Key To Florida Wetland Plants - Florida Department Of .

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For use the the manual: FLORIDA WETLAND PLANTS, AN mENTIFICATION MANUALThis manual is color coded for use in finding the following greatgroups, within eachgreat group thefamilies and generaare arrangedalphabetically.ColorGreat Groul2GREEN -Ferns and FernAlliesBROWN -Gymnosperms (Conifers)BLUE -Monocots(Flowering plants)GOLD -Dicots(Flowering plants)Once you discover the family characteristicsyou will be able to use this book more efficiently. Thefollowing key has beenconstructedusing primarily vegetativeand growth form characteristicstohelp with identifying the families. For example,there are groups for palms, grasslike plants, carnivorous plants. This key presupposesthat the userknows something aboutthe life history of theplant in question, for example: sporeversusseedproduction, conesversusflowers, aquatic versusterrestrial.Like the manual, the following keys are arrangedby greatgroups;(1) Ferns and Fern Allies, (2) Gymnosperms (conifers), (3) Monocots, (4) Herbaceous Dicotsand (5) Woody Dicots.Almost all the Keys are dichotomous. The are arrangedby subgroupsand thesewere createdbygrouping plants with similar vegetativecharacterists.The subgroupscontainkeys to the families.The following characteristicsare sharedby eachgreatgroup.1. Plants reproducing by dust-like sporesproducedin conesor on leaves,leaveseither small andscale-like or larger and nearly always pinnately compound. Ferns and Fern Allies1. Plantsreproducing by seedsproduced in conesor flowers; leavesvarious, if broad usually withnet venation 22. Plants with cones,needlelike leaves,and often a turpentine-like smell; treesand shrubsGymnosperms (conifers)2. Plants with flowers, fruit or broad leaves;trees,shrubsor herbsFlowering Plants (Angiosperms ), contains two groups, the monocots and dicots1. Plants with parallel veins, flowers in parts of threes,generallyherbaceous(exceptfor palms)Monocots1. Plants with net venations,flowers in parts of 4s or 5s, fruit various Dicots2. Plants with herbaceousgrowth, generallyplants in the groundcover.Herbaceous Dicots2. Plants with woody growth, shrubsand trees. Woody DicotsFLORIDA WETLAND PLANTS, AN mENTIFICATION MANUAL can be purchasedfrom theUniversity of Florida, Food andAgricultural Sciences.1-800-226-1764,P.O. Box 110011,University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0011.Introduction

,,J,\1Key to the Ferns and Fern AlliesThe nomenclaturegenerally follows that found in A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-allies ofthe United States and Canada by David B. Lellinger, SmithsonianInstitution Press,Washington,D.C. 1985 or/ -,.-,."la. Plants with small, simple, scale-like leaves on spreadingorcreeping above-groundstemsor with grass-likeleaveshaving swollen basesenclosinga single sporangium2a. Plants consist of a tuft of grasslike leavesISOETACEAE2b. Plantsotherwise, stemscreeping or undergroundrhizomes3a. Stems dichotomouslybranched,leafless PSILOTACEAE3arI\ ;4a")3b. Stemsnot as above4a. Stemsjointed, ridged and with dark bandsand a toothed sheath; 4arough to the touchEQUISETACEAE4b. Stems without joints, creeping or erect, with many small,triangular, scalelike leavesSa. Sporesproduced in four sided sporangia. SELAGINELLACEAE5b. Sporesproduced in cylindrical sporangia.LYCOPODIACEAE!lb. Plants with larger, usually pinnately compoundleavesor5b i4-foliolate leaves,primarily produced from undergroundstems(rhizomes) or plants floating or rooted emergentaquaticswithJsimple to highly branchedleaves5b6a. Plants terrestrial with clover-like leavesor plantsfloating or rooted as an emergentaquatic7a. Plants terrestrial with 4-foliolate leaves5bIMARSILEACEAE7b. Plants floating with simple leaves or floatingbranchedand/or emergentleaves aquaticswith highly 'm""'.-i1t2,j,5bi "" 8a. Plants with highly branchedleaves. PARKERIACEAE8a.8b. Plants with simple leaves9a. LeavesovalSALVINIACEAES9b. Leaves scale-likeAZOLLACEAE6a. Plantsrooted in the ground or epiphytic, leavesusuallypinnately compound9.alOa. Plants wIth large (about2 m long) evergreen,leathery leaves,stiff and erect with thick petioles;sporangiain a thick, brown layer on the undersideof leaves;rhizome large and woody; plantsoflOasouthFlorida and coastalareasofcentral Florida PTERillACEAE (Acrostichum)10b.Plantswith smaller, thinner leaves,evergreen .or deciduous;sporangiain round or elongate\clusters (sori) on undersideof leavesor stalkedin globular clusters or beadlike; rhizome smaller,creeping or with wiry, mat-like rootsWetland Ferns and Fern Allies KeyPage 1\.7a"I:tJQ) Q)C'J0 'C/ 0E80 .s 8 0.c "0

