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1 1'.DOCUMENT RESUMErED '16 607'i0 01.1 016IAUTHOR 2,-(.,TITLE'.INSTITUTION*'.0Evers, VirginiaAncient Egypt.'Wright State UnivLayton, Ohic.:Puplic EducationReligion Studies Center.National EnApvaent for the Humanities (NEAHT, ,.,.SPONS AGENCYgashiligton,'D.C.PUB DATE.NOTEAVAILABLE FROM.f76]18p.; Por related documents, SEE SO 011 012-024,.Public Educatign Religion Studiet 'Center, Wright'State University; Dayton, Ohio 45431 ( 1.,00, paper'cover)'EDR PRICEDESCRIPTORSMF- 0.83 HC- 1.67 Plus Postage.African Culture; *African Bistory; AfricanLiterature;'*AnoientHistory; Comparative Analysis;*Cross Cultural Studies; Elementary Edutation;,Grade4; Learning Activities; *Religious Education; *Socialltudies,Units; Teacher Developed Materials; TeachingTQchnigues; Units of StudyABSTRACTThis four -week fourth grade social studies unitdealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian.cultuie wagdeveloped by the Public Education Religion-Studies Center at WrightState University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egyptby lookiug at the people, the culture, andethe'peoplefs'vorld view.The unit begint with ohtlines of concepts and generalizations,vocabulaiy, ands subject matter to be covered., Five cognitive, -sixaffectiVe,'and three psychbmotor objectives are-stated. Ike first,leiton,in the unit is on'Egyptian beliefs that harmonious living withnature and with their gods ensured a happy-existence both before andafter death. The belief that death is. the passing from this world tothe next is the fdcus of'lesson two. Lessons three and fcnr discussEgyptian sacred ceremonies and sacred britings.'Each lesson hasinitiatory, developaental, extended, and culminating activities, acrdsuggestions for evaluation. It is assumed that student,s:have had someexposure to the continent of Africa before they begin the unit. The.instructional resources listed are books for teachers and fcrstudents, magazines, encyclopedias, filmstrips, movies, mediaresources, museums, and teaching packets. 14**44*######;*###############**44#Reproductions supplied by EDRS'Ar the best that can be made*from the original ***************4441************

US ,OEFARTMEN'TOF HEALTH,EDUCATION & WELFARENATIONALINSTITUTE OFEDUCATION'I(TH,1-DuCEDDOCUMENT HAS IIEENEXACTLY AS, RECEIVEDREPROTHf FV,ONORFROMATING ITPOINTSORGANIZATIONOFSTATED DOVIEW OR ORIGINNOTNECESSARILYOPINIOUSSENT OFFICIALREPRENATIONALEDUCATIONPOSITION OR INSTITUTE OFPOLICYANCIENT EGYPTpreparedtforFourth Grade Social Studies.kSS,ON TO REPRODUCE THISBYMATER)AL HAS BEEN GRANTEDIbyTO THE EDUCAT vONAL RESOURCEStON CENTER testcl ANDUSERS OF THE ERIC SYSTEM "4Zfor theInstitu te onthe Religions DimensionDimension'of World Culturesl976-77115.f'e.,Virginia EversSt, Anthony School.Dayton, OhioTeachar#sponsored by ttlePublic Education Religion Studies CenterWright tate University4p435and made-p ossible by a grant from theEndowment for tbe ImmanitiesNationalJ9,'

%ortANCIENT EGYPTINTRODUCTIONThe treasures of King,Tutankhamun have excited the'curiosity of maziy Americans. ANewspapers, magazines, books,.televithion, and even fashions are featuring the King Tuttheme» This is an opporttne time foi'the educator to teachabout, Ancient Egypt.Ancient Egypt can be understood by looking 0%-the people,the culture,"and their view of the world. .Clifford Geertzprovides a conceptual basie for educators to understand therelationship between culture a4d religion. This paper willdeal with the religious dimension present in'the ancient Egyptian culthre.The material prepared by the Florid4 State University inconnection with its Religion-Sqcial Studies Curriculum Programis extremely useful to the elementary classroom teacher. Itprovides a structure for bringing conceptual ideas to thelevel of the student. The Florida State Materials (LAR/SS)prove that difficult ideas can be dealt with effectively inthe elementary grades.This unit will be directed towards fourth gradd socialstudies student who have had some ,exposure to the continentof Africa. 'AdaptatiOns in the*content of this unit may bemade according to the tnterest 'and maturity of the students.Four ldssons will be developed with extended activities provided to allow for individual differences. ;his unit couldbe taught in connection with a 'unit on Africa and comparisonsand contrasts could be drawn. Three to four weeks should beallowed for this unit,

