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Sixth editionFirst published 2000All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press,or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriatereprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproductionoutside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department,Oxford University Press, at the address aboveYou must not circulate this book in any other binding or coverand you must impose this same condition on any acquirerBritish Library Cataloging in Publication DataData availableLibrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataData availableISBN 0-19-866244-01 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2Typeset in SeverinPrinted in Great Britain byBiddies LtdGuildford and King's LynnOXFORD COMPANION TO ENGLISHLITERATURETHE OXFORD COMPANION TOENGLISH LITERATURESIXTH EDITIONEDITED BYMARGARET DRABBLEOXPORDUNIVERSITY PRESSOXFORDUNIVERSITY PRESSGreat Clarendon Street, Oxford 0x2 6DPOxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship,and education by publishing worldwide inOxford New YorkAthens Auckland Bangkok Bogotá Buenos Aires CalcuttaCape Town Chennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong IstanbulKarachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City MumbaiNairobi Paris Sào Paulo Shanghai Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsawwith associated companies in Berlin IbadanOxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Pressin the UK and in certain other countriesPublished in the United Statesby Oxford University Press Inc., New York Margaret Drabble and Oxford University Press 2000The moral rights of the author have been assertedDatabase right Oxford University Press (maker)First edition 1932Second edition 1937Third edition 1946Fourth edition 1967Fifth edition 1985CONTENTSPreface viiAdvisors and Contributors ixAbbreviations xNote to Reader xiTHE OXFORD COMPANION TO ENGLISH LITERATURE IAppendix i 1131Appendix 2 1169Appendix 3 1170IIPREFACETHIS volume isan updating of the Fifth Edition of The OxfordCompanion to English Literaturewhich was first published in 1985, and reprinted several times withcorrections and revisions.[1]

It incorporates much of the material from the 1985 edition, but therehave been verysubstantial additions and some deletions, and some differentguidelines have been introduced.The most significant of these is the decision not to maintain theprinciple of an age barrier. Inthe previous volume, no writers born after 1939 were included. Inthis one, we have not hadrecourse to a cut-off birth date. It seemed important at this stage totry to be inclusive ratherthan exclusive. Inevitably the names of younger writers will provemore controversial, but Ihope the selection here, which aims to be illustrative rather thanencyclopaedic, will give abroad sense of what was being written at the turn of the millennium.I have been much helpedhere by younger advisers, who see a different map of literature fromthe one with which mygeneration is familiar. But I hope the solid outline of the old oneremains clearly visible.We have maintained the practice of using unsigned entries, thoughadvisers and contributorsare acknowledged on page ix. We have also stood by the principle ofincluding foreignauthors, most of whom have been treated not as they might havebeen in their own countries,but in the context of English literature, and I mean English literature,not literature in English,which is another matter altogether. The inclusion of foreignlanguage authors, as well as postcolonialand American writers in English, has made for some very difficultdecisions. It wouldhave been simpler and easier to exclude them all, but the resultingvolume would, I believe,have been far less useful and less interesting.This book remains a companion for the general reader, although itwill also, I hope, be of useto the student, the scholar, and the journalist. There are fewer'general knowledge' entries, butwe have more entries on critical theory, all expressed in plainlanguage and accessible to thenon-specialist. Other growth areas of subject matter are also verystriking. We have, notably,more women writers and more post-colonial writers, thoughinevitably we will not haveincluded enough to satisfy experts in these fields. Space has beensaved by compressing someof the entries on artists and musicians, who were very generouslyrepresented in the lastedition, and by a judicious and tactful pruning of the entries for themany works of Sir WalterScott. We have kept many but not all of the character references,and have reduced the numberof cross-references. There are no hard and fast rules for findingcharacters: common sense is theguide, and thus Zuleika Dobson and Zeal-of-the-land Busy stillappear under Z (always anunderrepresented letter of the alphabet), where I guess most wouldexpect to find them. But ifyou do not find your character (or your title) where you first seek forit, please try again underthe most obvious alternative. We cannot cover all possibilities, andconsistency, althoughadmirable, can also be misleading.[2]