If!!'.-J. ,"J, 11a. Plantswithtwo typesone type fertile12a. Sterileof leaves,and the otherleavestriangulartripinnate,in outlineelliptic,i.e. dimorphic,sterile(vegetative)12atoothed ,or lobed,or simple,entireroundto OPHIOGLOSSACEAE12b. Leaves pinnate or bipinnatelylobed,marginsvariouslylobed to ngwithpinnae;teethsori on thin.sterilealternatein part,14a(Woodwardia(Onocleaof leaf, i.e. fertile-:::::;;'leaves' 1areolata)leaves with bead-likefertileleaves with pinnae oppositeone typelooksmallelongate0 WOODSIACEAEwithIpinnae;14b'\ I.l.J;sensibilis)and17athe same15a. Sporangia14b/ 13b'10. regali withor . Fertilesterilesterileor with pinnaeerect, brownish-redblackSterilewithO. cinna,,?meaOSMUNDACEAE14a. Fertile11b. Plants13b :1 "lobedfertileleavesto tan; rhizomesroots13a.12aindusia,a flap-like19astructures over the sori16a. Sporangia17a. Sorioblongoblongto linearin a continuousrowI parallelto the lengthBLECHNA17b. :r' § *Co Zor curved,19a. Leaves('0.s :.c: . Sori linear(Blechnumferns0 WOODSIACEAESporangia20a.Leaveslookvery muchotherwise,likeear like lobe(Nephrolepis)pale greenpinnate-pinnatifid;20a1"Dryopteris, 18bglossy,tan to brownDRYOPTERIDACEAELeavesI, \"Thelypterisdark green,withA sori roundstipes19areddish(Diplaziumjaponicum)once pinnate,evergreen,20b.often,-Sori linear, often paired, back to back,petiole dark green, superficiallythese§16b.'.'.petioles I .'I17a\,pinnatifidpinnatified, §.serrulatum)19b. Leaves with conspicuous* 0 NEPHROLEPmACEAE18b.pinnaenot in acontinuousrow, leaves18a. Sori J-shaped, .". s. . . g. . CEAEof thefertile20bscales,(Dryopterls),(except7: dentata),mostlystipe green to dark brownTHELYPTERmACEAEusually withoutscales(Thelypteris)Wetland Ferns and Fern Allies KeyPage 218b20b I.-

