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OXFORD HANDBOOKS IN LINGUISTICSTHE OXFORD HANDBOOK OFThe Oxford Handbook of Applied linguisticsSecond editionEdited by Robert B. KaplanThe Oxford Handbook of CaseEdited by Andrej MalchukoY and Andrew SpencerThe Oxford Handbook of Cognitive LinguisticsEdited by Dirk Geeraerts and Hubert CuyckensThe Oxford Handbook of Comparative SyntaxEdited by Guglielmo Cinque and Richard . KayneLINGUISTICFIELDWORKThe Oxford Handbook of CompoundingEdited by Rochelle Lieber and Pavol StekauerThe Oxford Handbook of Computational LinguisticsEdited by Ruslan MitkovThe Oxford Handbook of CompositionalityEdited by Markus Werning, Edouard Machery, and Wolfram HinzenThe Oxford Handbook of Field LinguisticsEdited by Nicholas ThiebergerEdited byNICHOLAS THIEBERGERThe Oxford Handbook of GrammaticalizationEdited by HeLko Narrog and Bernd HeineThe Oxford Handbook of Japanese LinguisticsEdited by Shigeru Miyagawa and Mamow SaitoThe Oxford Handbook of Laboratory PhonologyEdited by Abigail C. Cohn, Cecile Fougeron, and Marie HoffmanThe Oxford Handbook of Language EvolutionEdited by Maggie Tallerman and Kathleen GibsonThe Oxford Handbook of Language and LawEdited by Lawrence Solan amd Peter TiersmaThe Oxford Handbook of Linguistic AnalysisEdited by Bernd Heine and HeLko NarrogThe Oxford Handbook of Linguistic InterfacesEdited by Gillian Ramchand and Charles ReissThe Oxford Handbook of Linguistic MinimalismEdited by Cedric BoeckxThe Oxford Handbook of Linguistic TypologyEdited by lae lung SongThe Oxford Handbook of Translation StudiesEdited by Kirsten Malmkjaer and Kevin WindleOXFORDUNIVERSITY PRESS

OXFORDUNIVERSITY PRESSGreat Clarendon Street, OxfordOX2 6DPOxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship,and education by publishing worldwide inOxford New YorkAuckland Cape Towil Dar es Salaam Hong KOllg KarachiKuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City NairobiNew Delhi Shanghai Taipei TorontoWith offices illArgentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France GreeceGuatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal SingaporeSouth Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine VietnamCONTENTSNotes on ContributorsIntroductionOxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Pressin the UK and in certain other countriesVill1Nicholas ThiebergerPublished in the United Statesby Oxford University Press Inc., New York editorialmatter and organization Nicholas Thieberger chapters their several authors 2012The moral rights of the authors have been assertedDatabase right Oxford University Press (maker)First publishedPART I DATA COLLECTIONAND MANAGEMENT20121.2012You must not circulate this book in any other binding or coverand you must impose the same condition on any acquirerBritish Library Cataloguing in Publication DataData available13Anna Margetts and Andrew MargettsAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press,or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriatereprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduclionoutside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department,Oxford University Press, at the address aboveAudio and Video Recording Techniques for Linguistic Research2.A Guide to Stimulus-Based Elicitation for Semantic Categories54Asifa Majid3. Morphosyntactic Analysis in the Field: A Guide to the Guides72Ulrike Mosel4. Linguistic Data Management90Nicholas Thieberger and Andrea 1. BerezLibrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataData availableTypeset by SPI Publisher Services, Pondicherry, IndiaPrinted in Great Britainon acid-free paper byMPG Books Group, Bodmin and King's LynnISBN 978-0-19-957188-813579108642PART II RECORDING PERFORMANCE5. Sociolinguistic Fieldwork121Miriam Meyerhoff, Chie Adachi, Golnaz Nanbakhsh,and Anna Strycharz6. Reasons for Documenting Gestures and Suggestionsfor How to Go About It147Mandana Seyfeddinipur7. Including Music and the Temporal Arts inLanguage DocumentationLinda Barwick166

