Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018 2030)

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The Republic of the Union of MyanmarMyanmar Climate Change Strategy(2018 – 2030)2019

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)AcknowledgementsThe Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC)acknowledges the important contribution made by all members of the ProgrammeSteering Committee of the Myanmar Climate Change Alliance (MCCA) for their guidanceand all members of the MCCA's Technical Working Group (TWG) for their contribution informulating this strategy. The TWG comprises representatives from all key ministries anddepartments; Yangon, Mandalay and Nay Pyi Taw city development committees;academic institutions; the Union of Myanmar Federation of Chambers of Commerce andIndustry (UMFCCI); Civil Society Organisations, including the Myanmar EnvironmentRehabilitation Network (MERN), and the Platform of CSOs working on Environment andClimate Change; Myanmar Engineering Society; and Development Partners, the UnitedNations Development Programme(UNDP), Disaster Risk Reduction Working Group,Environment Sector Working Group, UN-REDD , WWF-Myanmar. These membersprovided valuable insights, ideas and strategic orientation to produce an actionablestrategy.MONREC is sincerely grateful to the European Union for the generous supportreceived through funding the MCCA programme, implemented by the United NationsHuman Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) and the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme (UN Environment). MCCA has worked as an efficient platform for conveningnational and sub-national stakeholders for the strategy formulation process from April2015 to June 2016, and to mobilize expertise to draft the Strategy. MONREC also wishesto thank the experts of the International Institute for Environment and Development(IIED), the experts who formulated the capacity development need assessments inconnection to the Strategy and MERN for facilitating the local consultations.The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC) alsoacknowledges the important contribution made by all stakeholders, including the TWG,PSC, the UMFCCI; civil society organisations, including MERN, and development partners,WWF-Myanmar, consulted for the formulation of the Myanmar Climate Change Policy(MCCP). In particular MONREC would like to thank the Environment Ministers and highlevel representatives of the Environmental Conservation Department for their valuablePage1

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)contributions and for travelling from different states and regions to attend the nationalconsultation workshops; and the experts of the International Institute for Environmentand Development (IIED) drafting team for their tireless efforts in formulating theMyanmar Climate Change Policy that provides long-term direction and guidance forgovernment, civil society, and the private sector to undertake and promote climatechange actions in adaptation and mitigation in Myanmar and to create opportunities forsustainable and low-carbon development.On behalf of the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, MONRECextends its gratitude to all citizens of Myanmar who participated in meetings at local,sub-national and national levels in more than 20 townships in five states and regions,and those who provided comments through the MCCA website and by other meansthrough out the formulation process of the Myanmar Climate Change Strategy andMaster Plan (MCCS and MCCMP) 2018-2030 and the Myanmar Climate Change Policy(MCCP).Page2

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Table of contentsAcknowledgements1Table of contents3Glossary7Acronyms9Forewords12Executive summary20Part I: Development in the context of climate change271. National circumstances271.1 Climate281.2 Demography291.3 Economic development311.4 Social development341.5 Environmental development341.6 Governance systems352. Myanmar's development vision372.1 Economic development372.2 Social development382.3 Environmental development392.4 Climate change413. Implications of climate change on development483.1 Agriculture, fisheries and livestock533.2 Environment and natural resources583.3 Energy, transport and industry643.4 Cities, towns and human settlements733.5 Climate hazards and health793.6 Education, science and technology854. Readiness and capabilities for addressing climate change90Page3

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)4.1 Policy landscape904.2 Institutional arrangements954.3 Financing mechanism964.4 Monitoring and evaluation994.5 Technology and innovation994.6 Awareness and capacity1004.7 Partnerships1014.8 Youth and children1024.9 Gender considerations103Part II: The strategy1065. Myanmar Climate Change Strategy1085.1 Strategic vision1085.2 2030 Goal1085.3 Objectives1085.4 Action areas1095.5 Priority sectors and outcomes1105.5.1. Climate-smart agriculture, fisheries and livestock for food security 1115.5.2. Sustainable management of natural resources for healthyecosystem1125.5.3. Resilient and low-carbon energy, transport and industrial systemsfor sustainable growth1125.5.4. Resilient, inclusive and sustainable cities and towns where peoplecan live and thrive5.5.5. Climate risk management for people's health and wellbeing1145.5.6. Education, science and technology for a resilient society1155.6 Strategic indicators1165.6.1 Achieving sectoral outcome1165.6.2. Phases117Part III: Implementing the strategyPage1134119

