High School Chemistry Rapid Learning Series

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1 PageHigh School Chemistry Rapid Learning SeriesCourse Study Guide All rights Reserved, Rapid Learning Inc.RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

2 PageIntroduction to High School ChemistryHigh School Chemistry is often a student’s first exposure to chemistry. You may not even be sure what“chemistry” really is. Many High Schools and Colleges are now requiring students to take High SchoolChemistry. This series will introduce you to the basic concepts and problem solving included every HighSchool Chemistry Course, typically a two-semester class.Learning chemistry is about the understanding of the key concepts and the application of theseconcepts onto problem solving in chemistry. These two key ingredients are also the focus of this course.Unlike traditional textbooks, this Rapid Learning series will introduce you the chemistry via visuallearning and smart teaching.There are total of 24 chapters in this course, each chapter will require the study of three components:core tutorial, problem drill and review sheet.Let us put some real effort to learn chemistry, one hour at a time. Execute your study plan and carryyour learning to the finish line.RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

3 PageTable of ContentsCore Unit #1 – Introduction to the Tools of ChemistryIn this core unit, you will build the basics to chemistry mastery. With these skills, you will form a solidfoundation to understand chemistry and problem solving.Tutorial 01: Introduction to Chemistry The Metric and SI Systems Measurement and Uncertainty Significant Figures Fundamental Constants used in Chemistry Brief overview of topics to be included in future tutorials Tips for studying chemistryTutorial 02: Math for Chemistry Algebra Calculating with significant figures Scientific Notation Logarithms Calculator tipsTutorial 03: Dimensional Analysis (Factor-Label Method) What is dimensional analysis? What equalities are used commonly in chemistry? How is dimensional analysis performed? How is dimensional analysis used in chemistry?Tutorial 04: Solving Chemistry Problems in Chemistry General Problem solving technique Problem solving technique for word problems Preparing for tests Taking testTutorial 05: Matter & Energy Definition of Chemistry Matter Energy Changes Properties Scientific ProcessCore Unit #2 – Atoms, Molecules and ReactionsIn this core unit, you will learn the language of chemistry and basic calculations.Tutorial 06: Pure Substances: Atoms and Molecules Atoms Ions Element Symbols Isotopes Atoms, Elements, and MoleculesTutorial 07: Writing Chemical Formulas Binary Ionic Formulas Polyatomic Ionic FormulasRapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

4 Page Ionic with multivalent metals FormulasBinary Covalent FormulasAcids FormulasTutorial 08: Naming Chemical Compounds Binary Ionic Naming Polyatomic Ionic Naming Ionic with Multivalent Metals Naming Binary Covalent Naming Acids NamingTutorial 09: Counting Molecules: The Mole The Mole Molar Mass Percent Composition Empirical formulas Molecular formulasTutorial 10: Chemical Reactions Components of a chemical reaction Common types of chemical reactions Determine products of a double replacement reaction Using solubility rules to determine a precipitateTutorial 11: Balancing Equations Using The Law of Conservation of Mass to balance the equations Choosing which atom to begin balancing with Inspection method of balancingTutorial 12 The Math of Chemical Equations: Stoichiometry Review of: Chemical equations; Dimensional Analysis; KUDOS method; Molarity Mole-Mole problems Mole-mass problems Mass-mass problems Mole-volume problems for solutions Mole-volume problems for gasesCore Unit #3 – The Electronic StructuresIn this core unit, you will learn the building blocks for chemistry and the most important concept –electrons.Tutorial 13: Electron Configuration Atomic structure Electron configurationsTutorial 14: The Periodic Table Periodic table Periodicity Ionic RadiiTutorial 15: Chemical Bonding Types of Bonding & Characteristics Valence Bonding TheoryTutorial 16: Drawing Molecules Review of bondingRapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