3;CONCERTS AND I*GENERALIZATIONSI41.)7.Religion reveals basic concepts the peRple have aboutlife and the world.i2.Religion can motivate human-beings to make optimal useof their talents in multiple aspects of their lives. .Porexample, in communal structures and art forms and work, religious motivations are foUnd.3.Religion reveals itself in the symbols, art, architecture,government, writings, lawsand customs of a culture.4.Religion provides sanctioninr behavior.StorySacred TimeCommunitySacred SpaceCelebration.Sacred People,Tradition'Sacred WritingsImmortali lity -.-----"

CONTENT OUTLINEI.The Egyptians believed in living in harmony with natureland with their gods to ensure a happy existence in thislife and in the next.A. 'The god'of.the.Nle was offered .gifts so thatthe Nile river would flood and make thelandfertile.B.The god of the'sun was said to sail acrossheavenly river in the sky in the dOtimeand fight the underworld at night. Templeswere built to offer sacrifices to the sun god.LI. Egyptians believed that death was just a-passing betweenthis world and the next.Special tombs were made andbodies preserved because of the belief in immortality.A.B.C.D.E.Pharaohs built pyramids and tombs.Bodies were mummified after death.Temples were built near burial grounds to offersacrifices to the gods.Obelisks were built.Sphinx were built to'protect the tombs.III.The Egyptians had sacred ceremonies.A.The temple, which *serveckas a dwelling placeof the gods, had daily services.B.-When the pyramid was ceted, an elaborateceremony took place. 0C.Sacred\ceremonies were held at harvest time.and in honor of 'a god.IV. The Egyptians had.sacred writings.B.The word hieroglyphics means sacred writings.The Books of the Dead gave us the Egyptianconcept of Judgment.

OBJECTIVESCognitive,The student' xill demonstra.ke his ability to lOcateAfrica, Egypt, and the Nile river on a pap.2:The student will state one reason why the Ec}y tianscreated myths:3.' The student'?ill state one reason why the Egyptianswent through elaborate ppeparation for death andburial.4.The student will demonstrate his underst-anding of anEgyptian ceremony by use of an art medium. or role1.'playing.5.-The student will demonstrate his understariding of'hieroglyphics by writing 2 hidioglyphics and explainingthe meaning of the symbp1s.c-1.The student will have'an appreciation of an ancientcivilization in Africa.The student will feel empathy with the people of Egypt.The student will increase his self-esteem.The student will appreciate the work of others in, the\2.3.4.classroom.5.6.The student will demonstrate cooperation with others incompleting asks assigned to his group.The studen,k will enjoy the study of this unit.Psychomotor1.2.3.The student will demonsttate the use of fine motor skillsby constructing a model.The student will improve his gross motor skills byparticipating in an Egyptian dance or role playing agiven situation.The .student will demonstrate his visual perception bydiscovering Egyptian syppols pre5ent in a picture.A*I- 4 I

SUGGESTED LESSONS"\./Lesson 1:Myths tell us what the people thought,of their.godd and how they---exp-lained-Aatural phenomena.Preparation Optionalt: Order copies of A Coloring Book ofAncient Egypt from Bellerophon Books. This willgive the studepts an opportunity to get acquainted 1,with the gods and life style of Ancient Egypt beforebeginning this unit.Materials:Gain, map, and bulletin board.Pre-assessment: List the word EGYPT in gold on a felt orbulletin board. HaVe the children write the qordon theirown paper.Givethe childrpn five minutes to draw or writl,down anything they know aboUt the word.A class discussionshould follow letting students share their knowledge.Individuals or 'the teacher can make appropriate symbols for.the ideas shared in the discussion. Symbols should be puton 'the bulletih board and referred to during the unite 'Paperscould be given points for the knowledge given on Egypt andcompared to a post- test of, the same type given at theconclusion of this unit.Initiatory Activities:* Locate the continent Africa, countryEgypt, and river Nile on a map. Why is water important forthe people? Why i.s the sun important for the people? Whatdo many of the people do for a living?Many people in Ancient Egypt were involved with growing.things.Pass around.a sample of grain. Why was grain important to the people? What is needed to make grain grow?Since, the Egyptians livedovery close to nature, theybelieved that special gods ruled nature. Two importantgods were the god of the Nile river and the Sun god. Whywere these important?The Egyptians had a special ceremony to honor the godof the Nile at the time it was supposed to flood. If theNile fiver did not flood, the land would not be fertile togroW rops.,The, Pharaoh was in charge* of, making sure the lan& wou ldbe fertile and the)people prosperous. At the time when theriver was to flood, the Pharaoh went to the river and offeredspecial sacrifices. He could communicate with the gods sincehe was considered to be a god-king.If the gods of the Nilewere pleased, the river would fiabd. Why'does this make theland 'fertile?.Developmental Activities: The Egyptians also had'a story forwhy the sun rises and sets in the sky.'*Discussion, questions, and'background information will beincluded with activities.- 5-7