I have had a long association with this enterprise, which has over theyears generated a greatdeal of correspondence. Those who have written to me and to theOxford University Press havegiven me a good sense of what readers want from a volume like this,and what they have missedin it. I have done my best to respond to suggestions. I recognize thatthe role of the work ofreference is changing rapidly. It is impossible to satisfy all demandsin a one-volume book.I would like to repeat my thanks to all those who helped me at theinitiation of this project in1979, some of whom have continued to offer advice and support. Imust also add my thanks tothose who have helped in major and minor ways with contacts,suggestions, answers toqueries, books, technological advice, and much needed moralsupport. These include VivienAllen, Antonia Byatt, A. S. Byatt, Tony Callaghan, Edward Chaney,William Chislett, JonathanDelamont, Jane Edwardes, Magdalen Fergusson, Harold Landry,Helen Langdon, Mark LeFanu, David Lodge, Colin Lucas, Alan Myers, Lavinia Orton,Ursula Owen, Michael Sissons,Fiona Stafford, Oliver Taplin, and Tim Waterstone, as well as manyreaders who have writtenin with corrections and ideas for new entries. I would also like tothank the public libraries ofthe Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and their helpfullibrarians.The members of my family have, as ever, been more than helpful.Several of them appear inthe list of contributors, but my use of them in this capacity canhardly be construed as nepotism,for the financial rewards of writing for this volume are not great. Myhusband Michael Holroydhas been unfailingly patient with me in all my anxieties. I owe agreat debt to my daughterRebecca Swift, who has truly been the Companions companion, andwhose advice has beenimmensely valuable. It was she who introduced me to my assistantDaniel Hahn, withoutV i l i PREFACENevertheless, I believe that this edition has a unique value. Itscontributors include some of thefinest writers and scholars of our time, whose entries combineaccuracy and authority with witand independence. It is not a bland compilation, a mere list of datesand titles. We have aimed tobe descriptive rather than prescriptive or judgemental, but we havenot always been warilyneutral. Behind the anonymity of the articles there is a good deal ofpersonality and style.It remains for me to thank those who have helped me through thelabour of preparation, alabour which has been made simultaneously harder and easier by thenew technology. The1985 edition was compiled without benefit of word processor orelectronic text. This editionhas relied on the new technology, which creates some problems foran editor, while resolvingothers. I am very grateful to all who worked so hard to present theircontributions in an editorfriendlymanner.[3]

Clanchy, Susannah Clapp, Jeanne Clegg, Michael Coveney, Michael Cox,Patricia Craig, Ursula Creagh, DavidDabydeen, Hilary Dickinson, Charles Drazin, Dorothy Driver, TonyDurham, P. Edwards, A. C. Elias, G. Engle,Michael Erben, Lukas Erne, Magdalen Fergusson, Penelope Fitzgerald,Kate Flint, R. A. Foakes, Mark Ford,Margaret Forster, Ian Gibson, Stuart Gillespie, Nicholas Gleghorn, GillGregory, John Gribbin, V. GrosvenorMyer, P. S. Guptara, Daniel Hahn, Alethea Hayter, Andrew Hedgecock, L.Heyworth, Lesley Higgins, MichaelHofmann, R. V. Holdsworth, P. Holland, Richard Holmes, MichaelHolroyd, Ted Honderich, Michael Horovitz,J. D. Hunt, F. L. Huntley, Simon James, Jeri Johnson, Hester Jones, P.Jones, Daniel Karlin, J. P. Kenyon, PaulinaKewes, Tom Keymer, Lynn Knight, Mary Lago, Sarah Lawson, JohnLevitt, Paul Levy, Andrew McAllister, PeterMcDonald, Helen McNeil, P. Merchant, J. Milton, Julian Mitchell, R.T.Mole, J. Moore, Sheridan Morley, BrianMorris, R. Musgrave, W. Myers, Ira Nadel, Benedict Nightingale, SeanO'Brien, Leonard Orr, Fintan O'Toole,Judith Palmer, Catherine Peters, Ralph Pite, Kate Pool, Roy Porter, LoisPotter, Jocelyn Powell, Richard Price,Tore Rem, Matthew Reynolds, R. Robbins, David Rodgers, NicholasRoyle, Salman Rushdie, M. Secrest, RogerSharrock, Ned Sherrin, Jan Lo Shinebourne, Tom Shippey, MelanieSilgardo, Helen Small, R. D. Smith, ColinSmythe, Jane Spencer, Hilary Spurling, David Stafford, Meic Stephens,Anthony Storr, Matthew Sweet,Adam Swift, Clive Swift, Rebecca Swift, Helen Thomson, AnthonyThwaite, Antonia Till, E. M. Trahern,Jeremy Treglown, Jenny Turner, John Tydeman, Sue Vice, Brian Vickers,Stephen Wall, C. Webster, DuncanWebster, Stanley Wells, John Wilders, David Womersley, P. Wood,Gregory Woods.\;,/-Mwhom I might well have been working for another millennium. Icould not have completed thistask without his help and the benefit of his many skills.M. D.July 19991IADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORSIsobel Armstrong ( i9th-century poetry), Rosemary Ashton (German),Christopher Baldick (CriticalTheory), Jacques Berthoud, with Stephen Minta and Jack Donovan(French), Michael Billington(20th-century drama), R. R. Bolgar (Classics), Gordon Campbell (17thcentury), John Carey(Metaphysicals), Jonathan Coe (20th-century fiction), Tony Curtis (Welshliterature), Stevie Davies(17th century), Katherine Duncan-Jones (16th century), Barbara Garvin(Italian), Julian Graffy(Russian), Harriet Harvey Wood (Walter Scott), Helen Langdon (Art),Ceridwen Lloyd-Morgan(Welsh literature), Bernard O'Donoghue (Old and Middle English), RobinRobertson (20th-centurypoetry), Michael Rose (Music), Harvey Sachs (Music), M. A. Stewart(i8th-century philosophy),Michael Suarez (18th century), Sheila Sullivan (i8th-io,th-century topics),John Sutherland (19thcenturyfiction), Jason Wilson (Latin American literature), H. R. Woudhuysen(16th century).Dawn Ades, Brian Aldiss, Carole Angier, Lisa Appignanesi, GillianAvery, Robert Barnard, Jonathan Barnes,John Batchelor, D. Berman, Paul Binding, J. W. Binns, V. Blain, A. Bold,C. Bryce, F. Burns, Ian Buruma, MarilynButler, H. Carpenter, Helen Carr, Vincent Carretta, Ciaran Carson, GlenCavaliero, Graham Caveney, Kate[4]