5 Page Lewis StructuresTutorial 17: Molecular Geometry Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Determining electron geometry Determining molecular geometryCore Unit #4 – States of MatterIn this core unit, you will be introduced to two states of matter—gases and solutionsTutorial 18: The Gas Laws Pressure Temperature Kinetic Molecular Theory Explanations of gas behavior Gas laws Gas stoichiometry Real GasesTutorial 19: Solutions Process of solution formation Factors affecting solubility Concentration calculations Electrolyte solutions ColloidsCore Unit #5 – The Control of Chemical ReactionsIn this core unit, you will learn all about the reactions and their energetics.Tutorial 20: Equilibrium & Rates of Reaction Collision Theory Reaction Coordinate Diagrams Factors affecting rate Dynamic equilibrium Equilibrium constant Reaction quotient Le Chatelier’s principleTutorial 21: Acids and Bases Acids and base definitions Properties of acids and bases Strong versus weak acids and bases pH scale Acid and base properties of salts Buffers TitrationsTutorial 22: Energy & Physical Changes Energy, temperature and heat Specific heat capacity Heats of fusion & vaporization Heating curves CalorimetryTutorial 23: Energy & Chemical ChangesRapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

6 Page Energy, temperature and heatHeat of reactionHeat of formationHess’s LawCalorimetryEntropyFree EnergyTutorial 24: Electrochemistry Oxidation numbers Balancing redox reactions (oxidation number method & Half-reaction method) Voltaic cells Cell potentials Electrolytic cellsRapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

7 PageTutorial Series FeaturesThis tutorial series is a carefully selected collection of core concept topics in high school chemistrythat covers the essential concepts and problem solving. It features three core parts: Concept Tutorials – 24 essential topics Problem-Solving Drills – 24 practice sets Super-Review Cheat Sheets – 24 super review sheetsCore Component#1: Visual Tutorials (x24) Self-contained tutorials, not just an outline Concept map showing inter-connections of related concepts Definition slides introduced contextually Visual representation of new concepts Molecular visualization of structures Molecular animations of reactions Animated problem solving step by step A concise summaryCore Component #2: Problem-Solving Drills (x24) Chapter-related problems Feedback-based drills Intereactive on every click Complete solutions at the end Review and retake at willCore Component #3: Super-Review Sheets (x24) Key concepts and formulas for the chapter One-page summary sheet per chapter Printable in PDFSupplemental Component #1: Printable eBooks (x24) Well formatted printable tutorials One eBook per chapter with total of 24 Easy reading for re-cap and final reviewSupplemental Component #2: Audiobooks (x24) Learning on-to-go 24 mp3 audiobooks for 24 chapters Enhancement to visual learning Immersion study anywhere anytimeRapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

8 Page01: Introduction to ChemistryTutorial SummaryThe Metric and SI (International System) of units is used throughout chemistry. The metric system isbased on prefixes showing the power of 10 used with base units describing the quantity measured.Chemistry is an experimental science; therefore it is necessary to take careful measurements.Measurements should always include one more decimal place than the instrument indicates forcertain—this last decimal place should be a “0” if the measurement is “on the line” and a “5” if themeasurement is “in-between the lines.” Most measurements are understood to be /- 1 in the lastdecimal place, unless another uncertainty value is given with the measurement.Once careful measurements are taken, the precision with which they were measured can not beheightened while doing calculations, nor should it be lost and allowed to become less precise.Therefore, there are rules about counting “significant figures” which indicate which were measured forcertain. Rules on performing calculations with significant figures will be introduced in a later tutorial.There are many other “Basic skills” needed in chemistry, but they will be introduced throughout thetutorial series when they are needed.Tutorial Features Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previouslyintroduced.Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.Visual representation of concepts.Animated examples—worked out step by step.A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.Concepts Covered The Metric and SI Systemso Metric prefixeso SI unitso Common non-SI unitsMeasurement and Uncertaintyo Tools common in Chemistry Labso Taking measurementso UncertaintySignificant Figureso Why they’re usedo How to count themFundamental Constants used in ChemistryBrief overview of topics to be included in future tutorials:o The language of chemistryo The periodic tableo Dimensional analysiso Scientific notationo Use of scientific calculatorsTips for Studying ChemistryContent ReviewChemistry is an experimental science; therefore it is necessary to be able to work with units andmeasurements accurately.Metric SystemThe metric system is based on prefixes that indicate a power of 10 with base units.RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