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)6. Overall mission: to direct action for addressing climate change1207. Guiding principles1218. Strategic master plan and sectoral outcomes1229. The five pillars of implementation1319.1 Policy framework1319.2 Multi-stakeholder institutional mechanism1329.3 Climate finance mechanism1399.4 Capacity-strengthening framework1419.5 Monitoring, evaluation and learning framework143References145List of FiguresFigure 1: State and Regions of Myanmar27Figure 2: (a) Myanmar's three agro-ecological zones and(b) Eight physiographic region28Figure 3: Population Density (people/km2)in Myanmar by State/Region30Figure 4: Proportion of state/region population to total population31Figure 5: Economic transformation in Myanmar32Figure 6: Structure of Myanmar's GDP, 2012-201332Figure 7: Conceptual framework of Myanmar Climate Change Strategy(2018-2030)118Figure 8: Inter-linkage of coordination body and implementing agencies134Figure 9: Key streams for financing the strategic master plan141List of TablesTable 1: Drivers of growth in the state and regions33Table 2: Climate change projections for Myanmar, based on RCP 4.545Table 3: Climate change projections for Myanmar, based on RCP 8.546Table 4: Projected sea level rise for Myanmar48Page5

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Table 5: Climate change impacts in Myanmar49Table 6: Climate change impacts on health sector81Table 7: Myanmar's climate change policies and climate change-relevant strategiesand plans92Table 8: Bilateral and multilateral spending on climate-related projectsin Myanmar97Table 9: Strategic master plan comprising expected results and strategic indicatorsfor each of the six priority sectorTable10: Mapping SDGs and MCCS sectoral outcomes123129Table 11: Mechanism for implementing, coordination and monitoring the MCCS 135Page6

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Glossary1Adaptation: The process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects. Inhuman systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficialopportunities. In some natural systems, human intervention may facilitate adjustment toexpected climate and its effects.Adaptive capacity: The ability of systems, institutions, humans and other organisms toadjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to respond toconsequences.Resilience: The capacity of social, economic and environmental systems to cope with ahazardous event or trend or disturbance, responding or reorganizing in ways thatmaintain their essential function, identity and structure, while also maintaining thecapacity for adaptation, learning and transformation.Mainstreaming: Integrating adaptation and mitigation objectives, strategies, policies,measures or operations so that they become part of national and regional developmentpolicies, processes and budgets at all levels and stages.Low-carbon development or low-emission development strategies: Though no formallyagreed definition exists, LEDS are generally used to describe forward-looking nationaleconomic development plans or strategies that encompass low-emission and/or climateresilient economic growth.Mitigation: [In the context of climate change], a human intervention to reduce thesources or enhance the sinks of GHGs.Structural transformation: The reallocation of resources from one sector to another dueto changes in economic fundamentals and policies. It results in a significant change inthe sectoral composition of gross domestic product (GDP) with the share of the primaryemployment and output sectors shifting to industry and modern services.1Sources of the Glossary: IPCC (2014); Clapp et al. (2010); WCED, 198723Figures denote 2011 estimates.GoM, 2017 National Environmental Policy of Myanmar, 2018, The Government of the Republic of thePage7

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Sustainable development : Development that meets the needs of the present withoutcompromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.Vulnerability: The propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected. Vulnerabilityencompasses a variety of concepts and elements including sensitivity or susceptibility toharm and lack of capacity to cope and adapt.Page8

