COOK’S COLLAGEDkja vu Display for a Home KitchenQuan T. Tran, Gina Calcaterra, Elizabeth D. MynattCollege of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA USAAbstract:Many people regularly multitask while cooking at home. Juggling householdchores, reusing limited kitchen utensils, and coordinating overlapping cookingtimes for multiple recipes can cause frequent task switching and simultaneoustask monitoring while cooking. As a result, the cook occasionally loses trackof his cooking progress especially when determining which ingredients havealready been added, counting multiple scoops of an ingredient, and keepingwatch of cooking times. People compensate for these memory slips bydevising memory strategies or deferring to memory aids with varying degreesof success. In this paper, we present a novel memory aid for cooks calledCook’s Collage. We describe how the system constructs a visual summary ofongoing cooking activity. Then, we report a task simulation study evaluatingthe effectiveness of Cook’s Collage as a memory aid. We argue that a memoryaid is helpful only if it is balanced correctly with a complementary memorystrategy and only if the accuracy of the memory aid is trusted. Lastly, wediscuss how the six design features of the Cook’s Collage suggest a generalframework for memory aids in the home, which we term dija vu displays.Key words:Memory aid, appliance design.1.INTRODUCTIONMemory slips can occur while cooking at home for many reasons. First, thelack of visual cues may make determining cooking progress problematic.Consider mixing different ingredients of similar color and texture such asflour, baking soda, balung powder, and sugar. Remembering whichingredients have been added and how much of each has been added can beproblematic. All the mixed ingredients are available and visible, but they arenot easily distinguishable. Second, failures of remembering self-performedA. Sloane (ed.), Home-Oriented Informatics and Telematics IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2005
16Quan T. Tran, Gina Calcaterra, Elizabeth D. Mynattactions can result from routinized tasks that occur automatically withoutconscious awareness, from memory decline with increasing age, or fromconfusion between already performing an action and intending to perform anaction . Lastly, interruptions and multitasking can create memory slips byoverloading memory demands. Juggling household chores, reusing limitedkitchen utensils, and coordinating overlapping cooking times for multiplerecipes can cause frequent task switching and simultaneous task monitoringwhile cooking. Gillie and Broadbent  showed that interruptions are moredisruptive the more they are similar to the interrupted task, the morecomplex they are, and the more time they consume.The cook occasionally may forget and question his cooking progress.“Which ingredients have already been added?” “How many scoops of aningredient have been added?” “How long has this item been cooking?” Nothowing the answers can ruin recipes. Most people compensate for theirmemory slips with memory strategies and memory aids with varying levelsof success. Identifying those who could benefit from memory aids may beparadoxical since [ 181 shows that those who commit memory slips are alsooften oblivious of their memory slips.We present Cook’s Collage, a novel memory aid for general cooking thatconstructs a visual summary of ongoing kitchen activity. We havedemonstrated this memory aid to numerous visitors including researchers,local families, college students, elderly adults, and members of the press andmedia throughout the past three years. Cook’s Collage receives enthusiasticsupport from many people who feel that they have memory slips whilecooking and understand that these memory slips consequently causeproblems. In this paper, we detail the design features of Cook’s Collage.Then, we report a task simulation study evaluating the effectiveness of thememory aid. Lastly, we discuss how the six design features of the Cook’sCollage suggest a general framework for memory aids in the home, whichwe term d6jA vu displays.2.COOK’S COLLAGECook’s Collage is a novel memory aid that constructs a visual summary ofongoing kitchen activity. The system is based on six design features. In thissection, we detail the system specifications of the Cook’s Collage withrespect to the six design features. Afterwards, we revisit the design features,discussing their rationale and implications for home memory aids in general.
