International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEAS)ISSN: 2394-3661, Volume-4, Issue-10, October 2017A Case Studies of Ancient Egyptian ArchitectureDr. Mir Mohammad Azad, Abhik Barua Abstract— Ancient Egyptian architecture is the architectureof ancient Egypt, one of the most influential civilizationsthroughout history, which developed a vast array of diversestructures and great architectural monuments along the Nile,among the largest and most famous of which are the GreatPyramid of Giza and the Great Sphinx of Giza.cultivated area of the Nile Valley and were flooded as theriver bed slowly rose during the millennia, or the mud bricksof which they were built were used by peasants as fertilizer.Others are inaccessible, new buildings having been erected onancient ones. Fortunately, the dry, hot climate of Egyptpreserved some mud brick structures. Examples include thevillage Deir al-Madinah, the Middle Kingdom town at Kahun,and the fortresses at Buhen and Mirgissa. Also, many templesand tombs have survived because they were built on highground unaffected by the Nile flood and were constructed ofstone. Thus, our understanding of ancient Egyptianarchitecture is based mainly on religious monuments, massivestructures characterized by thick, sloping walls with fewopenings, possibly echoing a method of construction used toobtain stability in mud walls. In a similar manner, the incisedand flatly modeled surface adornment of the stone buildingsmay have derived from mud wall ornamentation. Althoughthe use of the arch was developed during the fourth dynasty,all monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions,with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported bythe external walls and the closely spaced columns. Exteriorand interior walls, as well as the columns and piers, werecovered with hieroglyphic and pictorial frescoes and carvingspainted in brilliant colors. Many motifs of Egyptianornamentation are symbolic, such as the scarab, or sacredbeetle, the solar disk, and the vulture. Other common motifsinclude palm leaves, the papyrus plant, and the buds andflowers of the lotus. Hieroglyphs were inscribed fordecorative purposes as well as to record historic events orspells. In addition, these pictorial frescoes and carvings allowus to understand how the Ancient Egyptians lived, statuses,wars that were fought and their beliefs. This was especiallytrue when exploring the tombs of Ancient Egyptian officialsin recent years. Ancient Egyptian temples were aligned withastronomically significant events, such as solstices andequinoxes, requiring precise measurements at the moment ofthe particular event. Measurements at the most significanttemples may have been ceremonially undertaken by thePharaoh himself.Index Terms— Egyptian Architecture, Ancient EgyptI. INTRODUCTIONDue to the scarcity of wood, the two predominant buildingmaterials used in ancient Egypt were sun-baked mud brickand stone, mainly limestone, but also sandstone and granite inconsiderable quantities. From the Old Kingdom onward,stone was generally reserved for tombs and temples, whilebricks were used even for royal palaces, fortresses, the wallsof temple precincts and towns, and for subsidiary buildings intemple complexes. The core of the pyramids came from stonequarried in the area already while the limestone, now erodedaway, that was used to face the pyramids came from the otherside of the Nile River and had to be quarried, ferried across,and cut during the dry season before they could be pulled intoplace on the pyramid.Figure shows Drawings of the types of the architectural capitalsspecific for the Ancient Egyptian civilizationAncient Egyptian houses were made out of mud collectedfrom the Nile River. It was placed in molds and left to dry inthe hot sun to harden for use in construction. Many Egyptiantowns have disappeared because they were situated near theII. GIZA PYRAMID ARCHITECTUREThe Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on theoutskirts of Cairo, Egypt. This complex of ancient monumentsis located some 8 kilometers (5 mi) inland into the desert fromDr Mir Mohammad Azad, Golden State University, Master ofComputer Application, 2006 from Bharath Institute of Higher Education andResearch Deemed University (Bharath University) and Bachelor ofComputer Application, 2004, Bangalore University, India. He is pursuingBachelor of Law (LL.B) from National University of Bangladesh.Abhik Barua was born in Village – North Guzara; Post Office –Rughnandan; Police Station - Raozan; District - Chittagong, Bangladesh on15th January, 1980. He received MA in Interior Design, 2012 and BA[Hon’s] in Interior Architecture, 2007 from Shanto Mariam university ofCreative Technology, Uttara, Dhaka, Bangladesh.35www.ijeas.org
