Cold War -

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Cold WarVS

Communism Soviet Union governmentState (government) controls everythingOpposite of democracy and capitalism (USA)

United Nations (UN) Started with 50 member countriesCreated to promote peace and discussion insteadof war

Potsdam Conference 1945US, Great Britain, and Soviet UnionStalin goes back on his promise from YaltaConference to allow free elections in Sovietcontrolled Eastern Europe

Satellite Nations Countries dominated by the Soviet UnionPoland, Czechoslovakia were two of them

NATO Formed in 1949North Atlantic Treaty Organization12 members pledged military support to eachother

Warsaw Pact Between Soviets and 7 Eastern EuropeanCountriesTheir version of NATO

Policy of Containment Policy of US government against the SovietUnionContain Communism where it was and notallow it spread anymore

Iron Curtain Metaphor for the division of Europe into Eastand WestEast Soviet controlled and communistWest Free and democratic governments

Cold War Lasted from 1945-1991No actual battlesBetween USA and Soviet Union

Truman Doctrine US policy must be to support people who wantto fight communist oppressionSpent 400 million between 1947-1950 inGreece and Turkey to prevent communisttakeover there

Marshall Plan 1947-195116 European countries received 13 billion inaidHelped western Europe rebuild from WWIIHelped gain support for democracy and keepout support for the communists

Berlin Airlift Stalin cut off all supply lines to western Berlin(controlled by the US, Great Britain and France)Dropped food and supplies into West Berlin327 days, around the clock

Berlin Wall Symbol of communismBuilt to separate East and West Berlin

Checkpoint Charlie Where Soviet and US spies smuggled peopleacross the border of West and East Berlin

China Becomes Communist US supported the nationalists led by Chang KaiShek with 3 billionCommunists led by Mao ZedongNationalists lose the civil war and are exiled toTaiwanChina becomes Communist in 1949

Korean War June 1950, North Korea attacks South KoreaNorth Korea was supported by the SovietsUnited Nations voted to attack North Koreaand defend South Korea

90 % of the troops sent by the UN were USAGeneral Douglas MacArthur led the UN forces

UN forces pushed the North Koreans backalmost to the border with ChinaChina entered the war in support of the NorthKoreans

Chinese troops outnumbered the UN 10-1US counter attacked and pushed the Chineseand North Koreans to the 38th Parallel

MacArthur was fired by President TrumanJuly 1953 a cease fire was signedBorder between North (communist) and South(democratic) Korea was the 38th Paraellel

Red Scare Fear of communism in the USACongress established the House Un-AmericanActivities Committee to investigate US peoplewho might be communistTargeted Hollywood “Hollywood Ten” refused to testify before Congress andwere put in prison

Spy? Rosenbergs (US citizens) spied for the SovietsThey were tried and convicted of espionage andsentenced to death

McCarthyism Unsupported attacks on suspected Communistsin the USA by Senator Joe McCarthy

New Soviet Leader Nikita KhrushchevFavored peaceful co-existence with the USA,not war

Election of 1960 John F. Kennedy wins (JFK)Youngest president (early 40’s)

U 2 Shot Down US spy plane shot down over RussiaPilot was captured and sentenced to prisonFueled tension between USA and USSR

Cuba Problem Fidel Castro led a revolution in Cuba and wonCuba became communist and asked for aid fromthe USSR

Bay of Pigs CIA led a secret invasion of Cuba at the Bay ofPigs by Cuban exilesA lot of things went wrong and the invasionfailed on the beaches

Cuban Missile Crisis October 1962Soviets had missile bases in Cuba ready tolaunch on the USACuba is within 100 miles of the USA

Lasted 13 daysClosest we have ever come to nuclear warUS Navy ships blockaded Cuba

Soviet ships turned back instead of fighting theUS NavyEnded when the US promised not to invadeCuba, Soviets withdrew the missiles from Cuba,and US took out missiles in Turkey

JFK Killed Assassinated on November 22, 1963 in Dallas,TexasConspiracy theories about who did itLee Harvey Oswald was killed while in policecustody and was charged with killing JFK

Cold War VS. Communism . United Nations (UN) Started with 50 member countries Created to promote peace and discussion instead of war. Potsdam Conference

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