Myth of RA (RE)*Everymorning the sun god gets into his boat and sails the heavenly river.,%His boat is called "millions of years." As Rasails across the sky, he brings light and heat to the earthbelow.The riverends ih a mountain in the west. F6. reachesthis mountain every afternoon.Every evening Ra gges.into the. Underworld.All nightlong Ra fights against the Powers*of Darkness. Every nighthe wins.' In the morning, he domes up at the eastern end ofthe; heavenly river.He is ready to begin another day'strip along the heavenly river in the sky.A heavenlia, river flows east to west in the sky.The students. should answer the following-questionsvaluation:indiVidpally and share their answers with classmates in asmall group.spokesman may report to the class.1.2.Acdording to this story, why does the sun.move?Why did the Egyptians tell this story?Extended Activities: In Dayton, take the class to the Museumof Natural History.The Museum has.a display of Egyptiangods, a mummy, a funerary boat, canopic jars, and a smallreplica of the tomb of King Tutankhimun. A.speaker at themuseum will give a talk' on archeology if prearranged. Theteacher can also arrange through the museum to take the classto the site, of a local dig to see how archeologists are-learnStudents may enrolling about ancient IndiAns in this area.In other areas contactin summer class and work at the dig.your local museums to see what resources are available onEgyptology.The Dayton Art Institute also has a display of items from(The works are found in the room with otherAncient Egypt.Have the children take note of .how theancient artifacts ;)colors on the relief have stayed for thousands of years.Help.the children to discover that the hot, dry climate helped to preserVe these items. Also theiabsence of storms,earthquakes, abdivolcanoesdeft many delicate items intact.Have the children collect tools thatythe archeologists woulduse to uncover these artifacts. noon could'includescreens, brooms, etc. Give the-demonstration of how thearcheologist would work at the dig in front of the class.Be prepared to answer questions.Write a report about one of the Egyptj.an gods. Amon-Re,Osiris, Isis, or Horus are some suggestions. You may drawa picture or make a statue if you prefer.Write your own myth and illustrate j.t.,tell, us about life?What does your myth'' -*Bostick, N. and others. The Human AdventureiFour WorldAllyn and Bacon, Inc., 1971. p. 72.Boston:6 -1

'Find an example of another group of people that believes inmany gods.-,;Tellsus about one of their gods or myths.The word polytheism Means many gods.4aFind examples of other,words with theprefix.poly. Are there any'other,prefivsor suffixes that would be interesting to .learn about?Take somegrow grain. Record all your informationabout materi a s needed, conditions, and results. Why do yoUthink you got the,results you did?Usea shallow-pan and 'clay or dirt.Construct an irrigationditch.Why did the early Egyptians have,to irrigate? peprepare&to tell the class.Lesson 2:.Egyptiins made preparations for life after death.Initiatory Activities: Show movie "Ancient Egypt" which can be.rented from Time-Life.The movie was developed for ol,derchildren, but fourth graders can see the land of Egypt, theancient temples, tombs of Pharaohs,' and ertifactt.The children should review the preparetions for life after death thatthey saw in the movie.Developmental Activities: In order that students gain someunderstanding of the time span involved, have the studentsgather 30 sheets of paper. Eadh sheet represents one hundredyears.Divide thelast sheet into 10 sections and color inonly the last of these ten sections.Have the children standaround the room each holding a sheet of paper. Tell the'children they are as old as the ooloted section on the last.paper but it was as long as all the paper around the roomsince the pyramids were built.Continue to discuss this ideawith the children and let them make observations.Divide the class into small groups and give each group abox of sugar cubes. Tell the children to be builders in their'group and make a temple, tomb, or Pyramid. They may useglue to secure thescubes even'though the Egyptians did not.Let the children share the' results with the class and tellany problems they h9.d building.Ask- them tospeculate as towhy the Egyptians went to all this trouble to build thesestructures.Discuss the Egyptian belief in immortality.Stresse factthat they enjoyed livinv so much they could not se it stoppingat death. They drew pictures inside their tombs of what theafterlife was to be.It was to be like Egypt at its best:Discuss items the Egyptians might need or their trip to thenext world. Show the slides from the TREASURES OF KING TUT.Evalgation:Ask the children what items were paced in thetomb of King Tut. Why were.any of these items important?0t7- 9

