General And Inorganic Chemistry I - Lecture 1

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General and Inorganic Chemistry ILecture 1István SzalaiEötvös UniversityIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 11 / 45

Outline1Introduction2Matter and energy3Foundations of ChemistryIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 12 / 45

IntroductionInformationsLecture (3 2 hours/week) laboratory practice (5 hours/week)Lecturers:István Szalai (Monday 3 hours)contacts: ELTE Chemistry building 2nd floor room: 241email: szalai.istvan@chem.elte.huweb: Béni (Tuesday 2 hours)contacts: 1085 Budapest Üllői út 26 3rd si-tevekenysegLaboratory supervisors:Anikó Vasanits, Katalin Perényi and Viktor MihuczIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 13 / 45

IntroductionInformationsLaboratory grade: average result of the three Major Tests and theshort testsTheoretical grade: oral exam during the examination period(December-January). The registration for the exam can be made inthe Neptun system. The theoretical exam covers the topics discussedduring the lectures and the laboratory practices (calculations!). Thosewho failed in laboratory not allowed to take the theoretical exam,they must repeat the whole semester!István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 14 / 45

IntroductionLecture notes and booksSlides: wiki/General ChemistryIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 15 / 45

Matter and energyChemistryChemistry is the science that describes matter, its properties, the changesit undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany those processes.Inorganic chemistryOrganic chemistryPhysical chemistryBiochemistryApplied Chemistry:Analytical chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, . . .István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 16 / 45

Matter and energyOutline of the semesterIntroductionStructure of Atoms and MoleculesChemical Reactions and EquilibriumThermochemistryChemical KineticsIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 17 / 45

Matter and energyLecture 1: Introduction and properties of Chemistry/Properties ofMatterIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 18 / 45

Matter and energyMatter and EnergyMatter: anything that has both mass and volume.Mass: a measure of an object’s resistance to change in motion (inertia).F maVolume: a measure of the amount of space occupied by an object.States of matter:Gases: They occupy all parts of any vessel in which they are confined.They are capable of infinite expansion and are compressed easily. Theindividual particles are quite far apart.Liquids: The individual particles are confined to a given volume. Aliquid assumes the shape of the container. They are very hard tocompress.István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 19 / 45

Matter and energyMatter and EnergyStates of matter:Solids: They are rigid and have definite shapes. Volumes of solids donot vary much with changes in temperature. In crystalline solids theindividual particles occupy definite positions in the crystal structure.Plasma: Like a gas, plasma does not have definite shape or volume.Unlike gases, plasmas are electrically conductive, produce magneticfields and electric currents, and respond strongly to electromagneticforces. Positively charged nuclei swim in a ”sea” of freely-movingdisassociated electronsIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 110 / 45

Matter and energyMatter and EnergyStates of matter:István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 111 / 45

Matter and energyMatter and EnergyEnergy: is a conserved extensive property of a physical system, whichcannot be observed directly but can be calculated from its state.Forms of energy: kinetic energy (Ekin 12 mv 2 ), potential energy(Epot mgh), heat, electrical energy. . .Law of conservation of matter and energy: There is no change in thequantity of matter and energy during any chemical or physical change.Mass-energy equivalence is a concept formulated by Albert Einsteinthat explains the relationship between mass and energy.E mc 2István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 112 / 45

Matter and energyLaw of conservation of matter and energyChemical reaction:2 H2 O2 2 H2 OConservation of Matter:2 mol H2 1 mol O2 2 mol H2 OConservation of Mass (mass is not generally conserved):4 g H2 32 g O2 36 g H2 O2 H2 O2 2 H2 O 572000 J (energy)m E /c 2 572000 J/(3 108 m/s)2 6, 35 10 12 gThe mass associated with chemical amounts of energy is too small tomeasure.István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 113 / 45

Matter and energyPhysical PropertiesA physical change occurs with no change in chemical composition. e.g.:boiling, melting, vaporization. . .Physical properties altered significantly as matter undergoes physicalchanges.Extensive properties: quantity proportional to the quantity of materialin the system. mass, volume, total energyIntensive properties: independent of the quantity of material density,pressure, temperatureIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 114 / 45