A Case Studies of Ancient Egyptian Architecturethe old town of Giza on the Nile, some 20 kilometers (12 mi)southwest of Cairo city center. This Ancient Egyptiannecropolis consists of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known asthe Great Pyramid and the Pyramid of Cheops), the somewhatsmaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren/Chefren), and therelatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (orMykerinus/Mycerinus), along with a number of smallersatellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, and the GreatSphinx. The pyramids, which were built in the FourthDynasty, testify to the power of the pharaonic religion andstate.They were built to serve both as grave sites and also as a wayto make their names last forever. The size and simple designshow the high skill level of Egyptian design and engineeringon a large scale. The Great Pyramid of Giza, which wasprobably completed c. 2580 BC, is the oldest and largest ofthe pyramids, and is the only surviving monument of theSeven Wonders of the Ancient World. The pyramid of Khafreis believed to have been completed around 2532 BC, at theend of Khafre's reign. Khafre ambitiously placed his pyramidnext to his fathers. It is not as tall as his father's pyramid but hewas able to give it the impression of appearing taller bybuilding it on a site with a foundation 33 feet higher than hisfather's. Along with building his pyramid, Chefrencommissioned the building of the giant Sphinx as guardianover his tomb. The face of a human, possibly a depiction ofthe pharaoh, on a lion's body was seen as a symbol of divinityamong the Greeks fifteen hundred years later. The GreatSphinx is carved out of huge blocks of sandstone and standsabout sixty-five feet tall. Menkaure's pyramid dates to circa2490 BC and stands 213 feet high making it the smallest of theGreat Pyramids. Popular culture leads people to believe thatPyramids are highly confusing, with many tunnels within thepyramid to create confusion for grave robbers. This is nottrue. The shafts of pyramids are quite simple, mostly leadingdirectly to the tomb. The immense size of the pyramidsattracted robbers to the wealth that lay inside which causedthe tombs to be robbed relatively soon after the tomb wassealed in some cases. However, there are sometimesadditional tunnels, but these were used for the builders tounderstand how far they could dig the tomb into the crust ofthe Earth. Also, it is popular thought that due to grave robbers,future Kings were buried in the Valley of the Kings to helpkeep them hidden. This is also false, as the Pyramidconstruction continued for many Dynasties, just on a smallerscale. Finally, the pyramid construction was stopped due toeconomic factors, not theft. It is widely believed that thepyramids were able to be constructed due to slave labor. Somescholars believe that they were essentially built by farmersduring the off season. Either way, the pyramids represent alifestyle of the nobles that could not exist without the presenceof slave labor.Luxor Temple.The key difference between Karnak and mostof the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of timeover which it was developed and used. Construction workbegan in the 16th century BC. Approximately 30 pharaohscontributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size,complexity and diversity not seen elsewhere.The hypostyle hall of Karnak TempleFew of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but thesize and number of features is overwhelming.The Luxor Temple is a huge ancient Egyptian templecomplex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the citytoday known as Luxor (ancient Thebes). Construction workon the temple began during the reign of Amenhotep III in the14th century BC. Horemheb and Tutankhamun addedcolumns, statues, and friezes – and Akhenaten had earlierobliterated his father's cartouches and installed a shrine to theAten – but the only major expansion effort took place underRamesses II some 100 years after the first stones were put inplace. Luxor is thus unique among the main Egyptian templecomplexes in having only two pharaohs leave their mark on itsarchitectural structure.Luxor Temple, from the east bank of the NileIII. KARNAK AND LUXOR TEMPLEThe temple proper begins with the 24 metre (79 ft) highFirst Pylon, built by Ramesses II. The pylon was decoratedwith scenes of Ramesses's military triumphs (particularly theBattle of Qadesh); later pharaohs, particularly those of theNubian and Ethiopian dynasties, also recorded their victoriesthere. This main entrance to the temple complex wasoriginally flanked by six colossal statues of Ramesses – fourseated, and two standing – but only two (both seated) haveThe temple complex of Karnak is located on the banks ofthe River Nile some 2.5 kilometers (1.5 mi) north of Luxor. Itconsists of four main parts, the Precinct of Amon-Re, thePrecinct of Montu, the Precinct of Mut and the Temple ofAmenhotep IV (dismantled), as well as a few smaller templesand sanctuaries located outside the enclosing walls of the fourmain parts, and several avenues of ram-headed sphinxesconnecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amon-Re and36www.ijeas.org