Cook‘scollage2.117Distributed Cognition, Capture, and AccessThe system components are distributed and embedded within the homekitchen. Capturing devices (e.g., webcams) mounted underneath the kitchencabinets as shown in figure l b continually record video of countertopactivity. This location hides the devices from casual view, rendering theminconspicuous and innocuous as shown in figure la. The system uses twocameras, the minimum number to provide overlapping spatial coverage ofone corner of the kitchen countertops. Cook’s Collage is presented on a LCDflat panel that hangs from an overhead cabinet, at eye-level with most cookswhen standing. To be readily accessible, the display is positioned at thecenter of the kitchen triangle, a conceptual area understood by kitchendesigners delimiting the three main components of a kitchen (i.e.,refrigerator, stove oven, and sink). The LCD flat panel provides a slimencasing snugly infused within the cabinet fixture, physically presenting theoutput display as framed art or some other home artifact. With the physicallydispersed components, the cook is able to cognitively distribute his memoryload for the capturing cameras to be later accessed via the display.2.2Evanescence of Recent ActivityCook’s Collage aids short-term and working memory, presenting only themost recent activity and not an entire running history. The visual summaryretains an evanescence of recent activity by continually updating the displayand transitioning the shown actions. As a new action is performed, thesystem adds its corresponding information to the bottom right corner of thedisplay, marks it as most recent by highlighting a yellow border, and shiftsthe previous actions one position left. The oldest action rests at the top leftcorner of the display. Once six actions have been performed, the next actioncauses the first action to transition off the display. Repeated steps likeadding multiple scoops of an ingredient are considered sub-actions, so theytransition differently. If the most recent action displayed is repeated, the newaction replaces the previous action on Cook’s Collage and its new numericcount is annotated appropriately. If a step repeats successively, its prioroccurrences are compressed into gray bars (i.e,, visual ellipses denotingrepeating information without consuming space), and the new action withthe accumulating count annotation replaces the previous one.2.3Juxtaposition of Displayed InformationThe Cook’s Collage displays a visual summary of ongoing kitchen activityby juxtaposing the six most recent actions in a relative temporal sequence.
18Quan T. Tran, Gina Calcaterra, Elizabeth D. MynattThe decorative film reel motif suggests a time flow,and the horizontal filmreel borders cluster the rows of images together, suggesting a horizontalreading of the action sequence. Additionally, the 2x3 grid layout commonlyused for comic strips suggest a left to right, top to bottom reading. Forexample, figure 2 retells that the user added the 29* scoop of sugar the lasttime he was here at the kitchen corner countertop. Before that series ofsugar scoops, he had added two amounts of soda pop one after the other;before that, two amounts of ice one after the other; before that a series ofsugar count ending with the 25” scoop; before that, a series of powder countending with the fifth scoop; and before that, two amounts of water one afterthe other. The layout of the display is essential in interpreting the images.2.4Already Known InformationRetrospective memory entails remembering actions one has alreadyperformed. To support retrospective memory recall, Cook’s Collage showsonly already seen information. The memory aid uses raw video as visualcues, literally already seen by the user. However, repeated actions arevisually ambiguous on video. The memory aid avoids potential ambiguity ofvisualizing repeated actions by collapsing the repeating action into a singlevisual representation with numeric annotation. This solution explicitly showsinformation that otherwise was implicitly already seen.Figure 1. Kitchen setup at (a) eye-level view (b) close-up underneath view of cameras2.5VideoThe video used for Cook’s Collage consists entirely of close-up hand shotsover the kitchen countertops. This allows the capture of necessary detail andavoids unnecessary occlusions. The positioned camera angles avoid an overthe-shoulder, surveillance view that could induce big brother privacyconcerns and wrongly encourage “cooking show” theatrics uncharacteristic
19Cook‘s collageof everyday cooking. The use of unedited raw video accentuates the realityof the cooking experience and personalizes the cooking narrative.Figure 2. Cook‘s Collage display2.6UnitsCook’s Collage represents a single step in a recipe as a unit of action, andshows each unit of action as a snapshot image in the display. Each image isdisplayed at 322x288 resolution, the minimum required for non-blurryimages.3.WIZARD OF OZ SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATIONThe collection of images displayed on Cook’s Collage is constructed in realtime via a Wizard of Oz approach . In a remote room, a human operatormonitors a streaming assembly of image stills captured at a rate of one frameper second from which she hand picks a still image representing the user’saction. Upon each image selection, the streaming assembly of capturedimages pauses so that the wizard can either associate the chosen image with