9 s commonly used in chemistrySymbolMultiplek1000d0.1c0.01m0.001 0.000001n0.000000001SI SystemThe International System of units gives a standard unit for each type of measurement.SI Units commonly used in mount of substanceMoleMolEnergyJouleJChargeCoulombCThere are also some important non-SI units as well.Non-SI Units commonly used in ratureCelcius CTaking measurementsMeasurements must be taken accurately. Always write down one more decimal place than theinstrument tells for certain—a “0” if it’s “one the line” and a “5” if it’s “between the lines.”Significant FiguresThe significant figure rules are to allow people to read data or calculations and know with whatprecision the data was taken. The significant rules can be summarized in two rules: (1) If a decimalpoint is not present, count digits starting with the first the first non-zero number and ending with thelast non-zero number; (2) If a decimal point is present anywhere in the number, start counting with thefirst non-zero number and continue until the end of the number. Rules on how to perform calculationswith significant figures will be given in a future tutorial.Fundamental ConstantsSeveral numbers are used throughout chemistry and are important to be familiar with.Fundamental constants commonly used in chemistryNameSymbolConstantAvogadro’s #NA6.02 X 1023 mol-1Speed of lightc3.0 X 108 m/s8.31 L * kPaGas constantRmole * K0.0821 L * atmmole * KPlanck’s constantCharge of electronAtomic mass unitStd Temp & PressureRapidLearningCenter.comhe STP6.63 10-34 J·s1.6 10-19 C1.66 10-24 g273.15 K & 1 atm Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

10 P a g e02: Math for ChemistryTutorial SummaryMath skills are crucial throughout chemistry. This tutorial reviews basic algebra needed in chemistrycalculations. Writing answers with the correct number of significant figures is taught, along with writingand reading numbers in scientific notation. Performing calculations with exponents, including those inscientific notation, is illustrated. Logarithms, both base 10 and natural logs, are taught. The quadraticequation is demonstrated. Finally, calculator survival tips are given to ensure the answer you type inwhat you intend. All mathematical concepts are illustrated with chemistry applications—each one isactually used in chemistry calculations.Tutorial Features Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previouslyintroduced.Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.Visual representation of concepts.Animated examples—worked out step by step.A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.Examples of the math techniques use chemistry applications.Concepts Covered Algebrao Solving for a variable in addition/subtraction and multiplication/divisionCalculating with significant figureso Addition/subtractiono Multiplication/divisionScientific Notationo Writing in scientific notationo Reading scientific notationo Calculations with scientific notationLogarithmso Logarithms with base 10Calculator tipsContent ReviewMath skills are needed throughout a chemistry course.AlgebraAlgebra is used to solve equations by un-doing whatever is being done to an unknown variable. Forexample, if an equation has “x 2” then you would subtract “2” to solve for “x”. Everything that is doneto one side must be done to the other side of the equation as well.Calculations with significant figuresYou cannot become more precise after completing calculations than the original data was. Therefore, itis important to write the answer with the correct number of significant figures. When adding andsubtracting with significant figures, you write the answer with the least number of decimal places thatare in the problem. When multiplying and dividing, write the answer with the least number ofsignificant figures as is in the problems.Scientific NotationScientific notation is a way of writing large or small numbers as a multiple of 10. The decimal place isalways placed behind the first non-zero number and the number of times the decimal point was movedto get there is used as the exponent of 10. Positive exponents represent large numbers ( 1) andnegative exponents represent small numbers ( 1).RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

11 P a g eThere are when working with scientific notation numbers: Addition with same powers of 10: Add the numbers and keep the power of 10 the same. Subtraction with the same powers of 10: Subtract the numbers and keep the power of 10 thesame. Multiplication: Multiply the numbers and add the powers of 10. Division: Divide the numbers and subtract the powers of 10. Power: Take the number to that power and multiply the power of 10 by the power. Roots: Take the root of the number and divide the power of 10 by the root.LogarithmsLogarithms are a way of counting in multiples of a base number. Ifx log b y then y b x . If no baseis specified, it’s assumed to be 10.Calculator TipsPeople often get incorrect answers simply from a mistake in the way they enter numbers into theircalculator. When dividing by more than one number, use the button each time. When you enter ascientific notation, always use the EE (or EXP) button rather than entering ( 10). Be sure to useparenthesis around addition and subtraction when combining with multiplication and division, and alsowhen taking a value (especially a negative value) to a power.RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