Matter and energyInternational System of units (SI Units)lengthmetermmasskilogram kgtimesecondselectric currentampereAtemperatureKelvinKluminous intensitycandelacdamount of substance molemolmeter: the lenght equal to the distance traveled by light in vacuum in1/299,792,458 seconds.mol: the amount of substance that contains as many entities (atoms orother particles) as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of pure 126 C. 1 mole 6.022 1023István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 115 / 45

Matter and energyDerived hargeelectricpotential differenceIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)square metercubic meterkilogram/cubic meternewtonpascaljoulem2m3kg/m3NPaJkg m/s2N/m2kg m2 /s2coulombCA svoltVJ/(A s)Lecture 116 / 45

Matter and energyDerived UnitsDensity:d mVSuppose an object has a mass of 15.0 g and a volume of 10.0 cm3 . What isthe density?m15.0 gd 1.50 g/cm3V10.0 cm3István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 117 / 45

Matter and energySI kaTGMkhda10 110 210 310 610 910 1210 1510 18István Szalai (Eötvös µnpfaLecture 118 / 45

Matter and energySI prefixes1 kg 1000 g ( the mass of 1 L water)1 µg 10 6 g 0.000001 g (a typical small sand grain mass is about 3 µg)1 ng 10 9 g 0.000000001 g (mass of an average human cell)1 nm 10 9 m 0.000000001 m (a strand of human DNA is 2.5 nm indiameter)István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 119 / 45

Matter and energyMeasurement and significant figuresIf you repeat a particular measurement, you usually do not obtainprecisely the same result, because each measurement is subject toexperimental error.Precision refers to the closeness of the set of values obtained fromidentical measurements of a quantity.Accuracy refers to the closeness of a single measurement to its truevalue.Significant figures are those digits in a measured number (or in theresult of a calculation with measured numbers) that include all certaindigits plus a final digit having some uncertainty.István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 120 / 45

Matter and energyMeasurement and significant figuresAll digits are significant except zeros at the beginning of the number.Thus, 9.12 cm, 0.912 cm, and 0.00912 cm all contain three significantfigures.Terminal zeros ending at the right of the decimal point are significant.Each of the following has three significant figures: 9.00 cm, 9.10 cm,90.0 cm.István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 121 / 45

Matter and energyMeasurement and significant figuresMultiplication and division. When multiplying or dividing measuredquantities, give as many significant figures in the answer as there arein the measurement with the least number of significant figures.Suppose you want to calculate the solubility of a substance (the amount thatdissolves in 100 g of water). You find that 0.0634 gram of the substancedissolves in 25.31 grams of water. The amount dissolving in 100.0 grams is100.0 g of water 0.0634 g5.31 g of waterPerforming it on a pocket calculator you get 0.250493875. The measurement0.0634 gram has the least number of significant figures (three). Therefore,you report the answer to three significant figures, that is, 0.250 g.István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 122 / 45

Matter and energyMeasurement and significant figuresAddition and subtraction. When adding or subtracting measuredquantities, give the same number of decimal places in the answer asthere are in the measurement with the least number of decimalplaces.Now consider the addition of 184.2 grams and 2.324 grams. On a calculator,you find that the result is 186.524. But because the quantity 184.2 gramshas the least number of decimal places one, whereas 2.324 grams has three,the answer is 186.5 grams.István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 123 / 45

Matter and energyMeasurement and significant figuresRounding is the procedure of dropping nonsignificant digits in a calculationresult and adjusting the last digit reported. The general procedure is asfollows: Look at the leftmost digit to be dropped.If this digit is 5 or greater, add 1 to the last digit to be retained anddrop all digits farther to the right. Thus, rounding 1.2151 to threesignificant figures gives 1.22.If this digit is less than 5, simply drop it and all digits farther to theright. Rounding 1.2143 to three significant figures gives 1.21.István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 124 / 45