VICONTENTSCONTENTS19. Copyright and Other Legal ConcernsPART III COLLABORATINGWITH OTHER DISCIPLINES20.209Laurent Dousset10.The Language of FoodNancy 1. Pollock23511.Botanical CollectingBarry 1. Conn25012.Ethnobiology: Basic Methods for Documenting BiologicalKnowledge Represented in Languages281Will McClatchey298Pierre Lemonnier14. Fieldwork in Ethnomathematics317Marc Chemillier15. Cultural Astronomy for Linguists345Jarita Holbrook16. Geography: Documenting Terms for Landscape Features368Andrew G. Turk, David M. Mark, Carolyn O'Meara,and David Stea17· Toponymy: Recording and Analysing Placenames in aLanguage Area39 2David Nash and Jane SimpsonPART IV COLLABORATINGWITH THE COMMUNITY18. Ethical Issues in Linguistic FieldworkKefen RiceTraining Linguistics Students for the Realities of Fieldwork457Monica MacaulayNicholas Evans13· Technology430Paul Newman8. Anything Can Happen: The Verb Lexiconand Interdisciplinary Fieldwork9· Understanding Human Relations (Kinship Systems)Vll407ReferencesIndex of NamesIndex of Topics473527537

NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORSIXIRCAM in Paris (Institute for Research and Coordination Acoustic/Music). He isthe author of Les Mathematiques naturelles (2007).NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORSChie Adachi is a PhD candidate in Linguistics at the University of Edinburgh.Currently, she works on Japanese complimenting behaviour within the frameworkof (interactional) sociolinguistics for her PhD project. She is interested in how youngJapanese speakers socially and linguistically construct the speech act of complimenting. She is also interested in the gendered nature of this speech act. Her study atEdmburgh IS fully funded by the Ministry of Education, Japan, for three years.Linda Barwick (Associate Professor, University of Sydney) is Director of PARADlSEC, the Pacific and Regional Archive for Digital Sources in Endangered Cultures, established in 2003 by several Australian universities with support from theAustralian Research Council. An ethnomusicologist with fieldwork experience inAustralia, Italy, and the Philippines, she is interested in using digital technologies toextend access to research results by collaborating communities. Recent song documentation projects jointly undertaken with linguists include the Murriny Pathasong project, the Western Arnhem Land song project, and the Iwaidja Project. Herpublications include multimedia CDs and web resources produced in collaborationBarry Conn is a Principal Research Scientist at the National Herbarium of NewSouth Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney, and is an Associate Professor at theUniversity of Sydney. He is a plant systematist with interests in the phylogeny of theLamiaceae, Loganiaceae, and Urticaceae, and has published more than 190 researchpapers in scientific journals. Dr Conn has undertaken field studies throughoutAustralia and has worked extensively in the tropical forests ofIndonesia and PapuaNew Guinea. He has maintained strong interests in electronic data, and has assistedwith the development of international standards for the storage and transfer ofelectronic natural history database records.Laurent Dousset is an anthropologist specializing in Australian Aboriginal cultures,and has recently also engaged in fieldwork in Vanuatu. His main interests arekinship and social organization, social transformations, and issues of landownership. Cun·ently associate professor at EHESS (the School for Advanced SocialStudies, Paris and Marseilles), he is director of CREDO (the Centre for Researchand Documentation on Oceania, Marseilles) and has published numerous scientificpapers on various issues in Aboriginal Australia. He also published two books,Assimilating Identities (Oceania Monograph, 2005) and Mythes, Missiles et Cannibales (Societe des Oceanistes, 2011).Andrea 1. Berez is currently finishing her doctoral dissertation in the Department ofLinguistics at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She is primarily adocumentary and descriptive linguist specializing in Ahtna, an endangered Athabascan language spoken in south central Alaska. Her linguistic interests includegeographic cognition, intonation, polysynthesis, and discourse, and she has beenactive in promoting and developing the technological infrastructure for languagedocumentation and archiving.Nicholas Evans is Professor of Linguistics at the Australian National University. Heis a field linguist with wide expertise in language documentation and typology.After decades of work on Australian Aboriginal languages (especially Kayardild,Dalabon, Iwaidja, and Bininj Gun-wok), he has recently begun work on Papuanlanguages in Southern New Guinea, particularly Nen. He has published grammarsof Kayardild and Bininj Gun-wok, dictionaries ofKayardild and Dalabon, and over100 papers on a wide range oflinguistic topics. In addition to scientific work, he hasbeen extensively involved in returning his expertise to indigenous communitiesthrough vernacular-language educational materials, court interpreting, land andsea rights work, and cultural interpreting for indigenous artists.Marc Chemillier is Director of Studies at the EHESS in Paris (School for AdvancedStudies in Social Sciences). He received a PhD in Computer Science and also hasdegrees in Mathematics, Musicology, Philosophy, and Anthropology. He has conducted fieldwork among the Nzakara of Central African Republic to study theirharp music, and in Madagascar to work on the ethnomathematics of divination.His main interests focus on the modelling of elaborated knowledge developed inoral tradIllOn, thus associating fieldwork for the ethnographic recording of dataand digital technologies for the modelling aspect of his approach. His recentresearch deals with musical knowledge and improvisation in collaboration withJarita Holbrook (Near Eastern Studies, University of Arizona) is the author ofFollowing the Stars, a study of modern stellar navigation, and editor of AfricanCultural Astronomy (2008). Her research on humans and their relationship to thesky includes studies of indigenous people, the general public, and professionalastronomers. She is currently working on a book investigating academic programsfocused on increasing the number of minority astronomy doctorates. Currently,she is the youngest chair of the Historical Astronomy Division of the AnlericanAstronomical Society and the first African-American Vice President of the European Cultural Astronomy Society (SEAC).with singers and communities.