20Quan T. Tran, Gina Calcaterra, Elizabeth D. Mynattits corresponding action and document her image selection heuristic orcancel her selection choice. Upon completion, the stream of captured imagesresumes.Unfortunately, the image selection causes the system to pause,introducing variable delays into the system’s update latency. Networkrouting between the distributed system components also imposes timelatency between when an action is performed to when it is updated on thedisplay. The wizard can commit human errors in interpreting the cook‘sactions from the streaming video and in operating the interface that buildsthe collage. Still, the time latency and human error of the current systemmay be no faster and no more accurate than the computational latency andlow confidences of an automated perception system in the future.In a previous version, Cook’s Collage utilized various ingredientcontainers instrumented with WID tags that sensed when ingredient bottleswere being poured and automatically generated the collage summary.However, the sensing technology restricted the cooking behaviors we areexploring. Cook’s Collage could leverage vision tracking, but we use thevideo medium as raw input. The captured video is not processed orsynthesized in any way.We select the wizard of oz simulation to permit evaluation of how thedisplay designs affect possible user interactions without committing to afully automated system. We believe Cook’s Collage can be realized either bytechnical breakthroughs which will be years in the future, or by achievingthe appropriate balance of human computer interaction, leveraging bothhuman and computer abilities, which may be understood from oursimulation studies. Currently, computational perception systems are unableto recognize the variability of everyday cooking that Cook’s Collagesupports. In a highly variable and dynamic activity such as everyday homecooking, sensing technologies lack precision to physically perceiveindividual tasks, and inference models lack accuracy to intelligently interpretoverall activity. By studying how users interact with the Cook’s Collage, ourfindings suggest that a fully automated system may not be necessary becausepeople willingly adjust their memory strategies and accommodate thememory aid in a collaborate effort to improve overall memory recall.4.RELATED WORKAlbeit office groupware,  is used in a similar manner as the cook’scollage. As a team member arrives late to a running conference meeting, hescans video segments from the ongoing meeting to be quickly briefed of thearguments leading up to the current discussion. While there are some
Cook‘s collage21memory support systems for the home (e.g., [5,11]), they investigatesoftware infrastructure to support large-scale archives of multimedia. Wehave yet to find another memory support system for cooking. Variouskitchen gadgets such as egg timers or cooking appliances that turn off after apreset time assist with one of the three potentially problematic cooking taskswe identify, keeping track of cooking times. We also addressed analternative approach to keeping track of cooking times with an earlier designof Cook’s Collage . The other cooking tasks, remembering whichingredients have been added and counting multiple scoops of an ingredient,are not currently supported by memory aids but rather by memory strategiesthat are prone to error. We note examples of these memory strategies in ourexperimental findings.There are many systems that help novice cooks learn new recipes.Although also kitchen applications, the focus of these systems is primarily toassist the cook with navigation through recipes rather than Cook’s Collage’sfocus of supporting memory recall. For example, eyeCook  tracks thecook’s eye gaze to infer which recipe instruction or ingredient description toread out loud next. Another kitchen system  uses foot panels along thebottom kitchen cabinets for the user to explicitly navigate through recipeinstructions.5.EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION METHODA task simulation study is defined as “a laboratory memory test that bearssome resemblance, at least in stimulus content, to an everyday memoryexperience” and is valued as the “best situation” in terms of research withhigh ecological validity (from using cues or stimuli that have potential utilityin real-world environments) and high generalizability (from the laboratorycontrol and potential for programmatic replicability) [ 171. A task simulationstudy was used to evaluate the effectiveness of Cook’s Collage as a memoryaid. We designed a dual task scenario that consistently produces memoryslips for cooks. This experimental setup enables comparison of the cook’smemory performance with and without Cook’s Collage.5.1Dual TaskWe designed a dual task to overload working memory. We drew inspirationfrom our previous experiment’s results that rank having an ongoingconversation while performing a separate task as most difficult and annoyingto manage . We chose a language learning task to provide a suffkientdistraction to the cook. Though things such as spontaneous interruptions
22Quan T. Tran, Gina Calcaterra, Elizabeth D. Mynattmay be more common distractions in the kitchen, they are more difficult tocontrol. We thus decided to use a multitasking situation that is similar toactivities cooks perform such as engaging in conversation in the kitchen,talking on the phone, and interacting with their children. Though languagelearning itself is not a typical activity cooks engage in while multitasking inthe kitchen, it does effectively induce cognitive load in the same way as theaforementioned activities. In addition, using the language task allows us toquantitatively measure performance. Directly measuring performance on thelanguage task gives us a fuller understanding of how effectively participantsuse the memory support system. We counterbalanced for learning effect,language difficulty, and availability of the support system, to comparememory performance quantitatively and user experience qualitatively. Allparticipants received four conditions in the following order: single task, dualtask, single task, dual task. 11 participants first did the dual task with Cook’sCollage as memory support, then did the same task without memory support.The other 11 participants did the dual tasks in the reverse order.To encourage a dual