Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide

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Third Edition


This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection ofthousands of eBooks please go to http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataArmour, M.A. (Margaret-Ann) Hazardous laboratory chemicals disposal guide/Margaret-AnnArmour.—3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 1-56670-567-3 1. Chemicallaboratories—Waste disposal. 2. Hazardous substances. I. Title.QD64.A76 2003 542′.89–dc21 2002043358This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprintedmaterial is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references arelisted. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the authorsand the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for theconsequences of their use.Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by anyinformation storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion,for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRCPress LLC for such copying.Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431.Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, andare used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com 2003 by CRC Press LLCNo claim to original U.S. Government worksISBN 0-203-00978-9 Master e-book ISBNInternational Standard Book Number 1-56670-567-3 (Print Edition)Library of Congress Card Number 2002043358

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITIONThe information contained in this guide has been compiled from sources believed to bereliable, accurate, and representative of the best opinion on the subject as of 2002. Whileevery reasonable effort has been made to provide dependable information, I cannotassume responsibility for the validity or completeness of all chemical references given orfor the consequences of their use.The first three editions of this book were printed at the University of Alberta. In 1990,the book was published by Lewis Publishers/CRC Press. This is the third edition from thecurrent publisher. The information contained in the first University of Alberta edition wascompiled from published material. The second and third University of Alberta editionsincorporated new or modified methods for spillage and waste disposal developed in mylaboratory. The development and testing of procedures for disposal of small waste orsurplus quantities of hazardous chemicals in my laboratory is ongoing. Thus, the previousCRC Press edition included 50 additional entries of chemicals that are animalcarcinogens. This edition incorporates 15 chemicals used as pesticides.I express my gratitude to two colleagues who collaborated in the initiation and earlystages of this project. They are Dr. Lois Browne of the Department of Chemistry,University of Alberta, and Gordon Weir of Environmental Health and Safety at theUniversity of Alberta. Without their help and support, this book would not have beenpossible. Rosemary Bacovsky, a pharmacist especially interested in the disposal ofchemotherapeutic drugs, was instrumental in encouraging us to work in this area. Thework of developing and testing the disposal methods was undertaken by a team ofresearchers who also contributed many excellent suggestions and discussions. Theyinclude Katherine Ayer, Yvgenia Briker, Hu-Mui Chang, John Crerar, Paul Cumming,William Hunter, Roger Klemm, Jonathan Konrad, Daria Kotovych, Asya Linetsky,Shiraz Merali, Carmen Miller, Carolyn Nelson, Sabina Qureshi, Patricia Rose, GerardSpytkowski, and Richard Young. I am particularly grateful to Donna Ashick, now at theUniversity of British Columbia, who was involved in the project for over 8 years, both inthe practical aspects and in the preparation of the early editions of the guide. Much of theediting work for the second CRC Press edition was done by Sara Salmon; Dr. WilliamHunter has assisted with the updating of references for this edition. I thank the ChemistryDepartment at the University of Alberta for infrastructure support and many helpfuldiscussions with its members.The manuscript was originally entered into a database by Lu Ziola. Diane Dowhaniukedited the previous editions. The changes to this edition have been entered by AnnabelleWiseman, and her efficiency and willingness to work long hours to meet deadlines aremuch appreciated. Dr. Kay Simpson, formerly of the Northern Alberta Institute ofTechnology, directed the checking of several of the waste disposal procedures.The project has been funded by research grants from the Heritage Grant Program ofAlberta Occupational Health and Safety, the Alberta Environmental Research Trust, andthe Environmental Partners Program of Environment Canada. Funds have also been

received from the Waste Management Branch of Alberta Environmental Protection, andsummer students were supported by the Alberta and federal governments through theirsummer employment programs.Finally, I have appreciated reactions from readers of the previous editions of thisguide. Many of the suggestions have been incorporated into this edition. Comments aresolicited on any aspect of the book, and suggestions for chemicals that might be includedin future editions are welcome.Margaret-Ann ArmourDepartment of ChemistryThe University of AlbertaEdmonton, CanadaT6G 2G2