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)AcronymsADBAsian Development BankAFAdaptation FundAR5Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment ReportCEDAWConvention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination AgainstWomenCO2Carbon DioxideCOPConference of PartiesCSASClimate-smart Agriculture StrategyDMHDepartment of Meteorology and HydrologyDRMDisaster Risk ManagementDRRDisaster Risk ReductionECDEnvironmental Conservation DepartmentECLEnvironmental Conservation LawFDIForeign Direct InvestmentFAOFood and Agriculture OrganizationFESRFramework for Economic and Social ReformGCFGreen Climate FundGDPGross Domestic ProductGEFGlobal Environment FacilityGEF-TFGlobal Environment Facility Trust FundGHGsGreenhouse GasesGoMGovernment of MyanmarIIEDInternational Institute for Environment and DevelopmentINCInitial National CommunicationINDCIntended Nationally Determined ContributionPage9

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)IPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeLDCFLeast Developed Countries FundM&EMonitoring and EvaluationMAPDRRMyanmar Action Plan on Disaster Risk ReductionMCCAMyanmar Climate Change AllianceMCCSMyanmar Climate Change StrategyMCCPMyanmar Climate Change PolicyMDGMillennium Development GoalsMELMonitoring, Evaluation and LearningMERNMyanmar Environment Rehabilitation NetworkMOALIMinistry of Agriculture, Livestock and IrrigationMOEMinistry of EducationMOEEMinistry of Electricity and EnergyMOHAMinistry of Home AffairsMOHSMinistry of Health and SportsMOIMinistry of IndustryMOINMinistry of InformationMONRECMinistry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (formerlyMoECAF, the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry)MOPFMinistry of Planning and FinanceMSWRRMinistry of Social Welfare, Relief and ResettlementMOTCMinistry of Transportation and CommunicationMRVMeasurement, Reporting and VerificationMSDPMyanmar Sustainable Development PlanMSMEsMicro, Small and Medium EnterprisesMTMetric TonsNAPANational Adaptation Programme of ActionPage10

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)NBSAPNational Biodiversity Strategy Action PlanNCDPNational Comprehensive Development PlanNECCCCCNational Environmental Conservation and Climate Change CentralCommitteeNEPNational Environmental PolicyNGOsNon-governmental OrganisationsNSDSNational Sustainable Development StrategyREDDReducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest DegradationRCPRepresentative Concentration PathwaysSCCFSpecial Climate Change FundSDGsSustainable Development GoalsTWGTechnical Working GroupUNUnited NationsUNCCDUnited Nations Convention to Combat DesertificationUNDPUnited Nations Development ProgrammeUNEPUnited Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment)UNFCCCUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeUN-HabitatUnited Nations Human Settlements ProgrammeUNICEFUnited Nations International Children's Emergency FundWWFWorld Wide Fund for NaturePage11

Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Myanmar Climate Change Strategy (2018-2030)Foreword by the Union MinisterIncreasingly aware of the negative effects of climate change on people, economyand infrastructure, Myanmar considers a priority the reinforcement of its policy andinstitutional capacities to adapt, as well as to participate to the global effort to curbglobal warming.For this reason, between 2015 and 2017, we have engaged in an intense work ofpolicy and strategic participatory formulation, which was possible thanks the TechnicalWorking Group of the Myanmar Climate Change Alliance Programme (MCCA), our firstever platform to coordinate and discuss climate change across ministries, cities, the civilsociety, the private sector, the university and the development partners.The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation (MONREC)has been the proud facilitator of this process that culminates with the adoption of thepresent Myanmar Climate Change Policy and its related Myanmar Climate ChangeStrategy and Master Plan 2018-2030(MCCSMP). Most importantly, it is crucial tounderline that these two documents are the r

Myanmar Climate Change Policy that provides longterm direction and guidance for - government, civil society, and the private sector to undertake and promote climate change actions in adaptation and mitigation in Myanmar and to create opportunities for sustainable and low-carbon development.

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