xiiNOTES ON CONTRIBUTORSin 2005, where she continued her studies as a PhD student in Sociolinguistics. Herresearch looks at the interplay oflinguistic and sociolinguistic norms of politenessportrayed with Persian address system. She is interested in the analysis oflanguageand social interaction, specifically the intersection oflanguage, culture, and society,using spontaneous interactions. Since September 2010 she has been a facultymember of Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Edinburgh.David Nash is Honorary Visiting Fellow in Linguistics, School of Language Studies,The Australian National University. He has published on Australian languages over thelast three decades, including co-editing Language in Native Title (2002) and Forty YearsOn: Ken Hale and Australian Languages (2001), and has been a consultant for a nmnberof claims to traditional land in Australia. He continues to be involved in the mappingof sites in the country of the Warlpiri and their neighbours in central Australia.Paul Newman received his BA and MA from the University of Pennsylvania and hisPhD (Linguistics) from the University of California, Los Angeles. He has heldacademic positions at Yale, Bayero University (Nigeria), University of Leiden(Netherlands), and Indiana University, where he is Distinguished Professor Emeritus. He has published eighteen books and over 100 articles and reviews. He isregarded as the world's leading authority on the Hausa language. Newman is also alawyer (jD, summa cum laude, Indiana University). He was copyright specialist atthe University of Michigan and Fulbright professor in law at the University ofHaifa. He was formerly Special Counsel to the LSA.Carolyn O'Meara is an assistant professor and researcher in the Seminario deLenguas Indigenas within the Instituto de Investigaciones Filol6gicas at the Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico in Mexico City. She received her PhD inLinguistics from the University at Buffalo in 2010. She has been conductingfieldwork in EI Desemboque, Sonora, Mexico, with the Seri people since 2004.Her interests include landscape classification (e.g. ethnophysiography/landscapeethnoecology) and semantics, including spatial reference and lexical semantics. Sheis currently extending her work on landscape classification in Seri to the largerdomain of the structure of the nominal lexicon in SerioNancy Pollock has retired from her position as Senior Lecturer in Anthropologyand the later position as Acting Director of Development Studies at VictoriaUniversity of Wellington, New Zealand. Her research work on food security, healthissues, and dietary change is derived from initial work in the Marshall Islands. Thiswork was the basis for many publications on food issues, including These RootsRemain, and Social Aspects of Obesity, co-edited with Igor de Garine. She hasworked on Nuclear Claims for Compensation post-Bravo in '954, and also onNauruan claims for compensation for the effects of mining phosphate on Nauru.She is currently completing a book on the social impact of mining on Nauru.NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORSXlnKeren Rice is University Professor and Canada Research Chair in Linguistics andAboriginal Studies at the University of Toronto. She studies the Dene (Slavey)language of Canada's Northwest Territories, and has written on fieldwork and onethics in linguistic fieldwork.Mandana Seyfeddinipur is a senior research fellow and the director of theEndangered Languages Docmnentation Programme oftl,e Hans Rausing EndangeredLanguages Project at the School for Oriental and African Studies (SOAS). Her mainresearch interest is the visual mode oflanguage, especially gestures, language use, andthe psychology of language. She has worked on Azerbijanian and Iranian gesture use,and on the integration of disfluent speech and gesture.jane Simpson is Chair oflndigenous Linguistics, School of Language Studies, TheAustralian National University. She has studied Australian Indigenous languages formore than three decades, acted as a consultant on land claims, and co-edited TheLand is a Map: Placenames of Indigenous Origin in Australia (2002) and Children'sLanguage and Multilingualism: Indigenous Language Use at Home and School (2008).David Stea received a BSc (hans) in Mechanical/Aeronautical Engineering fromwhat is now Carnegie-Mellon University, an MSc in Psychology from the University of New Mexico, and a PhD in Psychology from Stanford University. He isProfessor Emeritus of Geography and International Studies, Texas State University,San Marcos, and Research Associate, Centre for Global justice (Mexico). A cofounder of the field of environmental psychology, his research interests includespatial cognition, map learning in young children, participatory planning withIndigenous peoples, and sustainable development. He has written several books,including Image and Environment, Maps in Minds, Environmental Mapping, andPlacemaking.Anna Strycharz is a PhD student at the University of Edinburgh. Her researchinterests focus around language variation and change in japanese, especially in thearea of honorifics in the dialect of Osaka. She has lived, worked, and conductedfieldwork in japan.Nicholas Thieberger wrote a graom13r of South Efate (central Vanuatu) arising outof a media corpus he built in the course of his fieldwork. In 2003 he helpedestablish the digital archive PARADISEC (paradisec.org.au) and is a co-directorthe Resource Network for Linguistic Diversity (RNLD). He is interested in developments in e-hlllllanities methods and their potential to improve research practice,and he is now developing methods for creation of reusable data sets from fieldworkon previously unrecorded languages. He taught in the Department of Linguistics atthe University of Hawaii i at Manoa and is now an Australian Research CouncilQEII Fellow at the University of Melbourne.