- "--24a'"fleaflei' ,. -. 1Sb. Sporangiawithout an indusium or coveredby afalse indusium21a. False indusium absent;sporangiaround, \severalfound betweenthe midrib andimargin of eachlobe; frond lobespinnatifidin part, DRYOPTERIDACEAE21a",21aft-. ,,'(Ctenitissubmarginalis)21b. False indusium present22a. Sori in long rows with an elongatefalseindusium, chain-like cells associatedwithleaves .in part, BLECHNACEAE(Woodwardiavirginica)22b. Sori not as above23a. Plants climbing, vine-like orarching or scrambling24a. Fronds climbing by arching,not twining, covered with stiff,prickly hairsDENNSTAEDTIACEAE22a22a -- "'(Hypolepisrepens)24b. Fronds twining, vine-like, without stiff,prickly hairsSCHIZAECEAE(Lygodiumspp.)23b. Plants not as above-Leaves compound;crosssectionof leaflet23b23bJ 24a\false indusium a continuous,marginal flapof leaf tissue0 PTERIDACEAE (Ptens tripartita). -" 24b/, i 23b'" 4b.,.-,JJ24b24bfertile leaf L. microphyllum24bL. japonicumNote: The following fern families are not found in the Florida Wetland Plants, An IdentificationManual. ISOETACEAE, PSILOTACEAE, SELAGNELLACEAE, MARSILEACEAE,PARKERIACEAE, SALVINIACEAE, AZOLLACEAE, SCHIZAECE.OThefollowing fern families are included in the manual HOWEVER nomenclature hasbeen changed, this follows Lellinger and Wunderlin.WOODSIACEAE ASPENIACEAE (in Florida Wetland Plants, An Identification Manual)NEPHROLEPillACEAE (or DAVALLIACEAE) DRYOPTERIDACEAE, in part (in Manual)PTERIDIACEAE ADIANTACEAE (in Manual)Wetland Ferns and Fern Allies KeyPage 3

// :,;: , la. Plants with evergreen leaves, these inclusters of 2-5 or small, triangular and oppositelyarranged on a flattened branch; female cones large;(5-15 cm long) and woody or small(5-8 mm in dimeter.) and semi-woody; conescales separate after seedsmature; seedswinged.2a. Leaves are long (greater than 3 cm),":needle-like, in fascicles of 2-5; cone large;(greater than 4 cm long) and woody, seed with a conspicuous wing longer than thesomewhat flattened seed Pinaceae (Pinus spp.)3a. Needles in 2's, twisted, 5-10 cm long,female cones small, 3-6 cm longPinus glabra (Spruce Pine)3b. Needles generally in 3's, tend not to;be twisted, over 10 cm long, femal cones larger,'over 4 cm long, cones are generally shed after -::maturity, stems rarely if ever produced directlyfrom large trunks4a. Female cones oblong, generallyover 9 cm long,5a. Female cones with thin cone scales,ffemale cones 6-13 cm long, cones bristlyto the touch .Pinus teada (Loblolly Pine5b. Female cones with thick cone scales,female conelarger,10-15 cm long,,-mature cones are not as bristly to thetouch .Pinus elliottii (Slash Pine)4b. Female cone egg-shaped, about 5-8 cm 'long, cones persistent after maturity;stems produced directly from large3aI3a/,/ 5a,.--;,a- . ,\\1\5b,-- .:;:;;.-"".-- 5b'.\\ \\\ I(////.4b -4b":trunks (especially after fire), these are ortentuftedPinus serotina (Pond Pine)2b. Leaves smaller (less than 1 cm), triangular andproduced in opposing pairs on a flatten branch;female cones small (less than 1 cm diameter);seed with a two lateral wings.Ir -.;:')VI t.,t")JCupressaceae .Chamaecyparis thyoides (White Cedar)lb. Plants with deciduous, feathery or awl-like leaves,not in clusters, female cones, hard, round (ca. 5 cm diameter)with tightly fitted scales; cones disintegrate when seedsmature;seedsunwingedTaxodiaceae .Taxodium spp. (Cypress)Wetland Gymnosperms (Conifers) Key Ib t.,IbTaxodiumdistichum'