confer, compareCompanion of HonourchapterCambridge History of Ancient LiteratureCambridge History of English LiteratureThe Canterbury TalesdiedDictionary of National BiographyEncyclopaedia Britannicaeditor, or edited byeditionEarly English Text SocietyOriginal SeriesExtra SeriesSupplementary SeriesIf no series is specified, thevolume referred to is in theOriginal SeriesEnglish Men of Lettersff. and followingfl. floruit, flourishedFr. FrenchGk. GreekLat. LatinI., II., line, linesLXX SeptuagintME Middle EnglishMLR Modern Language ReviewN & Q Notes and QueriesNT New TestamentOE Old English (Anglo-Saxon)OED Oxford English DictionaryOM Order of Meritop. cit. opus citatum, work quotedOS Old Style dating, or calendarABBREVIATIONSa.ad fin.ASPRb.BCPBM ESssEMLante, beforeadfinem, near the endAnglo-Saxon Poetic RecordsbornBook of Common PrayerBritish Museum CatalogueBookcirca, aboutcentury[5]

OT Old Testamentp., pp. page, pagesPEL Periods of European LiteraturePMLA Publications of the Modern LanguageAssociation of Americapron. pronouncedPt PartRES Review of English StudiesSC. scilicet, nameSTS Scottish Text SocietyS.V. sub verbo, under the wordTLS Times Literary Supplementtrans. translation, or translated byvol. volumeIIthough they were spelled Mac, St as though it were Saint, Dr asDoctor; but Mr and Mrs areordered as they are spelled. An asterisk before a name, term, or titleindicates that there is aseparate entry for that subject, but it has been deemed unnecessaryto place an asterisk beforeevery occurrence of the name of Shakespeare. Where a personhaving his or her own entry ismentioned under another heading, the surname only is given unlessthere are entries for morethan one person of the same name, when the initial or title is shown(*Auden, F. *Bacon, Dr Johnson): the full name appears only where this is unavoidable inthe interests of clarity(Richard *Graves, Robert *Graves). Where an author and a work arementioned together, andeach has an entry, only the title of the work carries an asterisk(Pope's *Dunciad, Fielding's*Amelia). Old Spelling has been preferred, for both titles of worksand quotations, except whereits use might lead to confusion. For references to the works ofShakespeare the Alexander texthas been used throughout.NOTE TO THE READERNAMES inbold capital letters are those of real people; the headwordsof all other entries are inbold upper and lower case: italics for the titles of novels, plays, andother full-length works;roman in quotation marks for individual short stories, poems,essays; ordinary roman type forfictional characters, terms, places, and so on. Entries are in simpleletter-by-letter alphabeticalorder, with spaces, hyphens, and the definite or indefinite articleignored. This applies in alllanguages; but where a work written in English has a title in aforeign language, the articleconditions its alphabetical ordering: 'L'Allegro' and 'La Belle DameSans Merci' are both listedunder L, while L'Avare appears under Avare, V. Names beginningwith Mc or M' are ordered asAAaron's Rod, a novel by D. H. *Lawrence, published[6]

