BIOLOGY (Class 11)IndexChapterpage1.The Living World012.Biological Classification113.Plant Kingdom244.Animal Kingdom415.Morphology of Flowering Plants566.Anatomy of Flowering Plants747.Structural Organisation in Animals858.Cell : The Unit of Life979.Biomolecules10910.Cell Cycle and Cell Division12011.Transport in Plants12812.Mineral Nutrition13713.Photosynthesis in Higher Plants14614.Respiration in Plants15515.Plant Growth and Development16616.Digestion and Absorption17517.Breathing and Exchange of Gases18418.Body Fluids and Circulation19319.Excretory Products and their Elimination20220.Locomotion and Movement21221.Neural Control and Coordination22122.Chemical Coordination and Integration230
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (The Living World)1.Name the three fields of systematics.2.Give the two name system of organisms?3.Write the correct order of sequence of taxonomical categories?4.What are the advantages of giving scientific names of the organisms?5.Give the role of botanical gardens?6.Differentiate between species & taxon?7.Name the guidelines for naming of organisms?8.What is Biological classification? What is the need of classification?9.What is Binomial system of nomenclature? Who proposed this system? Why isbinomial nomenclature the most acceptable mode of naming organism?
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (The Living World)[ANSWERS]Ans. 1 Nomenclature, classification & taxonomy.Ans.2 Binomial NomenclatureAns.3 SpeciesgenusfamilyorderclassPhylumkingdom.Ans.4 i) Scientific names are universally accepted in the world because they are based onsame principles that are universal.ii) The advantage of a technical term is the relationship & comparison too the others.Ans.5 i) Botanical gardens provide plant materials for taxonomic studies.ii) Plant species are grown for identification.iii) Plants are grown for research.iv) To maintain records of local flora.Ans.6SPECIESTAXONi) It is the basic taxonomic categoryi) It is a level of taxonomic categoryii) It is a rankii) It is a group of concrete biological aspectsiii) It is monophylecticiii) It may be mono or polyphylectic.Ans.7 Guidelines for naming of organisms include :i)A scientific name generally has two words in Latin or derived from latin irrespectiveof their origin.ii) First word denotes the genus where as second word for species.iii)Names are printed in italics or are separately underlined to indicate the Latin origin.iv)Each taxonomic group has only one correct name.v) The name must be short, precise and easy to pronounce.vi)Generic name begins with a capital letter & the specific name with small letter eg.Homo sapiens.
vii)The name of author is written in abbreviated form after species name & it is printed inRoman.Ans.8 Biological classification is the naming of organisms by two words. One is genericname & other is specific name for eg. Man is called Home sapiens classificationbecomes essential for the following reasons:i)It is very essential for the systematic study of living beings. Without this study ofdifferent organisms would be in confusion.ii) It is impossible to study each & every organism.iii) All the types of organisms do not occur in a given locality.iv) Without a proper system so classification, it is impossible to recognize or identifydifferent types of organism.v) Classification helps in knowing the relationships among different groups ofanimals & plants.vi) Classification makes the study of organisms easier & gives a comparative accountof them.Ans.9 Naming of plants & animals with two words one generic & other specific name iscalled binomial system of nomenclature. Carolus Linnaeus introduced this scientificsystem to name a species. He gave two names to a species eg. Mangifere is genericname and indica is the specific name.Binomial nomenclature is universally accepted all over the world because it is writtenaccording to universal rules of nomenclature framed by ICBN, ICZN, & ICNPC etc. Ithas two parts generic name & specific name followed by name if scientist whodiscovered it at last in abbreviated form. It must be in Latin or derived from Latin. Itmust be binomial. The genus starts with capital letter while species by small letter.Handwritten name is underlined it indicates relationship with other species present insame genus.The rules & regulations present of binomial nomenclature must be observed before ataxonomist names a new found organism. This maintains stability in taxa, avoids theuse of names that may cause error ambiguity & confusion.
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (The Living World)1.Give the unit of classification?2.Who gave binomial name of classification?3.What is meant by identification of a species?4.Why are classification systems changing every now & then?5.Differentiate between taxon & category?6.Describe the role of museum in studying systematic?7.“Botanical gardens are living herbaria”. Comment ?8.State any five objectives of classification.9.Explain the utility of systematic & mention the characterstics of new.10.What are the major divisions of classification, classify man.
