INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL & SCIENCE EDUCATION2016, VOL. 11, NO. 15, 8293-8302OPEN ACCESSCommunicative, Educational, Pedagogical Objectives andPlanning in Russian Language TeachingAlla A. Evtyuginaa, Irina I. Hasanovaa, Svetlana S. Kotovaa, AnastasiaN. Sokolovaa and Irina A. SvetkinabaRussianState Vocational Pedagogical University, Ekaterinburg, RUSSIA; bSamara StateUniversity of Economics, Samara, RUSSIAABSTRACTThe relevance of the problem stems from the necessity to distinctly plan educationalprocess and set the goals for successful mastering of Russian language by foreign studentsin Russian higher educational institutions. The article is aimed at defining the foreignstudents’ objectives for Russian language training, allowing them to get involved into thelearning process and adapt to the society. The leading method to the study of thisproblem is a practical method allowing to consider it as a process of purposeful planningthat favors the improvement of the quality of education and enables foreign students tointensify the study of the language. During the educational planning process, the articleproposes to use the concept of interconnected training for the main types of verbalactivity that allows to single out the skills and abilities needed to master thecommunicative competencies, specifying objectives and optimizing the learning process.The article may be useful for researchers who develop a methodology for teachingforeign students, and for teachers who teach Russian language and plan the training offoreigners who are interested in optimization of the learning process.KEYWORDSCommunicative competence, forms of speechactivity, language skills, oral speech, purposeARTICLE HISTORYReceived 16 April 2016Revised 28 May 2016Accepted 12 July 2016IntroductionForeign students in Russian universities is a special category of studentsthat require increased attention from teachers of Russian as a foreign languageand from administration as well (Arkadyeva, Vladimirova & Fedotova, 2012;Valeeva, Aitov & Bulatbayeva, 2016). The methods of teaching Russian as aCORRESPONDENCE Alla A. Evtyuginaalena.firstname.lastname@example.org 2016 Evtyugina et al. Open Access terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International /) apply. The license permits unrestricted use, distribution, andreproduction in any medium, on the condition that users give exact credit to the original author(s) and the source,provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if they made any changes.
8294A. A. EVTYUGINA ET AL.foreign language state that the successful language learning process requires acareful planning and setting of learning goals for the formation of speakingskills. Goal-setting is an important step in the learning process, its successdepends on the accuracy and clarity of the goals set for learning process. Themethodical category “goal” is one of the basic categories of the methodology. It isknown that the objectives determine the “content and mostly teaching methods”(Kostomarov & Mitrofanova, 1998; Masalimova, Porchesku & Liakhnovitch,2016), “the choice of content, methods, ways, resources, organizational forms oflearning” (Shchukin, 2006), assignment submission tools, system ofmethodological techniques, pedagogical technology and in this regard they canbe considered as a factor for optimization of learning process. The main purposeof training at an early stage is to prepare foreign students for the first year ofstudies in the university, which is a complex goal that includes communicative,educational and pedagogical goals. The practice of teaching Russian as a foreignlanguage shows that the purposes of the stages should correspond to theultimate goals of teaching Russian language and the ultimate goals ofspecialist’s training. Thus, the objectives of the initial stage of training areformed taking into account the ultimate objectives of education and are reflectedin its content in all its component parts. That’s why the place and role in thepreparation of a foreign specialist should be considered as the most importantaspect in teaching Russian as a foreign language. The importance of theobjectives for teaching Russian language to foreign students led to thedevelopment of educational goals optimizing the learning process: the ultimategoals of education, the level of education goals, the group studies goals, thepurpose of study, the goal of exercise unit, the assignment goal. The objectiveelement of learning (content of learning goals) is reflected: in identification of the areas, situations, problems; in the selection of linguistic and extra linguistic material; in prepared programs.In 1996, a concept of “communicative competence” and its components(linguistic, speech, discourse, socio-cultural, social, strategic) were introduced inthe document “Modern languages: learning, teaching, assessment. CommonEuropean competence of foreign languages proficiency”, 6 levels of languageproficiency were described. The goals were formulated and the requirements forthe content of language teaching were developed for each level. The stateeducational standard for Russian as a foreign language (1999) includes six levelsof language proficiency (elementary, basic, 1-4 certification levels), the standarddescribes the requirements for the content of language teaching for foreignerswho want to obtain Russian citizenship and for migrant workers coming to workin Russia. The leading parameters for division into levels are: communicativetasks solved by language means; spheres, means, themes, situations ofcommunication where the speaking tasks can be solved and speaking etiquetteand cultural correctness of communicative task solutions can be taken intoaccount. Today the main method of the language level assessment is a Test ofRussian as a Foreign Language (TORFL). Usage of the methodological“language proficiency” category allows to “get a clearer picture about possiblestudents’ achievements at different stages”, “to assess the student’s effectivenessaimed at achieving particular purposes at a certain educational stage”, “to