International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEAS)ISSN: 2394-3661, Volume-4, Issue-10, October 2017survived. Modern visitors can also see a 25 metre (82 ft) tallpink granite obelisk: this one of a matching pair until 1835,when the other one was taken to Paris where it now stands inthe centre of the Place de la Concorde.Through the pylon gateway leads into a peristyle courtyard,also built by Ramesses II. This area, and the pylon, were builtat an oblique angle to the rest of the temple, presumably toaccommodate the three pre-existing barque shrines located inthe northwest corner. After the peristyle courtyard comes theprocessional colonnade built by Amenhotep III – a 100 metre(328 ft) corridor lined by 14 papyrus-capital columns. Friezeson the wall describe the stages in the Opet Festival, fromsacrifices at Karnak at the top left, through Amun's arrival atLuxor at the end of that wall, and concluding with his returnon the opposite side. The decorations were put in place byTutankhamun: the boy pharaoh is depicted, but his nameshave been replaced with those of Horemheb.Beyond the colonnade is a peristyle courtyard, which alsodates back to Amenhotep's original construction. The bestpreserved columns are on the eastern side, where some tracesof original colour can be seen. The southern side of thiscourtyard is made up of a 36-column hypostyle court thatleads into the inner sanctums of the temple, which begin witha dark chamber not achechamber. Egyptian RevivalarchitectureOthers may be found at Belan, County Kildare and Dangan,County Meath. The Casteltown Folly in County Kildare isprobably the best known, albeit the least Egyptian styled, ofthese obelisks.The obelisk in Piazza NavonaEgyptian buildings had also been built as garden follies. Themost elaborate was probably the one built by Frederick I,Duke of Württemberg in the gardens of the Château deMontbéliard. It included an Egyptian bridge across whichguests walked to reach an island with an Egyptian swing andan elaborate Egyptian "bath house". The building featured abilliards room and a "bagnio". It was designed by the duke'scourt architect, Jean Baptiste Kleber.IV. EGYPTIAN REVIVAL ARCHITECTUREEgyptian Revival is an architectural style that uses themotifs and imagery of ancient Egypt. It is attributed generallyto the public awareness of ancient Egyptian monumentsgenerated by Napoleon's conquest of Egypt and AdmiralNelson's defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile in 1798.Napoleon took a scientific expedition with him to Egypt.Publication of the expedition's work, the Description del'Égypte, began in 1809 and was published as a series through1826. However, works of art and architecture (such asfunerary monuments) in the Egyptian style had been made orbuilt occasionally in Europe and the British Islands since thetime of the Renaissance.B. Egyptian revival in the wake of NapoleonAn illustration of a small Egyptian temple from WilliamHosking's chapter on 'Architecture' in the EncyclopaediaBritannica (offprint pub. 1832). Hosking was chosen later bythe initiators of Abney Park Cemetery to design a pair ofsimilar Temple Lodges for its front entrance.The facade of the Egyptian Hall in 1815What was new after the Napoleonic invasion was thesudden increase of the number of works of art and the factthat, for the first time, European buildings began to be built toresemble those of ancient Egypt.The first of the Egyptian style buildings was a newspaperoffice. The Courier, a London newspaper, built a new officeon the Strand in London in 1804. It featured a cavetto (coved)cornice and a pair of Egyptian-looking columns with palmform capitals.The most important building of the Egyptian revival inFrance was the Egyptian Temple in the Place des Victories,built as a memorial to generals Desaix and Kleber. Thecornerstone was laid on 19 Fructidor Year VIII (September 6,1800.)Quay in Saint Petersburg, with two sphinxes of Amenhotep IIIbrought from Egypt in 1832A. Egyptian Revival architecture before NapoleonThe most important example is probably Gian LorenzoBernini's obelisk in the Piazza Navona in Rome. Bernini'sobelisk influenced the obelisk constructed as a family funeralmemorial by Sir Edward Lovatt Pierce for the Allen family atStill organ in Ireland in 1717, one of several Egyptianobelisks erected in Ireland during the early 18th century.37www.ijeas.org
A Case Studies of Ancient Egyptian ArchitectureAn Egyptian Revival building that can still be seen in Parisis the 1812 Fountain of the Fellah, Rue de Sevres, byFrançois-Jean Braille.The Egyptian Hall in London, completed in 1812, and theEgyptian Gallery, a private room in the home of connoisseurThomas Hope (1769-1831) to display his Egyptianantiquities, and illustrated in engravings from his meticulousline drawings in his book Household Furniture (1807), were aprime source for the Regency style of British furnishings.The High gate Cemetery, with its Egyptian Avenue, is anexample of the popularity Egyptian style continued to enjoyas funerary architecture.European settings from the time of the Renaissance.C. Egyptian revival decorative artsEgyptian revival decorative arts are a style in Western art,mainly of the early nineteenth century, in which Egyptianmotifs were applied to a wide variety of Decorative artsobjects. The Egyptian Gallery, a private room in the home ofconnoisseur Thomas Hope to display his Egyptian antiquities,and illustrated in engravings from his meticulous linedrawings in his Household Furniture and Interior Decoration(1807), were a prime source for the Regency style in Britishfurnishings. His book Household Furniture and InteriorDecoration, inspired a generation of fashionable Englishhomeowners to install parlor suites featuring chairs, tablesand sofas in shapes that evoked the objects depicted onEgyptian tomb paintings.Later discoveries prompted small further revivals.V. ANCIENT EGYPT HOUSESFor the most part ancient Egypt houses were constructedusing materials that were handy and plentiful. This meant thatthe design of houses in ancient Egypt varied little, evenamong the wealthy. This makes it very easy to imagine whatEgyptian