in 1907 successfully survived the riots provoked bySynge's *The Playboy of the Western World. The Fays,who had become increasingly at loggerheads withHorniman, Yeats, and the leading players, left in 1908.In 1909 Lady Gregory, as patentee, withstood strongpressure from the lord-lieutenant to withdraw TheShewing-up of Blanco Posnet, by G. B. *Shaw, beforeproduction; but the company staged it, almost uncut,knowing they might lose their patent. It was a greatsuccess and there was no more trouble with censorship.Meanwhile Miss Horniman had become increasinglydisenchanted with the company, and in 1910 didnot renew her subsidy; however she offered thepurchase of the theatre on generous terms, andYeats and Lady Gregory became principal shareholdersand managers. Over the years the early poeticdramas had been gradually replaced by more naturalisticprose works, written by *Colum, *Ervine, L. Robinson, *0'Casey, and others. Robinson took overthe management from Yeats in 1910 and with a shortbreak continued until he became director in 1923.There were contentious but highly successful tours ofIreland, England, and the USA.After the First World War the Abbey's financesbecame perilous, although O'Casey's Shadow of aGunman (1923), Juno and the Paycock (1924), andThe Plough and the Stars ( 1926) brought some respite.In 1925 the Abbey received a grant from the newgovernment of Eire, thus becoming the first statesubsidizedtheatre in the English-speaking world.From the late 1930s more plays were performed inGaelic, and actors were required to be bilingual. In1922.The biblical Aaron was the brother of Moses,appointed priest by )ehovah, whose blossoming rod(Num. 17: 4-8) was a miraculous symbol of authority.In the novel Aaron Sisson, amateur flautist, forsakeshis wife and his job as checkweighman at a colliery fora life of flute playing, quest, and adventure in bohemianand upper-class society. His flute is symbolicallybroken in the penultimate chapter as a result of a bombexplosion in Florence during political riots.Aaron the Moor, a character in Shakespeare's *TitusAndronicus, lover and accomplice of Tamora.AbbeyTheatre, Dublin, opened on 27 Dec. 1904 with adouble bill of one-act plays, W. B. *Yeats's On Baile'sStrand and a comedy Spreading the News by Lady*Gregory. The theatre rapidly became a focus of the*Irish Revival. In 1903 Miss A. E. *Horniman, a friendof Yeats from his London days, had been introduced byhim to the Irish National Theatre Society, an amateurcompany led by F. J. and W. G. Fay, which had alreadyproduced several plays by contemporary Irish writers,including Yeats's Cathleen and G. *Russell's (Al's)Deirdre. She decided to provide a permanent Dublinhome for the Society (which had Yeats for itspresident) and took over the disused theatre of theMechanics' Institute in Abbey Street (built on the siteof a previous Theatre Royal), together with the old citymorgue next door, and converted them into the AbbeyTheatre, with Lady Gregory as holder of the patent. Thecompany, led by the Fays, with Sarah Allgood asprincipal actress, turned professional in 1906, withYeats, Lady Gregory, and J. M. *Synge as directors, and[7]

1951 the theatre was burned down, and the companyplayed in the Queen's Theatre until the new Abbeyopened in 1966, where the tradition of new writing byB. *Friel, Tom *Murphy, and others continues toflourish.ABBO OF FLEURY (7945-1004), a French theologian,author of the Epitome de Vitis Romanorum Pontificumand of lives of the saints. He was invited to England by*Oswald (bishop of Worcester and archbishop of York)to teach in his monastery of Ramsey; it was at therequest of the monks of Ramsey, he tells us, that Abbowrote his 'Life of St Edmund' which was the source for*y lfric's famous sermon. Abbo became abbot ofFleury where he died; during his abbacy *Aristotle'sCategories was commented on and his Analytics copiedin Fleury.Abbot, The, a novel by Sir W *Scott, published 1820, asequel to *The Monastery. This novel, set around theescape of *Mary Queen of Scots from Loch Leven,largely redeemed the failure of The Monastery. It ismuch better constructed, but is remembered nowmainly for the portrait of Mary herself, for attractingtourist trade to Loch Leven, and for being the firstsequel novel in English, thus influencing the work of* Balzac, *Trollope, and many other i9th-cent. novelists.Abbotsford, the name of Sir W. *Scott's property nearMelrose on the Tweed, purchased in 1811, which gaveits name to the Abbotsford Club, founded in 1834 inmemory of Sir W Scott, for the purpose of publishingmaterials bearing on the history or literature of anycountry dealt with in Scott's writings. It ceased itspublications in 1865.À BECKETT, Gilbert Abbott (1811-56), educated atWestminster School and called to the bar at Gray's Inn.À BECKETT I ABSENTEE 2He was the editor of Figaro in London and on theoriginal staff of * Punch. He was for many years a leaderwriter on * The Times and the * Morning Herald, and wasappointed a Metropolitan police magistrate in 1849.He wrote many plays and humorous works, including aComic History of England (1847-8), a Comic History ofRome (1852), and a Comic Blackstone (1846).À BECKETT, Gilbert Arthur (1837-91), son of GilbertAbbott *à Beckett, educated at Westminster School andChrist Church, Oxford. He was, from 1879, like hisfather, a regular member of the staff of *Punch. Hewrote, in collaboration with W. S. *Gilbert, the successfulcomedy The Happy Land (1873).ABELARD, Peter (1079-1142), a native of Brittany, abrilliant disputant and lecturer at the schools of SteGenevi


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