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (The Living World)[ANSWERS]Ans. 1 Rank / categoryAns.2 Carolus LinnaeusAns.3 The identification is aimed at finding correct name & proper position of a species inestablished scheme of classification.Ans.4 The organisms are classified on the basis of characteristics. Earliest classification werebased on the uses of various organisms but now the humans are interested inknowing more about different kinds of organisms & their diversities & theirrelationship also.Ans.5TAXONCATEGORYi) Taxon represents to a group of i) Category refers to a rank of status of taxon.organisms.ii) It is only of one eg. Dicots, ii) Category is of two types i.e.Monocots,a) Major rank – kingdom, division, class.b) minor rank – Genus & speciesAns.6 i) Museums have collections of plants & animalsii) These are used to deposit type specimens.iii) Important centres for taxonomic studies.iv) Provide information about local flora & fauna as well as of other areas.Ans.7Botanical gardens are repositories of information useful for taxonomic studies.Herbaria are most permanent records of plant specimens. Living plants aremaintained in botanical gardens. They play key roles in conservation, research,ecology, library & herbaria etc.
Ans.8Objectives of classification:i)Development of a system for easily identifying a species if known or unknownii)The description of various species.iii)Recognition of different species.iv)To bring circulated characteristics at various levels in hierarchy.v)The grouping of species in taxonomic classification.vi)To establish natural relationship board on phylogeny on the basis ofresemblances of the organisms of the organisms.Ans.9Systematics is defined as “the study of classification of organisms based onevolutionary relationships”.i)It provides useful information about organism, its evolution & adaptation name& classification etc.ii) Systematics helps us in the identification of useful & harmful animals or plantsin applied field of biology.iii) It plays economical role.New systematics has the following features:a) Species are regarded as dynamic unit & not as static unit of classicalsystematic.b) The importance of species as such is reduced since most of the work is donewith sub-divisions of species.c) The morphological species definition has been replaced by a biological onewhich takes ecology, genetics, geography, cytology & behaviour intoconsideration.Ans.10i)Kingdom:- It is the highest category of classification. There are 2 kingdom – Animal& plant kingdom.ii)Phylum:- A group of closely related classes having certain common characters.iii)Class:- A group of closely related orders having certain common characters.iv)Order:- A group of closely related families having certain common characters.v)Family:- A group of closely related genera having certain common characters.
vi)Genus:- A group of closely related species having certain common characters.vii)Species:- Individuals having certain common characters.Classification of rPrimatesFamilyHominidaeGenusHomoSpeciesSapiens
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (The Living World)1.Name the highest categories of classification?2.What are the three codes of nomenclatures?3.What do you mean by “chemotaxonomy?4.Why are living organisms classified?5.What is Taxonomic key? How is it helpful in the identification & classificationof an organism?6.Differentiate between taxonomy & systematic.7.What is a taxon? Illustrate the taxonomical hierarchy with a suitable example?8.What are taxonomic aids? Mention some of the taxonomic aids foridentification9.How would you set up a herbarium?10.Differentiate between classical taxonomy & Modern taxonomy.
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (The Living World)[ANSWERS]Ans. 1Kingdom.Ans.2International code of botanical, zoological & bacteriological nomenclature.Ans.3Understanding taxonomic relationships based on the distribution of certaincharacteristic chemical constituents is called chemotaxonomy.Ans.4There are various kinds of life that differ in shape, size & colour etc. The biologicaldiversity is the range of life occurring in biological world. The diversity developsdue to the evolution and development of adaptations to overcome competitionsamong life forms due to limited resources.Ans.5Key is a taxonomic aid for identification of unknown organisms based onsimilarities & dissimilarities. It is a taxonomic literature based on couplet. Theseare analytical in nature & separate keys are needed for every taxonomic categoryeg. genus, order, family etc & species for identification of organisms.Ans.6TAXONOMYi) The science of identification, nomenclature& classification is called taxonomy.ii) It deals with the rules & the principles ofclassification.SYSTEMATICSi) It refers to the science of identificationdescription, nomenclature & classification.ii) It deals with unique characteristics atevery level of classification.Ans.7Taxon is “a unit of classification of organisms which can be recognized & assigned adefinite category at any level of classification” eg. order primates & carnivores areincluded in mammala. Various classes eg. Pisces, animals, reptilia aves & mammaliaform phylum- chordata. All phyla are included in kingdom animalia .Ans.8Taxonomic aids are devices used to study, Identification & classify organism, someof these are:i)Herbarium :- collections of present /preserved or mounted plant specimens.arranged systematically to provide information on sheetsii) Botanical gardens :- specialized gardens for collection of living plants, it ismaintained for references & identification purposes in which each plant islabelled showing its biological name.
