Intermediate Korean: A Grammar And Workbook

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INTERMEDIATE KOREAN:A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOKIntermediate Korean: A Grammar and Workbook comprises anaccessible reference grammar and related exercises in a single volume.This workbook presents twenty-four individual grammar points,covering the core material which students would expect to encounterin their second year of learning Korean. Grammar points are followedby examples and exercises which allow students to reinforce andconsolidate their learning.Intermediate Korean is suitable for both class use as well asindependent study.Key features include: clear, accessible formatmany useful language examplesall Korean entries presented in Hangul with English translationsjargon-free explanations of grammarabundant exercises with full answer keysubject index.Clearly presented and user-friendly, Intermediate Korean providesreaders with the essential tools to express themselves in a wide varietyof situations, making it an ideal grammar reference and practiceresource for students with some knowledge of the language.Andrew Sangpil Byon is Associate Professor at the State University ofNew York at Albany, where he teaches courses in Korean languageand civilization.

Other titles available in the Grammar Workbooks series are:Basic CantoneseIntermediate CantoneseBasic ChineseIntermediate ChineseBasic DutchIntermediate DutchBasic GermanIntermediate GermanBasic IrishIntermediate IrishBasic ItalianBasic KoreanIntermediate KoreanBasic PolishIntermediate PolishBasic RussianIntermediate RussianBasic SpanishIntermediate SpanishBasic WelshIntermediate Welsh

INTERMEDIATE KOREAN:A GRAMMAR ANDWORKBOOKAndrew Sangpil Byon

For my parents, James Ki Yong and Gloria Hye Ja PyonFirst published 2010by Routledge2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RNSimultaneously published in the USA and Canadaby Routledge270 Madison Ave, New York, NY10016Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa businessThis edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2009.To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’scollection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. 2010 Andrew Sangpil ByonAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprintedor reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic,mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,including photocopying and recording, or in any informationstorage or retrieval system, without permission in writingfrom the publishers.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British LibraryLibrary of Congress Cataloguing-in-Publication DataByon, Andrew Sangpil.Intermediate Korean : a grammar & workbook / Andrew Sangpil Byon.p. cm.Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada.1. Korean language—Grammar—Problems, exercises, etc. 2. Korean language—Textbooks for foreign speakers—English. I. Title.PL913.B965 2009495.7′82421—dc222008053381ISBN 0-203-87590-7 Master e-book ISBNISBN10: 0-415-54714-8 (hbk)ISBN10: 0-415-77488-8 (pbk)ISBN10: 0-208-87590-7 (ebk)ISBN13: 978-0-415-54714-7 (hbk)ISBN13: 978-0-415-77488-8 (pbk)ISBN13: 978-0-203-87590-2 (ebk)

CONTENTS123G4567891011PrefaceixThe intimate speech level and the plain speech level 㠊/㞚, ⓪/ච , /(㦒) ?, 㞚/㠊 , 㧦1Sentence-final endings 㰖㣪, ῆ㣪, 㣪11Particles , 㻮 , ṯ㧊, Ⱒ䋒, Ⱎ , Ⱎ㩖, 㫆㹾, 㠦19Auxiliary verbs I 㠊/㞚G㡺 , 㠊/㞚GṖ , 㠊/㞚G 27Auxiliary verbs II 㠊/㞚G⌊ , 㠊/㞚G Ⰲ , ἶGⰦ , 㠊/㞚G㭒 , 㠊/㞚G Ⰲ 33Auxiliary verbs III 㠊/㞚G , 㠊/㞚G , 㠊/㞚G㧞 , 㠊/㞚䞮 , 㠊/㞚㰖 42Clausal conjunctives (purpose or intention) (㦒) , (㦒) ἶ, G51Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause) 㠊/㞚 , (㦒) , ἶ61Clausal conjunctives (conditions) (㦒)Ⳋ, 㠊/㞚㟒, (㦒)ඥ㑮 , Ệ 72Clausal conjunctives (listing and choice) ἶ, (㦒)Ⳇ, Ệ , 㰖85Clausal conjunctives (time) (㦒)Ⳋ , 㧦Ⱎ㧦, ṖG95v