INTRODUCTIONLaboratory workers generate waste chemicals. Increasingly during the past 15 years, ithas been recognized that the ideal solution to the disposal of such wastes is to eliminatetheir generation at source. Much progress has been made and continues to be made in thisdirection. Chemical users are minimizing waste in several ways. These includescrutinizing procedures to determine whether chemical usage can be modified so thatwaste is reduced; recovering, recycling and reusing waste where possible; and, especiallyin academic teaching laboratories, reducing the scale of experiments.However, the disposal of small quantities of a large variety of chemical wastes that aregenerated, for example, in school, college, and university laboratories, hospitalpharmacies and research, and analytical and quality control laboratories, can be bothdifficult and expensive. Where the waste cannot be further reduced at the source, thereremains the possibility of on-site conversion of at least some of the waste to nontoxic andenvironmentally acceptable products. This reduces the quantity of material that has to betransported off-site for disposal. On-site conversion has the added advantage that theworker who has been handling or using a chemical may also be the one eliminating orreducing the resulting waste. This worker has access to information about the chemicaland would be expected to be knowledgeable in its safe handling. Sources of informationabout the properties of chemicals such as Material Safety Data Sheets are available in theworkplace. However, to be able to convert waste and surplus chemicals to safe products,a detailed practical procedure that can be performed safely and with reproducible andreliable results is required. In school and college laboratories, it is often possible for suchprocedures to be the last step of an experiment so that students learn the importance ofconsidering the waste generated by a process.It must be noted that the disposal of any toxic or hazardous material must be in accordwith current federal, provincial or state, and local regulations. On-site disposal mayrequire licensing as a treatment center unless the procedure can be considered part of thereaction being performed at the bench.The chemical treatment of wastes can result in the material being converted toproducts that are nontoxic and environmentally acceptable. The methods fall into severalcategories that include acid/base neutralization, oxidation or reduction, and precipitationof toxic ions as insoluble solids. Many of the disposal procedures suggested in this bookfall into these categories.Physical, chemical, and physiological properties, hazardous reactions, and spill andwaste disposal procedures are listed for each chemical included in this handbook. Thedata about properties and hazardous reactions are intended to provide the user withsufficient information to handle the chemicals safely with appropriate precautions andpersonal protection.Two important factors are included in the spill and waste disposal procedures. First,procedures are listed for individual chemicals. In this way, it is possible to detail preciseconditions and exact quantities of reagents for each chemical to be destroyed. Second, the

majority of the procedures were tested in the laboratory for safety to the operator,reliability, and to check that they met the desired criteria for conversion of the hazardousmaterial to nonhazardous products. Thus, to be chosen as an acceptable disposalprocedure, more than 99% of the starting material had to be destroyed under theconditions and length of time given. As far as possible, the products have been identifiedand, in these cases, equations for the reaction taking place are included. Where it was notpossible to identify all of the fragments produced, and especially when the chemical to bedestroyed was a suspect carcinogen, the reaction mixture was submitted for an Ames test,which detects whether the material formed has excess mutagenicity over the background.The disposal procedures presented are written for relatively small quantities.Laboratory testing has shown them to be safe on this scale. The methods should not beused for larger quantities unless a qualified chemist has shown that it is safe to increasethe scale.The book is intended to provide helpful information for bench workers to dispose ofsmall amounts of waste and surplus chemicals at their bench, and for those charged withthe responsibility for the management and disposal of hazardous waste. For both groupsof readers, this book should facilitate complying with both legal and moral obligations inthe routine treatment of waste, as well as allowing them to develop a plan of action foremergencies, such as spills of any of the chemicals listed.

INDEX OF COMPOUNDSIn the compound list, numbers in parentheses following the names of chemicals refer tohazard ratings as described in NFPA 704–11.First Number—HEALTH HAZARD4 Materials that on very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury.3 Materials that on short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.2 Materials that on intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporaryincapacitation or possible residual injury.1 Materials that on exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury.0 Materials that on exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinarycombustible material.Second Number—FLAMMABILITY4 Materials that will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambienttemperature, or that are readily dispersed in air and that will burn readily.3 Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.2 Materials that must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperaturesbefore ignition can occur.1 Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur.0 Materials that will not burn.Third Number—REACTIVITY/STABILITY4 Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition orreaction at normal temperatures and pressures.3 Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or reactionbut require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement beforeinitiation or which react explosively with water.2 Materials that readily undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures orwhich react violently with water or which may form explosive mixtures with water.1 Materials that in themselves are normally stable, but which can become unstable at elevatedtemperatures and pressures.

0 Materials that in themselves are normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and whichare not reactive with water.