iii)iv)Ans.9Zoological parks:- places with live animals are called zoos or zoological parks.The animal live in their natural habitat there are separate places for birds,tigers, lions, reptiles etc.Museums :- These are mostly set up in institutions where collection ofpreserved plants & animals for reference & taxonomic studies are placed inpreservatives eg. Alcohol & formalin.SETTING UP OF HERBARIUM involves the following steps:i) Visit to a specific area to get intact part or plant, seeds or flowers.ii) Information about habitat, season & time of collection as well topography etc.iii) For collection, some tools are needed, notebook, digger, scissor, knifepolyethene, newspaper etc.iv) Spreading of specimens & drying, change the paper sheets after 3-4 days,plant press may be used for it. The dried specimens are pasted on herbariumsheets & pesticides like CS2, naphthalene Hgcl2 etc.v) Put label on specimen & mention its place of collection, time of collection,common name scientific name etc.Ans.10CLASSICAL TAXONOMYi)It is called old taxonomy orsystematicii) The species was considered a basic,concrete & separate unit that was fixedor static entity & the work of creator.MODERN TAXONOMYi) It is called Neo- systematic or Biosystematic.ii) The species is considered related toone another, mutable & the work ofgradual modification as wall as dynamic& ever- changing.iii) In it, classification was based on the iii) In it, classification was based onmorphological features onlyphylogenetic relationships of theorganismsiv) Few individuals were studied.iv) large number of individuals arestudiedv) The species was delimited on v) Emphasis in population instead ofmorphological characters.species. Morphological delimitation wasreplaced by biological delimitation.
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (Biological Classification)1.Who introduced the five kingdom classification of organisms?2.To which kingdom the multicellular decomposers belong?3.Expand PPLO.4.What is the basis of modern classification?5.Give one example of a fungus as a soure of antibiotics?6.How are viroids different from viruses?7.Explain sexual reproduction in bacteria?8.Discuss the salient features of viruses with the help of diagram?9.Write the distinct characters of fungi & explain using a diagram.
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (Biological Classification)[ANSWERS]Ans.1R.H. Whittaker (1969)Ans.2Kingdom fungiAns.3Pleuropneumonia like organisms.Ans.4Modern taxonomy is based on :-i)Evolutionary relationship.ii)The similarities in the genetic codes of species.iii)Ecological characters.Ans.5Penicillium is the genus which is the source of an antibiotic penicillin. Penicillium isknown as green & blue moulds. Penicillium chryosogenum is utilized for productionof antibiotic penicillin.Ans.6VIRIODSVIRUSESi) Viriods are smaller than viruses & lack i) Viruses are non- cellular organismsAns.7protein coat.having protein coat.ii) Genetic material is free RNAii) Genetic material is RNA or DNA.Bacteria do not have true sexual reproduction but they show genetic recombinationby three ways:-i)Conjugation:- It was discovered by Lederberg & Tatum. The donor or male call isidentified by the presence of plasmid called F- factor in cells. Donor cell bearscylindrical hollow sex Pilli for attachment to recipient bacterium. Donor & recipientcome in physical contact with the help of sex pilli. Plasmid or plant of donor DNA istransferred into recipient cell.
ii) Transformation :- It was discovered by Griffith. It includes death of bacterial donorcell resulting in release of its DNA into external medium DNA gets fragmented & getsincorporated into metabolically active cells. Recipient cell after incorporation ofdonor DNA is known as recombination that expresses all its character together withcharacter of donor cell.iii) Transduction :- It was discovered by Zinder & Lederberg. Donor genes aretransferred into recipient all by a virus. A phage causes lysis of bacterium &incorporates bacterial genes into phages then is liberated & they infect newbacterial genes.Ans.8Features of viruses:-i)They are smaller then bacteria.ii) They can be filterediii) They are able to reproduce in host cell by using enzymes & metabolic machinery ofhost celliv) DNA/RNA is their genetic materialv) These are obligate parasites, self replicating & non – cellular organisms.vi) They have protein coat called capsid that protects nucleic acid.vii) They cause disease in plants like mosaic, leaf curling, leaf role, vein clearing etc.Ans.9i) Cell type – eukaryotic except yeast.ii) Cell wall – present but made up of chitin.iii) Chloroplast – absent.iv) Mitochondria – present
v) Nuclear envelope – presentvi) Tissues – present but limited, yeast is a unicellular fungi,hyphae mycelium coenocytic, septatevii) Motility – Cilia, flagella in some treat absent in most forms.viii) Nutrition – Heterotrophic, saprophytes, parasites, absorbfood or as symbionts in lichensix) duction & fission, budding fragmentation,conidia formation etc in asexual reproduction.x) Nervous system – absentxi) Occurrence – air, water, soil, animals or plantsxii) tophthora, Asperigillus claviceps, Rust, smut.