task situation, we asked participants to try to pacetheir cooking task so that they would finish both tasks at approximately thesame time. To avoid having the participants ignore the language task, weemphasized the language learning task as the primary task to be evaluatedand the cooking task as secondary. No internal or external memory strategieswere suggested in order not to prime the participants’ behavior; however,they freely initiated and utilized whatever learning and counting strategiesfelt comfortable.5.1.1Primary Task: Language LearningThis task involved learning how to count to ten, five digits at a time in aforeign language (e.g., Vietnamese 1-5, 6-10; Chinese 1-5, 6-10). Thelearning task was accomplished by listening to an audio tape consisting of anopening welcome, statement overview, one complete counting sequence,instructions to start drilling by repeating each number after hearing a pairingof the English meaning and number pronunciation, four rounds of fivenumber pairings, and finally a closing encouragement. The lesson spannedtwo minutes, looping once to total four minutes. The tapes contained a fairlyconsistent audio silence between digits allowing participants time todecipher pronunciation of foreign number and to repeat the digit aloud. Theparticipants were not permitted to pause, rewind, or replay the preset lesson.
Cook’s collage5.1.223Secondary Task: Punch PreparationThe cooking task was to prepare punch. This task comprised of addingingredients (e.g., 2/3 cup orange juice, 2/3 cup water, 5 scoops lemonadepowder, 29 scoops sugar, 2/3 cup ice, 2/3 cup citrus soda) into a large bowlfrom a recipe posted on an overhead cabinet (Figure 1). Provided measuringutensils included an arbitrary sized scoop for the powder, a 1/3 measuringteaspoon for sugar, and 1/3 measuring cup for the remaining ingredients.Participants could add the ingredients in whatever sequence felt comfortable,and could freely rearrange countertop items excluding the punch bowl thatwas optimally positioned for the Cook’s Collage cameras.5.2Participants22 graduate students (14 male, 8 female) of ages 23-51 participated in thisstudy. None of the participants learned how to count to ten in Chinese orVietnamese prior to the study. 19 reported having previously usedaudiotapes to learn a foreign language (e.g., English, French, German,Italian, Spanish, Greek, Japanese, Russian), of which four reported multitasking more than 75% of the time while listening to language tapes. Themajority of the participants reported multitasking more than 50% of the timewhile preparing food and drinks within their kitchen.5.3Cook’s Collage IntroductionPrior to the experiment, each participant was given an overview of theCook’s Collage and the layout of the kitchen. The display features weredebriefed, and a brief demo highlighted how updates of new images andnumber annotations occurred. The system limitations were also noted.Particularly, participants were told to expect variable time latency perdisplay update. It is important to note that no hints about developingparticular strategies for system use were given to the participants. Rather, theintent was to inform participants of the system features and limitations,allowing each participant to decide if and how Cook’s Collage could be auseful memory aid. This debriefing constitutes the only introduction to thesystem that each participant received, thereby rendering each participant as atrue first-time user of the system.
245.4Quan T.Tran, Gina Calcaterra, Elizabeth D. MynattUnits of MeasurementWe quantitatively and qualitatively compare participant performances acrossthe four conditions. For the language task, participant rated the pace of thetape drills and indicated which numbers they believed they learned andremembered, writing in reasons for numbers they believed they had notlearned and remembered. A short oral quiz (e.g., reciting numbers in correctsequence and translating two random numbers) was administered to assessactual learning performance. For the punch task, we conducted semistructured interviews to gauge user experience qualitatively. We used videorecord of the dual task to compare actual performance to participants’perceived performance. We used another video record to tally the number oftimes a user glanced at the display and the time duration of each glance.6.EXPERIMENTAL FINDINGSThe experimental results produce further evidence that multitasking whilecooking does cause memory slips, that memory slips are problematic forcertain cooking tasks, and that many existing memory strategies peoplemake use of can be faulty. We report how the cooks used Cook’s Collage tocope with the taxing memory demands of certain cooking situations. Weargue that a memory aid is helpful only if it is balanced correctly with acomplementary memory strategy and only if the accuracy of the memory aidis trusted.6.1Did the dual task overload working memory?Yes. Overall, participants recalled significantly fewer words in the dual taskconditions than in the single task conditions, t 4.294, p .OO 1. None of the22 subjects rated the pace of the single task as too fast. 10 (45.5%) of theparticipants rated the pace of the task as “just right” on all four conditions.However, 11 (50%) of the participants rated a relative increase in the pace ofthe audiotape during the dual task conditions. One participant rated the paceof the audiotape on all four conditions as “too slow.” Thus, any relativedifference in the pace of the tape in the dual task conditions was rated as anincrease most likely due to the increased cognitive load of the participants.No significant difference was found between the number of words aparticipant recalled on the first single task and the second single task, t(2 1) -1.164, p .257. We can conclude that Chinese and Vietnamese are ofrelatively equal difficulty level for individuals who do not speak an Asianlanguage.