-3a"'"3c I !.GROUPIHerbs normally with floating leaves or ste,!ll.s. 2a" ;la. Leaves with petioles and elliptic toheart-shapedblades. 2a.Leaf bladeselliptic.2bALISMATACEAE (Sagittaria) 2b.Leaf bladesheart-shaped.HYDROCHARITACEAE (Limnobium)lb. Leaves without petioles or absent,the bladenarrow or absent.3a. Leaves with narrowly elliptic bladesup to 7 cm long. POACEAE (Hydrochloa)3b. Leaves with long linear blades.ALISMATACEAE (Sagittaria)3c. Leaves absentor reducedto sheathsonly; stemsthread-like.CYPERACEAE (Eleocharis, Websteria)2bc!1 3b"I\I 2a\\ 11 3cI!II\'IGROUPIIPalmsandpalmettos:1a. Shrubs or unbranchedtrees; leaveslarge,tough, with long petioles, the blade dividedlike a fan or feather into long stiff segments.ARECACEAESabalminor'la,I{ neaGrass-like plants:Plants not fleshy; leaves simple, usually long and narrow, without a petiole, 2- or 3-ranked but not equitant(irislike), the base wrapping around the stemto form a sheath;flowers small, greenor brown, often coveredwithscales,and usually arrangedin clusters in branchedf- '2ala. Inflorescencea brown hot-dog-shapedcylinder of denselypackedflowers; leaveslaall basal,erect, long, thick, strap-shaped;Iplants up to 3 m tall.TYPHACEAEIlb. Inflorescenceotherwise; leavesotherwise(often arching, not erect); plants usually shorter, 11but if 2 to 3 m tall, then bearing leavesor leaf1sheathson stem.2a. Stemsround, with solid nodesand hollow internodes;leaves2-ranked; leaf sheathsopen, not forming asolid tube around stem; eachflower lacking sepalsor petals, covered by at leasttwo overlappingscales,the flowers arrangedin spikelets; eachflowerproducing one seed. POACEAE"\/\ I2a'" (iJ(\"-Monocot Key Page 1If2a2a

GROUPIVHerbs having leaves w thpetioles and broad Leaf blades palmately compound.ARA CEAE (Arisaema)lb. Leaf blades simple.2a. Leaf blades arrow-shapedor heart-shaped.3a. Leaf bladespeltate (the petiole attachedto middle of blade, not to edge),to 1 m long. "*ARACEAE (Colocasia)- . ./\j7a.;f{ 3a 3b. Leaf blades not peltate, usually smaller.4a. Leaf blades large, to 1 m long and broad.ARACEAE (Xanthosoma)4b. Leaf blades smaller.Sa.Leaf blades narrowly to broadlyheart-shapedin outline.' -4a rI.6a. Leaf blades with cross-veinsbetweenthe parallel main veins; flowers white.7a. Leaf blades with severalobvious mainveins, often large; flowers in whorls on along stalk. ALISMATACEAE7b. Leaf blades with only the midvein obvious,small (up to 7 cm long); flowers on shortstalksfrom the leaf bases.HYDROCHARITACEAE6b. Leaf blades without cross-veinsbetweenf' /' \\'Y-/II"/" A ({((I!,: \.A\'"the many parallel main veins; flowers purple.,"PONTEDERIACEAE 6b5b. Leaf blades narrowly to broadly triangularin outline, with two pointed basallobes (arrow-shaped).8a. Leaves with three main veins, the secondaryveins inconspicuous,running almost straightout from the central vein. ARACEAE (Peltandra)8b. Leaf blades with three or more main veins,the secondaryveins evident, strongly archingback toward the central vein or running parallel to it.ALISMATACEAE (Sagittaria, Echinodorus)Monocot Key Page27b 6bW6b rmu\8a--8a"i