12ContentsClausal connectives (background) ⓪ /(㦒)ච 105Clausal connectives (although) 㰖Ⱒ, (㦒) , 㠊/㞚 113Permission, prohibition, and obligation 㠊/㞚 G , (㦒)ⳊG㞞G , 㞞G (㦒)ⳊG㞞G / 㰖G㞠㦒ⳊG㞞G , 㠊/㞚㟒G /䞮 120Passives and causatives 㧊, 䧞, Ⰲ, ₆, 㤆, ῂ, 㿪, ỢG䞮 129The noun-modifying endings ⓪, (㦒)ච, (㦒)ඥ137GDescribing the appearance of actions or states of affair ⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥGộGṯ , ⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥG⳾㟧㧊 , ⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥG 䞮 , /(㦒)චṖG , 㠊/㞚G 㧊 G14618GPost modifiers I₎, 㩗, 㧒, 㞞, 㭧, 㭧, 䘎15719GPost modifiers II , 䤚㠦, 㻯, 㠦, ộ, ㄪ, 16620Ability and possibility (㦒)ඥG㑮G㧞 /㠜 , (㦒)ඥG㭚G㞢 /⳾ , (㦒)ඥGⰂṖG㠜 178Indirect question form ⓪/(㦒)ච/(㦒)ඥ㰖186The retrospective suffix 195Nominalizing endings ₆ and (㦒)ත205Direct and indirect quotation (㧊) ἶG䞮 , ( )ච ἶG䞮 , ἶG䞮 /ⶑ , (㦒) ἶG䞮 , 㧦ἶG䞮 219Key to exercises228Index279131415161721222324vi

PREFACEIntermediate Korean: A Grammar and Workbook is a sequel to its sistervolume Basic Korean: A Grammar and Workbook, and it likewise focuseson providing an accessible reference grammar explanation and relatedexercises in a single volume. It is designed for independent English-speakingadult Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) learners who intend to maintainand strengthen their knowledge of essential Korean grammar and forclassroom-based learners who are looking for supplemental grammarexplanations and practices. Consequently, this book differs from existingKFL materials whose primary purpose is to help KFL learners acquirefour language skills, such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing as wellas cultural knowledge.The layout of this book also differs from those of existing KFL materials. For instance, a typical KFL textbook chapter may include model dialogues, followed by vocabulary lists, grammar explanations, cultural notes,and exercises. In contrast, following the pattern of Basic Korean and otherGrammar Workbooks of the Routledge series, every unit of IntermediateKorean focuses on presenting jargon-free and concise grammar explanations, followed by relevant grammar exercises.This book has 24 units, and it does not take a functional-situationalapproach in grouping and/or sequencing target grammatical points. Ratherit sequences and covers grammatical points according to their grammaticalcategories (e.g., sentence endings, conjunctives, particles, and so on), sothat learners can use the book as a reference material as well as a practicematerial. The exercises at the end of each unit are designed primarily toreinforce the target grammatical points.All Korean entries are presented in Hangul (the Korean alphabet) withEnglish translations to facilitate understanding. Accordingly, it requiresthat learners familiarize themselves with Hangul, before going on to thebook. In addition, when translating Korean entries into English, effortswere made to reflect the Korean meaning as closely as possible. Consequently,some learners may feel certain English translations do not reflect typicalEnglish usages. However, the direct translation approach was employedfor pedagogical purposes.vii

In writing this book, I have been fortunate to have the assistance andsupport of many people. I would like to thank my colleagues in the Department of East Asian Studies at the University at Albany, State Universityof New York, who were supportive of this project. I am grateful to anonymous reviewers for their constructive and valuable comments. I would liketo express sincere gratitude to Sophie Oliver for initially encouraging thisproject and to the editorial and production teams of Routledge—AndreaHartill, and Samantha Vale Noya—for their advice and support throughout the process. My thanks also go to Neil Dowden for his careful andthoughtful copy-editing service and to Kathy Auger at Graphicraft for herkind assistance during the final stage of production. Finally, as always, myspecial thanks go to my wife, Isabel, who, with her optimism and encouragement, makes it possible for me to do what I really love to do. Of course,I bear all responsibility for any shortcomings and errors in the text.Prefaceviii