Whir did 'the Phaiaohs build tombs? Why'did we see mummiesin the movie on Ancibri't Egypt ?. What can' we'learn about theAncient Egyptians?Extended Activities: Make a model Of the temple.at Thebes, anObelisk, Sphinx,pyramid, or tomb. Try to,find out whythese were sacred or holy for the Egyptians. Why are weinterested in them today?,Make an artifact found in a .tomb to make the passage easierto the next world.This could be a model shown on the slides'on King Tut or a funerary boatthat was to help them sail oftthe heavenly-river.Find examples of the'ipecial.blessings written on the tombs. iThere were also magic spells. Why were these written?Do a report on Queen Hatshepsut. She ruled Egypt very successA beautiful temple was made in her honor.Cotistruct:a model of the temple of Queen Hatsheppit.find out if it is still standing today?Can youBe a detective and try and figUre out the rest of the conversation between Lord Carnarvon and Mr. Carter when they foundthe tomb of King Tut. Lord Carnarvon: "Can you see anything?"Mr. Carter: "Yes; wonderful tFinish this conversation.st"Find a friend and act it out fo the class.Write a report abbut what we can learn about the Egyptiansfrom their tombs, buildings, temples, and pyramids.Lesson 3:The Egyptians had sacred ceremonies.Initiatory Activities: Bi-inglin pictures of sacred or holyceremonies the child tight be familiar with. For example,Baptitsm, Burial, Easter, Christmas, Passover, or a weddingwould be an appropriate ceremony. Ask the children why theseceremonies would be sacred?Tell the children that the EgyptiansDevelopmental Activities:also had sacred ceremonies.Can anyone remember one? Theblessing of the Nile river occurred at a special.time of theyear when the stars were in the right-position. Would anyoneguess at,any other ceremonies they might,have?%The Egyptians had a special ceremony at harvest time to thankthe gods.The Pharaoh would cut a shef of grain to make theharvest sacred. Do we-have any special celebration to givethanks fot our harvest?The god of the temple had a special ceremony in the morning.The priests, acting in,place of the Pharaoh, would awaken thegod and make offerings of food to lim. In the evening and atnoontime prayers and, hymns were offered.8o

1rShow the picture from National Geographic, May, 1.966 p. 703.It shows a ceremony to dedicate a monument to\Ramses. The.Pharaoh carries the sacred symbols, of the crook and the staffwhile the queen walks beside him holding sacred symbols ofthe goddess Hathor.Trumpett and drums sound as this living god leads the march.The*temple priests follow carrying an image Of gods covered(The people were Bot allowed to even look uponwith cloth.Show the students the people of Egyptthe image of the god.)picture strip from Tutankhamun and the discovery of his tomb.Let the children discuss the different classes of peopleat the ceremony and how they might participate in it. Showpicture 1 of the same ceremony and discuss the headdresses thePharaoh and his queen are wearing. What are they symbols of?Are these symbols present in the picture bf the ceremonydedicating the monument?Evaluation: .Why would this Ceremony be sacred? Why are theimages of the gods carried from the temple? /why do trumpetsand drums sound?Have the'children divide in.to small groups and role play aceremony. They may role play a sacred Egyptian ceremony ora sacred American ceremony.Extended Activities: 'Report on burial rites of the Egyptians.Do AMericans have burial rites? .Do Americans have specialways of,meserving bodies?Desctcussee as sacred celebration which has not yet been dis.a.fI,Do research' and find olA if other African dountries havespecial ceieMOnies'at harvest time. Which ones? Describe.List wha.one of ththings and symbols Egyptians consider sacred. Draw(lotus flower, ankh, falcon; eye ofsymbols.HoruS,et4)Report,on the type of goverriment Egypt had.Pharaoh lead only the important cerempnies?ceremony sacred when the Pharaoh was there?Why would theWhy was theConstruct a monument you woad build for yourself.it look like and why?What wouldIn the movie "Ancient Egypt" you saw samples of the EgyptiansThis.weLs sh9wn on the pictures indancing to their music.Listen to Egyptian Music from the sound tape tothe tombs.You may eventpe slides of King Tut and make up your own dance.make your own musical instruments.Report op the Egyptian calendar.Report on early Egyptian astrology.- 9

Lesson 4: The Egyptians had pacreci writings.,Initiatory Activities: Show the childrenpictures or'copiesof sacred. writings they might be familiar with in their lives.(Bible,'Koran, Torah,.)Ask them why'are these sacred?Do.they tell us how tb live?.Developmental Activities: Explain that the Egyptians hadsacred writings also. The Egyptian writings were calledhieroglyphics which comes,from the Greek word meaning sacredwritings.,Show an Egyptian Hieroglyphic Alphabet from Guide to theTreasures of TutankhamUn. Discuss the meaning of the symbols.'Archeologists found many hieroglyphics on the walls of tombsof the Pharaohs. Inscription on coffin of King Tut was"0 Mother Nut!Spread your winds about me like the imperishablestars.:."Why did the Egyptians write this?,

Ancient Egypt from Bellerophon Books. This will. give the studepts an opportunity to get acquainted 1, with the gods and life style of Ancient Egypt before beginning this unit. Gain, map, and bulletin board. Pre-assessment: List the word EGYPT in gold on a felt or. bulletin board. HaVe the children write the qordon their. own paper.

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