houses look like.The "Egyptian" service of Sevres porcelain, designed by DominiqueVivant and given by Napoleon to Czar Alexander I in 1807, ondisplay in the Kuskovo PalaceThe "Egyptian" service of Sevres porcelain, designed byDominique Vivant and given by Napoleon to Czar AlexanderI in 1807, on display in the Kuskovo Palace. Brooch by Tiffany & Co, early 20th centuryRemains of stone housesWood was extremely scarce, almost non-existent in ancientEgypt. The two construction materials that the ancient land ofEgypt seemed capable of producing in multitude was sand andpapyrus reeds; with some stone quarries. Therefore, for themost part, the majority of ancient Egyptian houses wereconstructed of mud brick. Ancient muddy houses in Egyptwere made by first mixing a compound of mud and straw. Themixture could then be formed into bricks that were allowed tobake and dry under the hot Egyptian sun. While the mudmight be plentiful, it was not particularly sturdy. In a veryshort amount of time, usually just a few years, an ancientEgyptian house constructed of mud brick would begin todeteriorate and crumble. Ancient muddy houses in Egypt Enthusiasm for the artistic style of Ancient Egypt isgenerally attributed to the excitement over Napoleon'sconquest of Egypt and, in Britain, to Admiral Nelson's defeatof Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile in 1798. Napoleon took ascientific expedition with him to Egypt. Publication of theexpedition's work, the Description de l'Égypte, began in 1809and came out in a series though 1826, inspiring everythingform sofas with Sphinxes for legs to tea sets painted with thepyramids. It was the popularity of the style that was new,Egyptian zing works of art had appeared in scattered38www.ijeas.org
International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEAS)ISSN: 2394-3661, Volume-4, Issue-10, October 2017were primarily constructed and lived in by the commoners onthe lowest social strata in Egypt, who could afford little else.In Egypt ancient houses constructed by the wealthy nobleswere much different than those built by commoners. Thosewho could afford to do so built their ancient Egypt house ofstone taken from stone quarries. Ancient Egypt housesconstructed of stone were much sturdier and solidly built. Thewealthy could afford to fill their homes with far more luxuriesthan poorer families. In Egypt ancient houses built by wealthyfamilies, were likely to contain tiled floors and beautifullypainted walls.While ancient Egypt houses built by commoners andnobles might have differed in many respects, in many others,they were quite similar in order to survive the burning heat ofthe Egyptian climate as comfortable as possible. Almost allancient Egypt houses were constructed with a flat roof. Notonly did this most likely make the construction processsimpler, but the flat roofs also offered a welcome respite fromthe burning Egyptian sun. Families often lounged, ate andslept on the roofs of ancient Egypt houses.Another similarity in a typical ancient Egyptian home andhouses was the presence of a hearth. Even in wealthy ancientEgypt houses, there was a need for a hearth in order to preparefood. Due to the arid climate of the Egyptian nation, it is notlikely the hearth of a house of ancient Egypt, although quitecommon, would have been needed for heating.The abundance of furniture was not common in mostancient Egyptian houses, due to the lack of wood. The mostcommon furnishings were three legged stools and chests; evenin wealthier Egyptian homes.through accessories. Some common accessories inspired bythis culture include: Bastet Cat statues/paintings of Bastet cats - Cats wereconsidered to be sacred beings by the ancient Egyptiansbecause they were believed to personify the goddess Bastet.Bastet was thought to be daughter or Ra and the goddess ofpleasure and motherhood. Ankhs - The ancient Egyptian symbol of life force isoften used in jewelry as well as b
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Ancient Near Eastern Studies, which absorbs and diversifies previous course offerings, was introduced in 1998. Ancient Mesopotamia (approximately modern Iraq) is the source of a wealth of texts in the . (Egyptian language) or Ancient Near Eastern Studies (Akkadian language) as an additional subject. This degree is the BA in
Ancient Egypt Vocabulary (cont.) 13. Nubia—ancient civilization located to the south of Egypt 14. Old Kingdom—period in ancient Egyptian history from 2686 B.C. to 2181 B.C. 15. papyrus—a plant that was used to make paper 16. pharaoh—ancient Egyptian ruler who was believed to be part god and part human 17. phonogram—a picture that stands for the sound of a letter
2.2 Ancient Near East Bard, K.A. (ed.) 1999. Encyclopedia of the archaeology of ancient Egypt. [R 932.003 ENC - articles on various aspects of Ancient Egypt and not only Archaeology] Bienkowski, P. & Millard, A. 2000. Dictionary of the Ancient Near East. London: British Museum Press.
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Studies of Ancient RhetoricStudies of Ancient Rhetoric: Baines, John. "Egyptian Letters of the New Kingdom as Evidence for Religious Practice." Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions 1 (2001), 1-31. Barton, John. "History and Rhetoric in the Prophets." In The Bible as Rhetoric: Studies in Biblical Persuasion and Credibility. Ed. M. Warner.