COMPOUNDAcetic Acid, Glacial (2 2 0)1Acetic Anhydride (2 2 1)4Acetone72-Acetylaminofluorene9Acetyl Bromide (3 3 2)11Acetyl Chloride (3 3 2)13Acetylene (1 4 3)16Acetylene Tetrabromide (see Tetrabromoethane)Acraldehyde (see hanesulfonamide m-anisidine (see Amsacrine)Acrolein (3 3 3)18Acryl Aldehyde (see Acrolein)Acrylic Acid (3 2 2)20Acrylonitrile (4 3 2)22Actinomycin D (see Dactinomycin)Adriablastina (see Doxorubicin)Adriamycin (see Doxorubicin)Adrucil (see Fluorouracil)Aflatoxins24Aldicarb26Aluminum Bromide Anhydrous28Aluminum Chloride Anhydrous (3 0 2)30Aluminum Hydride33

Amboclorin (see Chlorambucil)Amethopterin (see Methotrexate)Ametycine (see Mitomycin C)Amidosulfuric Acid (see Sulfamic 2,3'-dimethylazobenzene (see 2-Aminoazotoluene)2-Amino-4-(ethylmercapto)butyric Acid (see -dichloropteroyl glutamic acid (seeDichloromethotrexate)1-Aminonaphthalene (see 1-Naphthylamine)2-Aminonaphthalene (see 2-Naphthylamine)Ammonia (solution) (gas 3 1 0, solution 2 1 -)41Ammonium Dichromate (2 1 1)43Ammonium Nitrate (1 0 3)45Ammonium Sulfide Solution48Ammonium Oxalate (see Oxalic Acid)Amsacrine50Amsidine (see Amsacrine)Anhydrone (see Magnesium Perchlorate)Aniline (3 2 0)52Anilinobenzene (see Diphenylamine)Antimony Compounds (water soluble)54Antimony Trihydride (see Stibine)Arsenic Compounds57Arsenic Trihydride (see Arsine)Arsine (4 4 2)60Arumel (see Fluorouracil)Asbestos Dust (Native Ca-Mg Silicate)62Azides and Acyl Azides (3 2 2)63Azidobenzene (see Phenyl Azide)

Aziridine (see Ethylenimine)Barium Compounds64BCNU (see Carmustine)Benomyl68Benzal Chloride70Benzaldehyde (2 2 0)72Benz[a]anthracene74Benzene (2 3 0)761,3-Benzenediol (see Resorcinol)Benzenesulfonic Acid (3 - -)78Benzenesulfonyl Chloride80Benzidine and Salts (Benzidine 3 - -)82Benzol (see Benzene)Benzo[a]pyrene84Benzoyl Peroxide (1 4 4)86Benzoyl Hydroperoxide (see Perbenzoic Acid)2,3-Benzphenanthrene (see Benz[a]anthracene)Benzyl Bromide89Benzyl Chloride91Benzylidene Chloride (see Benzal Chloride)Beryllium (metal 3 1 0)Betaprone (see β-Propiolactone)BiCNU (see Carmustine)Bioxiran (see Diepoxybutane [DL])p-Biphenylamine (see 4-Aminobiphenyl)4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]benzene butanoic acid (see Chlorambucil)N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (see ,2-oxazaphosphorin-2-amine-2-oxide(see 2H-1,3,2-oxazaphosphorin-2-amine-2-oxide(see Ifosphamide)Bleach (see Sodium Hypochlorite Solution)93

Bleomycin95Boron Tribromide (4 0 2)97Boron Trichloride (4 0 2)99Boron Trifluoride (4 0 1)101Bromine (3 0 0)103Bromoethylene (see Vinyl Bromide)N-Bromosuccinimide106α-Bromotoluene (see Benzyl Bromide)Butadiene Dioxide (see Diepoxybutane (DL))Butanedione (see Diepoxybutane [DL])Butter Yellow (see 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene)n-Butyl Ether (see Dibutyl Ether)tert-Butyl Azidoformate108tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide (1 4 4)110tert-Butyl Hypochlorite112CACP (see Cisplatin)Cadmium (1 1 2)114Cadmium Compounds (compounds 3 - -)116Calcium Acetylide (see Calcium Carbide)Calcium Carbide (1 3 2)119Calcium Hydrate (see Calcium Hydroxide)Calcium Hydride (3 - -)121Calcium Hydroxide123Captan125Carbamic Acid Ethyl Ester (see Urethan)Carbolic Acid (see Phenol)Carbon Disulfide (2 4 0)127Carbon Tetrachloride (3 0 0)130Carbonyl Chloride (see Phosgene)Carmustine132