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (Biological Classification)1.Name the five kingdoms in which the organisms are grouped together?2.Which organisms are known as “Jokers of plant kingdom”3.In which class of fungi sexual reproduction does not occur?4.Explain phylogenetic system of classification?5.What is the basis of Whittaker’s system of classification?6.Find out what do the terms “algal bloom”& “red tides” signify?7.Distinguish between bacteria & cyanobacteria?8.Describe the salient features of protists?9.Explain the various methods of asexual & sexual reproduction in fungi?
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (Biological Classification)[ANSWERS]Ans. 1Monera, protista, fungi, plantae & ylogenetic system of classification is based on evolutionary relationships oforganisms. It reflects true relationship between organisms. It is not static but notdynamic. Its sources are fossils records that are never complete due to difficulty information, exposure, discovery & study.Ans.5Whittaker based his classification on following three criteria :i) Structure of cell i-e. prokaryotic Vs. Eukaryotic organization.ii) Unicellular Vs. multi cellular organismsiii) Different modes of nutrition – parasitic, autotrophic or heterotrophic.Ans.6i)Algal bloom refers to the excessive growth of algae in water body due toenrichment of excessive nutrients in it.ii)The red dinoflagellates undergo rapid multiplication eg. Gonyaulux whichmake the sea appear red. It is called red tide.Ans.7BACTERIAi) cells are comparatively smallerii) They have lesser structuralelaborationiii) Most bacteria have flagellaiv)Areautotrophicheterotrophic bothv) Possess bacteriochlorophyllvi) Reserve food is glycogenCYANOBACTERIAi) Cells are comparatively larger.ii) They exhibit high degree ofmorphological complexity & structuralelaboration.iii) Do not have flagella.& iv) Are autotrophic.v) Possess chlorophyll.vi) reserve food iscyanophycean starchstarchlike
Ans.8i)Theyaresinglecelledcolonialfilamentous )Some are photosynthetic some are not.iv)Some forms are like plants & some likeanimals.v)Contain membrane bound organelles.vi)Protozoan’s are unicellular heterotrophicvii) Examples- protozoan’s, slime moulds,Euglenoid, diatoms, dinoflagellateAns.91)ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION:- Special types of reproductive cells are formed inasexual reproduction in fungi. They are known as spores.a) Zoospores :- Zoospores are motile eg. phycomycetes. They may have oneor more flagella. On germination zoospores produces new mycelium.b) Oidia :- Some oval or spherical spores are found in mucor. They areformed by small segment of hyphae.c)Conidia:- conidia are formed in some fungi as a means of asexualreproduction. They are borne on conidiospores eg. penicillium.d) Chlamydospores :- Thick walled resting spores are produced in somefungi. They may be terminal or intercalary.2)SEXUAL REPRODUCTION:- There are three kinds of sexual reproduction infungi:i)Isogamy:- It is the fusion of morphologically similar gametes.ii) Anisogamy:- It is the fusion of two morphologically & physiologicallydissimilar gametes.iii) Oogamy:- It is the fusion of female egg with that of male antherozoids.These gametes are produced in oogonium & anthridium respectively.
CLASS - XI BIOLOGY (Biological Classification)1.Who is known as “Father of classification”?2.Name the fungus from which LSD drug is obtained?3.It is advised to grow one pulse crop in between two main crops in the samefield why?4.Why are some fungi grouped under “fungi imperfecti”?5.Explain “Numerical taxonomy”.6.What are the demerits of five kingdom classification?7.Give scientific name of species of fungus:-a) Produces a plant disease.b) Is ediblec) A source of antibioticd) Used in manufacture of ethanol.8.Why is natural system of classification better then artifici
(Class 11) Index Chapter page 1. The Living World 01 2. Biological Classification 11 3. Plant Kingdom 24 4. Animal Kingdom 41 5. Morphology of Flowering Plants 56 6. Anatomy of Flowering Plants 74 7. Structural Organisation in Animals 85 8. Cell : The Unit of Life 97 9. Biomolecules 109 10. Cell Cycle and Cell Division 120 11.