2b. Leaf blades narrowly to broadly elliptic, lanceolate,or ovate.9a. Leaf bladeslarge (to almost 1 m long), on long petioles;flowers small, with purple petals, on a tall stemwithzigzag branches.MARANTACEAE (Thalia)9b. Leaf blades and petioles shorter; flowers not as above.lOa. Leavesborne along stem; bladeselliptic, to 0.6 m long,petiole short or absent;flowers large, yellow or red.CANNACEAE (Canna)0',,!;!,l'lOb. Leaves mostly basal; bladesshorter,c .--c. a9a,Aid"{; J4n .1,;jIpetiole; flowers smaller, white, purple, or yellow.11a.Leaf bladesoblong-elliptic, bluish green,with a satiny sheenon top; flowers minute, on a"gold club" at the tip of a white stalk. ARACEAE (Orontium)'1'/1\'"'lIb. Leaf blades neither oblong, nor bluish green,nor satiny; flowers larger, white or purple.12a. Leaf blades with cross-veinsbetweentheparallel main veins; flowers white. ALISMATACEAE12b. Leaf blades without cross-veinsbetweenthemany parallel main veins; flowers purple. PONTEDERIACEA ,\] .:.f12b 12bGROUPVHerbs having leaves without petioles, the basal leaves equitant (iris-like).]la. Roots bright red, with red juice.HAEMODORACEAE (Lachnanthes) f( .,./,."fJla/ '\(;:1b. Roots not bright red.2a. Leaves mostly basal.3a. Flowers in a tight, brown, egg-shapedorcylindrical head on a leaflessstalk; flowersconspicuous(though ephemeral),with 3 yellowor white petals; leaves often yellow-green withbrown or red bases;plants without rhizomes.r:"3af I;,\\ ,!!/I/3a\\\\ I3a\\'\,XYRIDACEAE3b. Flowers not in a tight head,yellow, white, orblue; leaves usually not yellow-green; plants oftenwith obvious rhizomes.4a. Stemsflat, with two wings; flowers blue,with six tepals; leavespale green,linear, to 4 mm wide.IRIDACEAE (Sisyrinchium)4b. Stemsround; flowers yellow or white.Sa.Stemsand flowers covered with gray hairs;flowers yellow, in a flat-topped cluster.HAEMODORACEAE (Lophiola)Sb. Stemscovered with glands, rough to the touch;\\flowers creamy white, in a narrow raceme-like"inflorescence.LILIACEAE (Tofieldia), Sa fa4a2b2b. Leaves both basal and on stem, up to 0.8 m long;plants with large creepingrhizomes; flowers blue topurple, white, yellow, or red. IRIDACEAE (Iris)Monocot Key Page 3-5a

':t,6a GROUP VIHerbs having leaves without petioles, sometimesreduced to tiny scalesor bladelesssheaths; the basalleaves,if present, not equitant.2ala. Leavesreducedto tiny scalesor sheathswithout blades.2a. Leavesreducedto tiny scales;plants up,.Pto 20 cm tall. BURMANNIACEAEWI2b. Leavesreducedto sheathswithout blades;2bplants often taller. CYPERACEAE(Eleocharis, Scirpus); JUNCACEAE (Juncus)la. Leaves (at least some)larger.3a. Leaves all basal.4a. Freshleavesthick, fleshy or spongy,slenderand round in cross-sectionor strap-shaped;flowers large, white, and 6-parted or tiny and green.,Sa. Leaves narrowly to broadly strap-shaped,"2bV IIii2 Sausually arching, often keeled; flowers large, white,six-parted, solitary or in umbels. AMARYLLmACEAESb. Leaves slender,erect or ascending,round incross-section;flowers tiny and green, in a raceme.JUNCAGINACEAE6a4b. Freshleaves not fleshy or spongy (exceptsometimesat base);flowers not as above.6a. Leaveserect, strap-shaped,up to 3 m long;inflorescencea brown hot-dog-shapedcylinderof denselypacked flowers. TYPHACEA6b. Leaves ascending,arching, or pressedto theground, much shorter; inflorescenceeither awhite, gray, or brown button- or egg-shapedorcylindrical head or of one to few yellow six-partedflowers. \7a. Inflorescencea button-shaped,egg-shaped,"8a 8aor cylindrical head; leavesusually stiff, in atight rosette at base of stem,the midveins usually not visible.8a. Flowering headwhite or gray, button-shaped;flowers minute; leavessometimespressedtothe ground. ERIOCAULACEAE8b.Flowering headbrown, of overlappingscales,egg-shapedor cylindrical; flowers conspicuous(though ephemeral),with 3 yellow or white petals;leavesalways arching or ascending.XYRmACEAE7b. Inflorescence of one to few yellow 6-partedflowers;leaveslinear, not stiff, in a loose clusterarisingfrom a corm, flat or rolled, often with off-centermidveins and a few hairs near the base.HYPOXmACEAE.8a,\ilifl.! r'll!\ 'I\\.' \Monocot Key Page 4j!7b8b8b