Caryolysine (see Mechlorethamine Hydrochloride)CB 1348 (see Chlorambucil)Cellosolve (see 2-Ethoxyethanol)Cerubidin (see Daunorubicin)Chlorambucil134Chloraminophen (see Chlorambucil)Chlorine(3 0 0)1363-Chloro-1,2-dibromopropane (see orin-2-oxide (see urea (see ourea (see Lomustine)Chloroethylene (see Vinyl Chloride)2-({ -glucose (seeChlorozotocin)Chloroform (2 0 0)140Chloromethyl Methyl Ether142m-Chloroperbenzoic Acid144N-Chlorosuccinimide146Chlorosulfonic Acid (3 0 2)148Chlorosulfuric Acid (see Chlorosulfonic Acid)α-Chlorotoluene (see Benzyl hlorpyrifos154Chromic Acid (see Chromium Trioxide)Chromic Acid Cleaning Solution156Chromium158Chromium Carbonyl (see Chromium Hexacarbonyl)Chromium Diacetate (3 - -)160Chromium Hexacarbonyl162

Chromium Trioxide (1 0 1)164Chromous Acetate (see Chromium Diacetate)CI 11020 (see 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene)CI 11160 (see 2-Aminoazotoluene)CI 14377 (see Methotrexate)Cisplatin167cis-Platinum II (see Cisplatin)Cisplatyl (see Cisplatin)cis-DDP (see Cisplatin)Cloramin (see Mechlorethamine Hydrochloride)Clorox (see Sodium Hypochlorite Solution)CMME (see Chloromethyl Methyl Ether)Coal Naphtha (see Benzene)Cosmegen (see Dactinomycin)CPDC (see Cisplatin)Cyanides (water soluble) (3 2 -)169Cyanogen (4 4 2)171Cyanogen Bromide (3 0 1)173Cyanogen Chloride175Cyanogen 83Cytophosphane (see Cyclophosphamide)Cytoxan (see n190Daunomycin (see Daunorubicin)DaunorubicinDBCP (see 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane)192

DDP (see Cisplatin)2-Deoxy-2-{ e eido)-D-glucopyranose (see Streptozotocin)Dehydrite (see Magnesium Perchlorate)Deticene (see Dacarbazine)1,2-Diaminoethane (see azoacetic Ester (see Ethyl Diazoacetate)Diazoethanoate (see Ethyl Diazoacetate)Diazomethane (3 - ene (see Dibenz[a,h]anthracene)Dibenzoyl Peroxide (see Benzoyl Peroxide)Diborane (3 4 ne (3 0 0)207Dibutyl Ether (2 3 1)209Di-tert-butyl Peroxide (2 3 4)211DIC (see Dacarbazine)Dichloren (see Mechlorethamine ro-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (see benzoyl)L-glutamic acid (see Dichloroethylene (see Vinylidene Chloride)Dichloromethane (2 1 0)217Dichloromethotrexate219Dichloromethylsilane (see Methyldichlorosilane)Dicyanogen (see Cyanogen)

Diepoxybutane (DL)221(Dimethylamino)carbonyl Chloride (see Dimethylcarbamyl Chloride)1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane (see Diepoxybutane (DL))Diethyl Ether (2 4 1)223Diethyl Sulfate (3 1 1)226Diethylene Dioxide (see Dioxane)Diethylene Oxide (see Dioxane)m-Dihydroxybenzene (see Resorcinol)Di-isobutylaluminum Hydride228Di-isopropyl Ether (2 3 [a]Anthracene2342,2'-Dimethylbenzidine (see o-Tolidine and o-Tolidine Dihydrochloride)Dimethylcarbamyl Chloride (see Dimethylcarbamyl Chloride)Dimethylcarbamyl Chloride236Dimethylenimine (see Ethylenimine)Dimethylformam

compiled from published material. The second and third University of Alberta editions incorporated new or modified methods for spillage and waste disposal developed in my laboratory. The development and testing of procedures for disposal of small waste or surplus quantities of hazardous chemicals in my laboratory is ongoing. Thus, the previous

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