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL & SCIENCE EDUCATION8295formulate a more realistic and clear objectives of the learning process” (CommonEuropean competencies., 2003).Methodological frameworkResearch methodsDuring the process of research the following methods were used: theoretical(analysis of normative documents, pedagogical, linguistic and cultural literatureaccording to the methodology of teaching Russian as a foreign language,learning and generalization of domestic and foreign lecturers’ experience),observational method (selection of linguistic and extra linguistic material),practical (creation of training programs taking into account the communicative,educational and pedagogical goals of training, drafting the curriculumconsidering the adaptation process of foreign students in a foreign culturalenvironment).Experimental research baseThe experimental research base is a Russian State Vocational PedagogicalUniversity (Ekaterinburg). Foreign students from different specialties, whostudy Russian as a foreign language with a goal to practice it in educational andprofessional field of communication and active adaptation in Russian society,took part in this pedagogical experiment.Stages of the studyThe study of the problem was conducted in 3 stages:The first stage: normative documents, scientific and theoretical,psychological and pedagogical, methodological sources of information werestudied and analyzed, the specific features of planning professional andpedagogical training for foreign students were analyzed, the main objectives offoreigners’ training in universities were specified, the main areas ofcommunication at the first stage of language acquisition were identified;The second stage: the description of the planning and training goalsdepending on the priority speech activities for the formation of foreign students’communicative and professional competencies were determined; the selection oflinguistic and extra linguistic material was conducted; the model of formation ofthe students’ communicative competence during their studies of Russian byreading scientific and official texts was developed;The third stage: the planning with consideration of practical data wasconducted, the system implementation of Russian linguistic competence in orderto fulfil the ultimate goals in learning Russian language was carried out in theeducational process, conclusions were formulated, the results of the study wererecorded.ResultsThe objectives and the content of the communicative Russian languageteaching modelRecognition of the principle of communicative language teaching as aleading one led to the fact that researchers single out the meaningful
8296A. A. EVTYUGINA ET AL.communicative spheres of communication for students at the initial stage. Themost significant ones are social and domestic, social and cultural, educationaland professional spheres of communication. The study of the foreigners’communicative spheres allows to determine the situations of communication andto include them in educational process, and it contributes to the specification ofcommunication objectives. The purpose of the communicative model of teachingRussian as a foreign language is to develop students' communication skills insolving problems by means of a foreign language, to be able to communicate indifferent life situations. Thus, the teacher should create a situation of naturalcommunication and to be its immediate participant. Therefore, the methodologyof Russian as a foreign language is based on the communicative linguistics,studying speech communication as a form of human interaction through thelanguage. It’s possible to select the most important characteristics of thelanguage: consistency, because everything has to be studied all together andmutually organized; functionality, because language means are used forcommunication purposes, but the order of presentation and mastery of languagemeans in the content of the statement should be defined; communicativeness,since language is a means of communication –this is its main purpose. Inmodern methodologies of Russian as a foreign language (RFL)there exist thenecessary prerequisites that allow to clarify and specify purposes of teachingRussian as a foreign language in the certain circumstances. Training accordingto the types of speech activity: speaking, listening, reading; writing is notrelevant at this stage, because 1) there is not enough time (additionaleducational program comprises only 180 hours), 2) it doesn’t allow to determinewhat the specific type of activity in a certain situation should be taught for, andwhat is a student’s minimum of communicative competencies in order to be ableto identify the level of his/her training, for example, for further education in thespecialty. Here we can recall the concept of the interconnected training to themain types of speech activity by I.A. Zimnyaya (2001), which is very importantfor learning Russian language at the initial stage while preparing for the majoreducation. This approach allows to single out a specific set of skills and abilitiesthat are necessary and sufficient for the acquisition of communicativecompetencies in various kinds of speech activity, thus optimizing their learningprocess and specifying goals in grammar, creating the conditions for the newknowledge