will help learners todevelop the more global skills necessary to performactivities outlined under Basic CommunicativeProficiency. Activities described under CulturalAwareness will allow learners to extend many topicslisted under Basic Communicative Proficiency bydrawing comparisons, giving examples, describingdifferences in the way of life of differentcommunities, etc.IntroductionStructure of the SyllabusThe two main components of the syllabus are itsgeneral aims and a set of more specific behaviouralobjectives. These behavioural objectives, which derivefrom the general aims, are subdivided into threecomponents: Basic Communicative Proficiency,Language Awareness and Cultural Awareness. Finally,details of assessment are described under the headingassessment. The syllabus layout is therefore as follows: General AimsBasic Communicative ProficiencyAt the outset, some observations should be madeabout the different sections of the behaviouralobjectives component and their relationship to eachother. The first and largest section is titled BasicCommunicative Proficiency. The objectives specifiedin Section I are for the most part related in a veryobvious way to practical challenges that might befaced by the learner when operating in the targetlanguage community. On the other hand, a fairproportion of the objectives in this section may alsobe seen as relevant to activities and discussion thatare likely to take place through the target languagein the classroom. Behavioural Objectives– Basic Communicative Proficiency– Language Awareness– Cultural Awareness Assessment.The syllabus content is designed in units of generalactivities/themes. The performance targets aredesigned to help teachers and learners to work outschemes of work and to ensure that learners are clearabout what is expected of them in relation to eachgeneral activity/theme. Assessment of studentperformance will emphasise language andcommunication skills rather than the informationcontent of any particular section of the syllabus.Some of the communicative and linguistic skills,including the grammatical knowledge that studentswill need for the realisation of the performancetargets, are elucidated in Section 1, BasicCommunicative Proficiency as Linguistic Skills Structures and Grammar. These exponents are, ofcourse, distinctive to each language, and begin theprocess of translating the framework syllabus intothe concrete practice of the classroom.Language AwarenessThe objectives listed under Language Awarenessand Cultural Awareness are highly relevant to thecommunicative challenges of the classroom and the"real world" and are intended to have an importantenabling role with regard to the attainment of areasonable level of communicative proficiency.However, they also have a valuable contribution tomake in connection with the wider languageeducation and intercultural consciousness-raisingfunctions of foreign language learning.An integrated approach to the three broadcomponents of the syllabus is recommended.Classroom activities should, where possible, involvemore than one of the three areas; for example thechoice of certain authentic materials might providethe focus for working on certain aspects of any twoThe raising of the learner’s awareness about theworkings of the target language and about his or herown encounter with the language, which is theunderlying purpose of the objectives set in Section 23

L E A V I N G C E R T I F I C AT E R U S S I A N S Y L L A B U S performance targets in this section, such as using notonly linguistic knowledge but also context,background knowledge, etc. The performance targetsexemplify what is understood as language awarenessin the syllabus.Language Awareness, has direct relevance to thefostering of effective use of the language. Research hasshown that developing this kind of awareness - withinthe context of a rich and interesting target languageinput - accelerates progress towards grammatical andlexical accuracy and therefore towards communicativeefficiency. Talking, reading and writing about thetarget language in the target language can promoteboth fluency and accuracy. As far as the languageeducation dimension is concerned, the variousobjectives listed in the section are designed to developawareness not only of a range of aspects of the targetlanguage but of relevant aspects of the mother tongueand other languages known to the learner and thus,at least to an extent, the functioning of language ingeneral. Such awareness can be expected to improvethe learner’s ability to use the language for a widerange of purposes.Cultural AwarenessSection 3 of the Behavioural Objectives componentCultural Awareness is similarly versatile inits potential usefulness. Taking into accountcultural differences is often absolutely essentialfor successful communication.It will be clear too that unfamiliarity with the majorcultural reference-points (social, political, historical,etc.) of the target language community on thepart of a non-native speaker also can hampercommunication. As in the case of the objectives inSection 2, a further element in the rationale for theobjectives in Section 3 is their likely favourableimpact in terms of encouraging "content-instruction"through the medium of the target language.The intention that the Section 3 objectives shouldcontribute to cultural and intercultural educationgenerally is reflected in the fact that these objectivesfocus not only on the target language community butalso on its relationship to Ireland and the Irish way oflife, and in the fact that they refer not only toculture-specific issues but also to issues which gobeyond cultural divisions.It is clear that certain misunderstandings of the‘communicative approach’ - in particular the opinionthat grammatical understanding and accuracy are nolonger relevant - have not been helpful to thelearners, and this syllabus (in part through theenhanced role of language awareness) is designedto produce a more balanced spread of skills.Learner AutonomyMany of the performance targets in the LanguageAwareness section of the syllabus are also aimed atpromoting learner autonomy and enhancing learners’chances of success by equipping them with the skillsto find their own way. While recognising that it ishelpful for teachers and learners to have a definedcontent syllabus, it is accepted also that it would beimpossible to include in the syllabus all the words andstructures that learners will meet when using thetarget language. Learners will therefore need todevelop communication strategies to cope with wordsand structures they have not previously met. Effectivelanguage learning involves using a range of strategiesto deduce meaning similar to those specified in theLevel DifferentiationDetails relating to aspects of the examinationsare described under the heading of assessment.Rather than regarding students taking Ordinary levelas unable to perform all the tasks required at Higherlevel, it is recognised that the needs of Ordinary levelstudents to communicate successfully within thetarget language community are no less great thanthose at Higher level, and that therefore allbehavioural objectives are important at Ordinarylevel. The different approach to the two levels for4

L E A V I N G C E R T I F I C AT E R U S S I A N S Y L L A B U S Conclusionassessment purposes is described under the headingdifferentiation. By providing a common syllabus,however, the reality of the classroom is respected,as the timetable will not always facilitate theseparation of the two groups for teaching.This syllabus aims to lead every pupil towards fourbasic outcomes as a result of the experience ofmodern language learning in the classroom: a communicative competence in thetarget language awareness about language and comm

The Leaving Certificate Russian syllabus is set out in the context of a common syllabus framework for the teaching and examining of French, German, Spanish and Italian. The syllabus is "communicative" in the sense that it is based on the purposes to which learners are likely to want, need or expect to put the knowledge and skills they acquire in class to use, and in the sense that the .

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