12 P a g e03: Dimensional AnalysisTutorial SummaryDimensional analysis is a technique for converting units based upon equalities. The technique is thebasis for stoichiometry—a key chemistry calculation—presented later in the series.Tutorial Features Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previouslyintroduced.Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.Visual representation of concepts.Animated examples—worked out step by step.A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.Problem-solving techniques are used to work out the example problems.Concepts Covered What is dimensional analysis?o What is the principle behind dimensional analysis?What equalities are used commonly in chemistry?How is dimensional analysis performed?How is dimensional analysis used in chemistry?Content ReviewDimensional analysis is used to convert units.The Principle Behind Dimensional AnalysisThe guiding principle of dimensional analysis is that you can multiply anything by “1” without changingthe meaning. An equality set into a fraction formation 1. For example, if x y, then x/y 1 and y/x 1. Therefore, the equalities can be set into fractions and multiplied to convert units.Another concept necessary to understanding dimensional analysis is that units that are on the top andbottom of an expression cancel out.Equalities Commonly used in Dimensional AnalysisSeveral equalities are used often in chemistry.Equalities commonly used in chemistry4.18 J1.00 cal1Å10-10 m31 cm1 mL1 dm31L1 in2.54 cm1 kg2.2 lb1 atm101.3 kPa1 atm760 mm Hg1 mole6.02 1023 piecesMetric prefixes are also used to form equalities between different metric units.Dimensional AnalysisTo work dimensional analysis problems: Write your known down on the left side. Write down “ [desired unit]” at the right side.RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

13 P a g e Identify equalities that will get you from the known information to the desired unit. If there isno equality that involves both the known and unknown, you’ll have to find more than one tomore than one step.Arrange the equalities into a fractional form so that the known unit will cancel out and thedesired unit will be left.Multiply across the top of the expression and divide numbers on the bottom.RapidLearningCenter.com Rapid Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved

14 P a g e04: Problem Solving in ChemistryTutorial SummaryYou will encounter problems throughout your chemistry course. A “problem” is anytime you don’t knowhow to get from the known information to the unknown information. Having a systematic method to“attack” problems can make them much easier. A general problem-solving technique is introduced inthis tutorial as well as a specific technique for word problems. Tips for preparing for and taking testsare also given.Tutorial Features Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previouslyintroduced.Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.Visual representation of concepts.Animated examples—worked out step by step.A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.The problem-solving technique is applied to chemistry applications.Concepts Covered General problem solving techniqueProblem solving technique for word problemsPreparing for testsTaking testsContent ReviewProblem-solving can be a very difficult task. But when a specific “attack” is used, the problems can besolved much more easily.General Problem-Solving TechniqueA technique for solving any type of problem involves: Identify what’s being given. Clarify what’s being asked. Select a strategy (trial and error, search, recall, deductive reasoning, working backwards, etc). Solve using the selected strategy. Review your answer.Problem-Solving Technique for Word ProblemsA problem-solving strategy that turns the above “general” strategy into a strategy specifically forsolving word problems is the KUDOS method: K Known (identify the known). U Unknown (identify the unknown). D Definition (identify definitions, equations, equalities, constants needed). O Output (use your definitions to output an answer). S Substantiation (check appropriateness, units and significant figures of your answer).Preparing for a TestThere are several tips to help you prepare for a test: Stay ahead of the game. Don’t wait until the l

High School Chemistry is often a student’s first exposure to chemistry. You may not even be sure what “chemistry” really is. Many High Schools and Colleges are now requiring students to take High School Chemistry. This series will introduce you to the basic concepts and problem solving included every High School Chemistry Course, typically a two-semester class. Learning chemistry is ...