Cook's collage6.225Did participants adopt successful memory strategiesto aid them in the dual task?Participants employed a variety of memory strategies in an attempt toexternalize the information about the ingredients added and the number ofingredient counts completed, that they would otherwise hold in workingmemory. For example, some cooks used relative grouping of ingredients onthe kitchen countertop to remind themselves which ingredients have beenadded and which have yet to be added. This however did not externalizeinformation such as the number of counts of a particular ingredient that wereadded. In fact, most of the strategies participants adopted were notcompletely successful. As an example, some participants counted on theirfingers to aid them in keeping tracking of ingredient counts. However, theirtiming was often problematic because the repeated numbers on the tape wereeasily confused with the ingredient count numbers, and this sometimes leadto counting errors. Other cooks used the drilling pattern in which numbersare presented on the language learning task to pace their ingredientadditions. This strategy worked very well for this dual task, since thegrouping of the numbers on the tape was in fives as well as the grouping ofmost of the ingredients. However ingenious though, this strategy cannot begeneralized to other multitasking scenarios, and thus cannot be consideredan effective way for the cook to externalize working memory informationinto the world in a typical dual task situation. Thus, though people did adopta variety of memory strategies to aid them in multitasking while cooking,these strategies were often faulty and would not generalize w e l to allmultitasking situations that a person may find himself in while cooking.6.3Did first-time users find the memory system useful?Yes, the memory system can be useful if the user adopts a successfulstrategy for adding the ingredients and using the memory aid during the dualtask. Here we define a strategy as a way of utilizing the memory aid to helpin the punch preparation task, allowing the participant to concentrate moreon the primary task. We found that participants who had no practiceperforming a dual task before using the memory aid tie., with memory aid,without memory aid order of conditions) had a harder time developing asuccessful strategy for using the system, and in some cases chose not to usethe system at all but rather relied on their own personal memory strategies.63.6% (7/11) of the participants who received the dual task conditionwithout memory support before receiving the memory support condition diduse the memory aid and even developed a successful strategy of interleavingingredients when they had the memory aid available to them. This strategy
26Quan T.Tran, Gina Calcaterra, Elizabeth D. Mynattwas effective because it allowed the cook to add an arbitrary number ofscoops of an ingredient, and then add more scoops later on based on theoutput displayed on the collage for that ingredient. They let the system first“catch up” with them and then determined what steps remained, rather thankeeping track of the counts themselves and adding all of an ingredient atonce. On the other hand, only 27.3% (311 1) of the participants who receivedthe dual task conditions in the reverse order developed a strategy for usingthe system. Thus, participants who were already familiar with the dual taskwere better able to develop a strategy the second time they were put in a dualtask situation. Many of the participants who had prior exposure to the dualtask situation openly admitted in the post-task interviews that their ownpersonal memory strategies used when they did not have the aid had beenfaulty, and they felt that using the aid would be a better alternative to relyingon their own memory. This pattern was not observed with participants whohad not had prior exposure to the dual task before having the option of usingthe aid. These participants tended to rely more on their own memorystrategies, such as those discussed in a previous section, and did not see aneed for the memory aid. In summary, practice with the dual task beforebeing exposed to the memory support system made many participantsoffload their memory of the running list of used ingredients and the runningcount of multiple ingredients onto the aid rather than relying on their ownmemory strategies which had proved faulty in the previous dual tasksituation. They were also more able to develop a strategy for using thesystem to help them perform the dual task.6.4Following practice performing a dual task, can thememory system improve performance on theprimary task?Many of the participants who did offload their working memory of therunning list of used ingredients and the running count of multiple ingredientsactually improved their performance on the primary (language learning)task. The number of words recalled on the language quiz given after eachcondition was used as a quantitative measure of performance. 