GROUP IVINESla. Woody or herbaceousvines, climbing by twining; leavessimple, /IJunlobed or palmately lobed. 2a. Leavesopposite, pinnately veined, unlobed, lanceolate,elliptic,or suborbicular, with acuminatetips; flowers in branchedclusters. 2ain axils of leaves,the corolla tubular, pale yellow, with 5 shortlobes;2afruit a pair of long, narrow, cylindrical pods (follicles).APOCYNACEAE (Trachelospermum).2b. Leaves alternate,palmately veined, unlobed or with 3 to 5 lobes;flowers in narrow clusters arising abovethe axils of leaves,with6 cream-coloredsepalsand no petals; fruit a black drupe.MENISPERMA CEAE (Calycocarpum).0'lb. Herbaceousvines, climbing by tendrils; leavesalternate,palmately lobed or pinnately compound.3a. Tendrils arising from stems;leavespalmatelylobed, somewhatrough to the touch; flowers 1 to few in leaf axils, the corolla regular,greenishwhite, with a short tube and five spreadinglobes; fruit apulpy reddishellipsoid berry. CUCURBITACEAE (Cayaponia).3b Tendrils arising from ends of leaves;leavespinnately compound,not rough to the touch; flowers few to many in leaf axils, the corollairregular (pea-like), white, blue, violet, or pale yellow; fruit a /cylindrical or flattened pod (legume). FABACEAE (Vicia)./I2aI j '2b \f #"' I.I3b-3 L QQ 1Ir la. Leaf bladespeltate, orbicular; flowers solitary, on long stalks, withlamany pale yellow petals. Leaf blades deeply notched at the base,lanceolateto orbicular.2a. Leaf blades less than 15 cm long, the plants often bearingabanana-like cluster of roots on the stemjust below the leaf blade; :flowers in small clusters, with a white, 5-partedcorolla.2'MENYANTHACEAE.a I PLANTSWATER-LILYLIKE /Plants water-lily-like, the stemsburied in mud, the leavesgenerallysupportedby water, the blades either peltate or deeplynotched at the base:! 3b GROUPII. I j . I"i'4\ trla .4 ?:Jla-r1'I2a',---:7;:;')2b. Leaf blades over 15 cm long, without roots below the leaf blade;flowers solitary, white, pink, blue, or yellow, with manyparts.NYMPHAEACEAE.GROUP IIIAQUATIC PLANTSPlants aquatic (stems or leavesgenerally supportedby water), withat least someleaf bladesdivided into thread-like segments.,.»-2bla lala. Submergedleaves finely divided into many flexible segments,. i'forming densebushy masses;leaf segmentsbearingtiny bladders;flowers bilaterally symmetric, yellow or purple, on stalks heldabovethe water. LENTIBULARIACEAE (Utricularia).lb. Submergedleavesdivided like a featherinto few (10-20).'stiffish linear segments,not forming bushymasses;bladdersj, .21 .4:/IV'" '"2a laabsent;flowers radially symmetric, green,one in eachleaf axil. I.IbHALORAGACEAE.Herbaceous Dicot Key Page 1fruitIf'" Ib

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FLORIDA WETLAND PLANTS, AN mENTIFICATION MANUAL can be purchased from the University of Florida, Food and Agricultural Sciences. 1-800-226-1764, P.O. Box 110011, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-0011. Introduction For use the the manual: FLORIDA WETLAND PLANTS, AN mENTIFICATION MANUAL

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