UNIT 1The intimate speech level andthe plain speech levelThe intimate speech levelThe intimate speech level is in general used in the following situations: byadults when addressing children, by parents when addressing their kids,by children when addressing their peers, and by adult friends when addressing their childhood friends (or friends whose relationships are close enoughto switch to the intimate level from the polite level).The intimate speech level ending is 㠊/㞚. The choice of 㠊 or 㞚 isthe same with that of the polite speech level ending 㠊㣪/㞚㣪. 㞚 isused after a stem that ends in a bright vowel, 㡺 or 㞚 (e.g., 㺔 “find” 㺔㞚), while 㠊 is used with the stem that ends in any other vowels(e.g., 㤆 “learn” 㤢). Consider the following examples:Ṗ “go” 㤆 “learn”Ṗ 䂮 “teach”ⲏ “eat”䞮 “do”㧞 “have/exist”㧊 “be”㞚 “not be”Polite speech levelṖ㣪 㤢㣪Ṗ 㼦㣪ⲏ㠊㣪䟊㣪㧞㠊㣪㧊㠦㣪㞚 㠦㣪Intimate speecsh levelṖ 㤢Ṗ 㼦ⲏ㠊䟊㧞㠊㧊㟒㞚 㟒As seen above, one can generate the intimate speech level from thepolite speech level, simply by removing 㣪. One exception is that thecopula 㧊 /㞚 takes slightly different forms: 㧊㟒 instead of 㧊㠦,and 㞚 㟒 instead of 㞚 㠦.Just like the polite speech level ending 㠊㣪/㞚㣪, the intimate speechlevel ending 㠊/㞚 is used for all sentence types: declarative, interrogative,imperative, and propositive. For instance, consider the following:1

1The intimatespeech leveland the plainspeech levelⰺ㧒G 㠊 “(I) run everyday.”ⰺ㧒G 㠊? “(Do you) run everyday?”ⰺ㧒G 㠊! “Run everyday!”ⰺ㧒G 㠊 “(Let us) run everyday.”Koreans use contextual elements as well as intonation (e.g., rising intonation for a question) to figure out what intimate speech level ending 㠊/㞚 is used for a specific sentence type.The plain speech levelThe plain speech level ending sounds more blunt and direct than otherspeech levels: deferential, polite, and intimate. The plain speech level isprimarily used in the following three contexts: When one addresses a child,his/her childhood friends, or younger siblings; when the speaker talks tohimself/herself or wants to draw the listener’s attention to informationthat is noteworthy or provoking; when one writes (e.g., personal essay,prose, newspaper articles, academic papers, diary, and so forth).Unlike the intimate and the polite speech levels that use the sameendings for different sentence types, the plain speech level has differentendings for different sentence types, as shown below.Declarative ⓪/ච (for verb stems)Ṗ “go”ⲏ “eat”Ὃ 䞮 “study”Ṛ ⲏ⓪ Ὃ 䞲 (for adjective and copula stems)㿻 “cold” 䞮 “clean”㧊 “be”㿻 䞮 㧊 㠞/㞮 (for all predicate stems in the past tense)㞺 ṖG䞯ᾦ㠦GṪ G “Andrew went to school.” 㝾ṖG㿪㤶 G“The weather was cold.” 㧊G 䟞 G“The room was clean.”⁎G 㧦ṖG䞲ῃG 㧊㠞 “That man was a Korean.”2

InterrogativeThe plainspeech level /(㦒) ? (for all predicate stems)Ṗ G“go”ⲏ G“eat”Ὃ 䞮 “study”㫡 “good”㿻 “cold” 䞮 “clean”㧊 “be”Ṗ ? (or Ṗ ?)ⲏ ? (or ⲏ ?)Ὃ 䞮 ? (or Ὃ 䞮 ?)㫡 ? (or 㫡 ?) / 㫡㦒 ? (for writing)㿻 ? (or 㿻 ?) / 㿪㤆 ? (for writing) 䞮 ? (or 䞮 ?)㧊 ? (or 㧊 ?) 㠞/㞮 /(㦒) ? (for all predicate stems in the past tense)㞺 ṖG䞯ᾦ㠦GṪ ? “Did Andrew go to school?” 㝾ṖG㿪㤶 ? “Was the weather cold?” 㧊G 䟞 ? “Was the room clean?”⁎G 㧦ṖG䞲ῃG 㧊㠞 ? “Was that man a Korean?”Imperative (only for verb stems) 㞚 (after a stem that ends in 㡺 or 㞚) 㠊 (after a stem that ends in any other vowels)Ṗ “go”ⲏ “eat”Ὃ 䞮 “study”Ṗ ⲏ㠊 Ὃ 䟊 Propositive (only for verb stems) 㧦Ṗ “go”ⲏ “eat”Ὃ 䞮 “study”Ṗ㧦ⲏ㧦Ὃ 䞮㧦Note that the plain speech level imperative ending 㠊 /㞚 Gand propositive ending 㧦 are used only for verb stems, and they are not conjugatedfor the tense.3