45.5% (5/11)of participants who received practice performing the dual task prior tointroduction of the memory aid, either improved or showed consistentperformance on the memory recall quiz. 4 of these participants actuallychanged their strategy from chunhng ingredients (adding all scoops of aparticular ingredient at once) on the first dual task condition to a strategy ofinterleaving ingredients on the dual task with memory support. We foundthat the participants who showed improved or consistent performance with
27Cook's collagethe memory aid developed this strategy of interleaving ingredients to use thetime latency of the memory support to their advantage. For example, oneparticipant adopted a strategy that took advantage of the memory aid by 1)initially adding an arbitrary number of the 29 scoops of sugar, 2) moving onto those ingredients with a smaller number of steps, 3) referring to thedisplay to see where she left off on the sugar count, and 4) adding the finalscoops of sugar. Two participants actually improved their performance byadopting this strategy (e.g., P l y P26). On the contrary, we found thatparticipants who maintained a strategy of chunking ingredients in both dualtask conditions (e.g., P9, P22) showed no improvements in memory recall.Due to the latency and transitions of the display updates, chunking did notprove to be a very successful strategy for performing the punch task.Examples of both successful and unsuccessful strategies employed by 5 ofthe participants are shown in Table 1."able 1. Examples of meStrategies adopted byparticipants in dualtask conditionsPI - improvedperformance withmemory aid3rystrategies in the twoWithout aidial task conditions.With aidchunking (tap fingeron counter after everyYdscoop of sugar)P26 - improvedperformance withmemory aidchunking (lost count atscoop 6 , attempted torestart count, had toguess)P I 1 - perfectperformance on bothconditionschunking (countedsugar in increments ofP9 - decrease inperformance withmemory aidchunking (counted onfingers, "stored themost recent count inmy head")Chunking (tried tomake a mental noteafter each set of 5SCOODS were added)interleaving (add OJ, water, powder,arbitrary amount of sugar, ice soda, thenrefer back to display and add remainingsugar)interleaving (add arbitrary amount ofsugar, add water, OJ, look at displayand add another arbitrary amount ofsugar, add ice, soda, powder, look atdisplay and add the rest of the sugar)interleaving (add powder, OJ, water,ice, arbitrary amount of sugar, add soda,refer to display and add remainingamount of sugar)chunking (add OJ, water, powder, addsugar, waiting for display to catch up,add more sugar, a
Cook‘s collage 19 of everyday cooking. The use of unedited raw video accentuates the reality of the cooking experience and personalizes the cooking narrative. Figure 2.Cook‘s Collage display 2.6 Units Cook’s Collage represents a single step in a recipe as a unit of action, and show
This plan addresses both Cook County and the Grand Portage Reservation. Grand Portage lies within the boundaries of Cook County, but is managed by the Tribe and is not subject to Cook County's administration. However, for the purposes of brevity, this plan will be referred to as the Cook County Comprehensive Trails Plan.
Serena Barton’s Wabi-Sabi Art Workshop —Full of good ideas for mixed media work, including lots of collage. Best inspira3on I got was to use collage over parts of old artworks, crea3ng a piece of new artwork. “Pared down to its barest essence, wabi-sabi is the Japanese art
2) Create a Collage: Cut and paste pictures from clipart or old magazines to make a collage showing the literary elements (characters, setting, events, conflict(s), climax, resolution, themes etc.) for your book read. Use a poster board for the collage. 3) Character Interview: Interview
as an art media and explain what a collage is. 2. Provide paper, magazines, and glue. 3. State the art directive: "Create one collage with images of people who look like they are communicating well. Create another collage with images of people who look like they are communicating poorly." Give residents approximately 20-25 minutes to
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Independent Personal Pronouns Personal Pronouns in Hebrew Person, Gender, Number Singular Person, Gender, Number Plural 3ms (he, it) א ִוה 3mp (they) Sֵה ,הַָּ֫ ֵה 3fs (she, it) א O ה 3fp (they) Uֵה , הַָּ֫ ֵה 2ms (you) הָּ תַא2mp (you all) Sֶּ תַא 2fs (you) ְ תַא 2fp (you
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