Matter and energyChemical propertiesThey are exhibited by matter as it undergoes changes in composition:acidityredox propertiesreactivity. . .Chemical changes are transformations in which substances are convertedinto other substances. e.g.: burning, decomposition . . .3 Br2 (l) 2 Al(s) 2 AlBr3 (s)Question: A sample of 27.0 g of aluminum yields 266.7 g of aluminumbromide. How many grams of bromine react with 15.0 g of aluminum?Answer: 133 gIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 125 / 45

Matter and energyClassification of matterPure Substances:Fixed composition. Cannot be separated into simpler substances byphysical methods.Elements: cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemicalchangesCompounds: can be decomposed into simpler substances by chemicalchanges, always in a definite ratioIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 126 / 45

Matter and energyClassification of matterMixtures:Variable composition. Components retain their characteristic properties.May be separated into pure substances by physical methods (e.g.distillation). Mixtures of different compositions may have widely differentproperties.Homogeneous mixtures: components are indistinguishable; have samecomposition throughout (e.g. solutions, alloys).Heterogeneous mixtures: components are distinguishable; do not havesame composition throughout (e.g. muddy river water).István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 127 / 45

Matter and energyCompoundsLaw of definite proportions: pure compounds always consist of the sameelements combined in the same proportion by mass.watercarbon dioxide11.1 % hydrogen27.3 % carbonIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)88.9 % oxygen72.7 % oxygenLecture 128 / 45

Matter and energyCompoundsLaw of Multiple Proportions: If two elements form more than onecompound, in these compounds masses of one element that combine witha fixed mass of the other element are in a ratio of integer numbers.N2 ONONO2N:O1:0.571:1.141:2.280.57:1.14 1:20.57:2.28 1:4István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 129 / 45

Foundations of ChemistryFoundations of ChemistryAtoms: the smallest particle of an element that maintains its chemicalidentity.Structure of atoms:The diameter of an atom is 10 10 m (0.1 nm).The nucleus contains protons and neutrons. The diameter of anucleus is 10 15 m.Particle MassCharge 27proton1.672 10kg 1.602 10 19 C 27neutron 1.675 10kg none 31electron 9.109 10kg 1.602 10 19 Cm(p )m(e ) 1840István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 130 / 45

Foundations of ChemistryFoundations of ChemistryAtomic number (Z ) number of protons in the nucleusMass number (A) number of protons number of neutronsSymbol:A X, 12 C6ZIsotopes: atoms for the same elements with different masses e.g 11 H,2 H, 3 H11Atomic mass unit: exactly 1/12 of the mass of an atom of 126 C (1amu 1.6606 10 27 kg)On this scale the atomic weight of hydrogen is 1.00794 amu.Relative atomic mass: atomic weight divided by the atomic mass unitRelative atomic weight of hydrogen is 1.00794.István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 131 / 45

Foundations of ChemistryFoundations of ChemistryIn the molecules two or more atoms are bonded together.An ion is an atom or group of atoms that carries an electric charge.Ions that possess a positive charge are called cations. Those carryingnegative charge are called anions.A radical is a group of atoms which have odd number of electrons.István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 132 / 45

Foundations of ChemistryProblemsWhat is the volume of a C atom if its radius is 77 pm?4V R 3π34V (77 1012 m)3 π3V 1.91 10 30 m3István Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 133 / 45

Foundations of ChemistryProblemsWhen a mixture of aluminum powder and iron(III) oxide is ignited, itproduces molten iron and aluminum oxide. In an ex- periment, 5.40 g ofaluminum was mixed with 18.50 g of iron(III) oxide. At the end of thereaction, the mixture contained 11.17 g of iron, 10.20 g of aluminum oxide,and an undeter- mined amount of unreacted iron(III) oxide. No aluminumwas left. What is the mass of the iron(III) oxide?Answer: 2.53 gIstván Szalai (Eötvös University)Lecture 134 / 45

Foundations of ChemistryProblemsA beaker weighed 53.10 g. To the beaker was added 5.348 g of iron pelletsand 56.1 g of hydrochloric acid. What was the to- tal mass of the beake

Chemistry is the science that describes matter, its properties, the changes it undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany those processes. Inorganic chemistry Organic chemistry Physical chemistry Biochemistry Applied Chemistry: Analytical chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, . Istv an Szalai (E otv os University) Lecture 1 6 / 45

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