acquisition for students in their training program. First of all, it is aproblem of language systems interference, the increase in the thesaurus, theability to use skills in different communicative situations in speech at differentlevels. In this case, the practical work in obtaining writing skills is veryeffective: writing texts of various genres with required skills and abilities thatare taught during the first year of studies (a memo, statement, explanatorymemorandum, letter to parents, postcard to a friend), determining the ultimategoal of learning how to write as a preparation of students to write professionaltexts (annotation, abstract, curriculum vitae, course paper), implying themastery of skills and abilities not only in official but in scientific style as well.The strategy of language mastering in the process of reading textsCommunicative competence is an ability to engage in communication andmaintain it in different situations. The communicative competence is consideredas a set of competencies ensuring communication. It allows to realize the processof learning a foreign language as learning to communicate through language.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL & SCIENCE EDUCATION8297That is why it is possible to say, for example, that obtaining reading skills is aprocess of learning how to communicate through reading. The requirementsformulated in the state reading standards can determine the student’scommunicative competence in the beginning. The study shows that the goal ofobtaining reading skills should be the achievement of a minimum level ofreading. Buta student should be an experienced reader and be able to read suchtexts competently. Text material presented in modern educational textbooks isadapted and not always accompanied with audio recordings, therefore, it cannotprepare foreign students for reading the original textbooks that they shouldabsorb starting from the first lessons. That is why it is offered to create a newtype of learning and corrective textbooks, to introduce authentic materials withaudio recordings for reading, taking into account the professional orientation ofstudents. Most probably there should be records of different types: 1) therecordings of oral lessons associated with strengthening the orthopedicstandards; 2) recordings that form the ability to understand texts of differentfunctional styles; 3) recordings that form the ability to understand theeducational and scientific texts aimed at the training type. In the
for learning Russian language at the initial stage while preparing for the major education. This approach allows to single out a specific set of skills and abilities that are necessary and sufficient for the acquisition of communicative competencies in various kinds of speech activity, thus optimizing their learning process and specifying goals in grammar, creating the conditions for the new .
2.4.15 Conceptualization of Communicative approach 43 2.4.16 Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) implementation 47 2.4.17 Application of CLT around the World 53 2.4.18 Educational reforms in Asian countries 60 2.4.19 Adapting communicative approach for Asian countries 64 2.5 Teachers‟ perceptions of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in .
The Application of Communicative Approach in English Teaching . Hu Shen, Gong Wei . Art and Science department, Chengdu College of UESCT, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610000, China . . Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the English name of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). Communicative teaching method originated in the 1970s, and has undergone
Communicative Teaching Applying Communicative Teaching Practices in a Culturally Inclusive Classroom . Agenda Communicative Language Teaching: Merits and Problems . Culturally Responsive Communicative Teaching is an EFL teaching approach that was developed by Dr. Li Yin, to provide a teaching framework appropriate for Asian classrooms .
communicative approaches to grammar teaching that balance input and output. Participants will: 1. reflect upon the meaning of a "communicative classroom" 2. understand the balance between input and output 3. analyze lesson plans that use the communicative approach 4. gather ideas and resources to use in their classes
Communicative Language Teaching is best considered an approach rather than a method. It refers to a diverse set of principles that reflect a communicative view of language and language learning and that can be used to support a wide variety of classroom procedures (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). Communicative Language Teaching involves being able to
Communicative Approach is a revolutionary approach which shifts attention of language teaching and learning from language competence to communicative competence. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) originated from Europe in 1960s to early 1970s. The approach later spread to other parts of the world.
A Description of the Communicative Approach. Communicative language teaching can be defined as an approach which regards communicative . believe in fostering the students' ability of applying foreign language through the language function and contents. Language is the tool of exchanging feelings. W hat foreign language teaching should
Although communicative approach has been adopted by many textbooks and curricula all over the world, research findings indicate that communicative language teaching (CLT) tenets in classrooms are scarce, with most teachers declaring dedication to the communicative approach but applying more traditional structural approaches in their real practice.