1ExercisesThe intimatespeech leveland the plainspeech levelKey vocabulary for Unit 1 exercisesṖỢ storeṖ bagṖ 䂮 to teachṫ㦮 lectureỊ to cross overἓ㺆ὖ police officerὒ㧒 fruitsὋ 䞮 to studyὋ㡆 public performance/play⁎Ⰲ to draw⁎Ⱂ painting/picture₆ Ⰲ to wait₆ feeling/mood 䞮 to be clean to be bad 㝾 weather⌊ Ṗ to go down older sister feeling/mood Ⰲ to be slow/to be sluggish Ⰲ bridge/legs to close/to shut to be sweet cigarette 㰖 to throw➆⦑䞮 to be warm➆ to follow to depart/to take leave of/to leave ỗ to be hot (water)/to be heated ⰾ㓺 romance4Ⱎ㔲 to drinkⰞ䂮 to finishⰢ to meetⲎⰂ head/hair (of one’s head)ⲏ to eatⲖ to be farⶎ door to trust/to believe to be busy

to receive foot 㤆 to learn Ⰲ to throw away 㓺 bus 㧎Gcriminal ⌊ to send to see/to watch/to readアⰂ to borrowKeyvocabularyfor Unit 1exercises ὒ apple person ⶊ㔺 office 㰚 picture 䙂 package hand㔲䠮 test/examination㔶 to wear (shoes/socks)㔶ⶎ newspapers㕇㕇䞮 to be fresh㝆 ₆ trash/garbage㞑 to wash㞚 not be㞚 the base/the lower part㞚 㰖 father㞚䂾 morning㞚䝚 to be sore/to be painful㟧Ⱖ socks㠊 to be difficult㠎㩲 when㡊 to open㡊㐶 keys㡗䢪 movie㣎䂮 to shout㧊 this time㧒 work/matter/errand㧒 㠊 the Japanese language㧒㹣 early㧓 to read㧛 to wear (clothes)㧦 to sleep㧦㩚Ệ bicycle㧷 to catch/to hold㨂⹎㧞 to be interesting5

㩧㔲 dishes/plates㫆㣿䞮 to be quiet㫡 to be good/to be right/to be beneficial㭒 to give㭒Ⱖ weekend㭧ῃ㠊 the Chinese language㰧 house1The intimatespeech leveland the plainspeech level㹾 car㺔 to look for/to seek for㺓ⶎ window㺛 book䂲ῂ friend䄺䞒 coffee䋂Ợ aloud䌖 to ride䕪 to sell䝚 㓺 France䞒㤆 to smoke䞮⓮ sky䞮 to do䠺㠊㰖 to get scattered/to be separated/to break up䦦Ⰲ to be cloudyExercise 1.1Conjugate each verb or adjective in parentheses with the intimate speechlevel ending. Then translate the sentence, as shown in the example.Example: 䞯ᾦ㠦 (Ṗ ) / imperative 䞯ᾦ㠦GṖ. “Go to school.”6123456789101112 Ⰲ (Ị ) / imperativeⶎ㦚 (㡊 ) / imperative㹾 (䕪 ) / propositive㝆 ₆ ( Ⰲ )G/ declarative㺓ⶎ㦚 ( ) / imperativeὋ㡆㦚G㧒㹣 (Ⱎ䂮 ) / imperative㩧㔲 (アⰂ ) / propositive 㦚 (㞑 ) / declarative㧒㹣 (㧦 ) / propositve㧦㩚Ệ (䌖 ) / interrogative 㧊 (㫡 ) / declarativeṫ㦮Ṗ (㨂⹎㧞 ) declarative

1314151617181920䝚 㓺G (㧊 ) /interrogative㧒㦚 (䞮 ) / imperativeἓ㺆ὖ㧊 (㞚 ) /interrogative㰧㧊 (Ⲗ ) / declarative ὒṖ ( ) / declarativeⲎⰂṖ (㞚䝚 ) / interrogative䞮⓮㧊 (䦦Ⰲ ) / declarativeὒ㧒㧊 (㕇㕇䞮 ) / interrogativeExercise 1.2Exercise 1.2Conjugate each verb or adjective in parentheses wit

adult Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) learners who intend to maintain and strengthen their knowledge of essential Korean grammar and for classroom-based learners who are looking for supplemental grammar explanations and practices. Consequently, this book differs from existing KFL materials whose primary purpose is to help KFL learners acquire four language skills, such as listening .

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