'ICHAPTER8ANYTHING CANHAPPENTHE VERB LEXICON ANDINTERDISCIPLINARYFIELDWORKNICHOLAS EVANS8.1 INTRODUCTION!.The centrality of language in human life means we cannot document any languagewithout understanding all the spheres of knowledge it is used to talk about.Equally, undocumented languages contain too much information to be wastedon linguists alone. As the medium through which the whole fabric of traditionalknowledge about everything in the world is transmitted, the importance of theselanguages stretches out in the direction of many fields of enquiry, from ethnoecology to comparative jurisprudence to deep history to the study of musical and1 I would like to thank all of those who have helped me understand Iwaidja, either as speakers or asfellow outsider-investigators: Kim Akerman, Reuben Arramunika, Linda Barwick, Archie Brown,Bruce Birch, Murray Garde, illyjilly, Rae Kirribuk, Ronald Lamilami, Khaki Marrala, David ('Cookie')Minyimak, Ruth Singer. Amos Teo, tCharlie Wardaga, Joy Williams, tBrian Yambikbik, and MaryYarmirr, as well as two anonymous reviewers of an earlier version of this chapter.

NICHOLAS EVANSverbal art. Linguists, then, have a responsibility not just to their own field but to allareas of scholarship concerned with the almost infinite varieties of human creativity, and we abrogate this responsibility if we do not seek to follow our documentation of the languages we study down all these lanes and byways of orallytransmitted lore.But, as we struggle to learn a field language and talk to the people who speak itabout what matters in their lives) we quickly become aware of how narrow are theboundaries of our knowledge. Whether we fail to identify a local plant or animalspecies, can't figure out how to describe special ways of tying up roof thatch, or askdumb questions abont mystifying ethnographic details, we risk foreshortening ourinvestigations becanse---in the words of Ralph Bulmer's Kalam teacher whoexplained why they hadn't bothered to give him the sort of nuanced terminologyfor rocks which they had for plants-'why should we waste our time telling yonsomething you couldn't possibly understand?"One of the appeals of fieldwork is that we get the opportunity to developinterests in many new subjects, from botany throngh ethnography to thatchmaking.' But few linguists reach the point where we are able to really penetrateto the heart of all these fields, and in practice the best way to extend ourdocnmentary coverage is through some form of interdisciplinary fieldwork.The linguist can then work in concert with experts who can pose the rightquestions to engage the deep knowledge that speakers have of particnlar areas.The same Kalam people who had fobbed Bulmer off with a single word,purportedly for all kinds of rock, readily gave his geologist colleague johnChappell a long and nuanced list, because 'your friend's questions showed thathe does know about rocks'.Some form of interdisciplinary collaboration in fieldwork, then, is essential tocoaxing out a full encyclopedic coverage of the fine-grained categorizations of itsculture and environment which any language contains. In this chapter I show howthis can happen in practice, drawing on the efforts myself and a number ofcolleagues to document an Australian Aboriginal language, Iwaidja.To put scientific flesh on the procedural bones of my arg

The Oxford HandbookofLinguistic Minimalism Edited by Cedric Boeckx The Oxford Handbook ofLinguistic Typology . THE OXFORD HANDBOOK OF LINGUISTIC FIELDWORK Edited by NICHOLAS THIEBERGER OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP Oxford University Press is a department ofthe University ofOxford.

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