DUPLEX Stainless Steel

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A Primer forDUPLEX Stainless SteelJohn Grocki2012

What are Duplex StainlessSteels ? A family of stainless steels whose: structures are approximately 50/50austenite and ferrite physical properties are a combination ofthe ferritic and the austenitic grades

Duplex Microstructure

What is the “Family” Lean Duplex SS – lower nickel and nomolybdenum – 2101, 2102, 2202, 2304 Duplex SS – higher nickel andmolybdenum - 2205, 2003, 2404 Super Duplex – 25Chromium and highernickel and molybdenum “plus” – 2507, 255and Z100 Hyper Duplex – More Cr, Ni, Mo and N 2707

Chemistry of Lean Duplex SSName UNS No.2101210222022304S32101S82011S32202S32304High CrCCrNiMoN. 0.51.5 0.520.540. Ni0.2 NOtherMn 5Mn 2.5and no Mo

Chemistry of Duplex SSName UNS No.2003240422052205High 21.822.53.53.5551. Ni and MoOtherand 0.16NCu

Chemistry of Super Duplex SSand Hyper DuplexName UNS No.2507 S32750255S32550Z100 .28Cu .5.20Cu 2.0.25 Cu .75W .752707.03276.54.8.40S32707Higher CrMore Ni and Moand “others”.25 N

General Corrosion Similar to relative austenitic alloys.(e.g. 2202 and 2304 are similarto 304 & 316) General corrosion resistance can varygreatly with changes in concentration, pH,temperature and impurities. It is importantto discuss these variables for anyapplication!

Digester – Pulp and Paper

Duplex vs. Austenitic Duplex Grades2202 /2101/210223042003 /2404Austenitic Grades304L316L317L317LMN2205904L255 / 2507 / Z1006Mo Grades2707(increased resistance)

Localized Corrosion { PREN Cr 3.3Mo 16N /317LMN2205(S32205)904LZ10025525076Mo Grades2707PREN1819242630303335354142434549

316 LN TANKERTransportation of H2SO4Tank rinsed with Sea Water !

Chloride StressCorrosion Cracking The greatest corrosion advantage for duplexstainless steels is their improved resistanceto CSCC when compared to the austeniticgrades. Only the 25% Nickel grades have similarCSCC resistance.


STRESS CORROSION CRACKING RESISTANCEvs TEMPERATURE and ClNo SCC for25Cr Super-DuplexTemperature, C ( F)300 (570)200 (390)S31803S31500S32304100 (210)SCC304/316L0 (32)No SCC0.0010.1Cl- (% weight)10

Mechanical Properties Duplex Stainless Steels have roughly twicethe yield strength of their counterpartaustenitic grades. This allows equipment designers to usethinner gauge material for vesselconstruction!

Room Temperature StrengthGradeMin Tensile(KSI) Min 01LN9545304(L)/316(L) 404035

ASME (allowable stress in KSI)Grade .023.129.4--316/316L 20.0 17.3 15.6 14.3 13.3 12.6316L16.7 14.2 12.7 11.7 10.9 10.4317LMN 20.5 18.9 16.7 15.6 15.1-6Mo24.9 23.2 21.3 19.8 18.3 17.3


Hardness High hardness provides better wear resistance in abrasiveenvironments.GradeHardness 1002702553022507310

S32550Feed Screw Flight

Thermal Expansion ( /ºFx10 )GradeC- Steel2102/21012202230422052507

Fatigue Strength Higher strength means higher cyclicstresses can be applied without fatiguefailures. This holds true even in corrosion fatigueenvironments!

FATIGUE - CORROSION RESISTANCESynthetic sea-water rotating beambending of smooth 7 LN316L 2.5 Mo1076045KSI30Cycle to ruptureFatigue and fatigue corrosion resistance of stainless steels are enhanced by theuse of duplex grades (higher mechanical properties, chromium content andduplex microstructure

Fracture Toughness Due to the high ferrite content the Duplex SShave a ductile – brittle transition temperature of-50ºF. This restricts the minimum operatingtemperature to -50ºF. In certain circumstances the Duplex SS may beused down to -100ºF.

Mo, W, Si1000 C/ 1832 F M7 C3 carbide, Cr N nitride HAZs phase Cr N nitride2c phase g phase2 M C carbide23 6 R PhaseCrMoWSiCr, Mo, Cu, W p phase e phase (Cu) a' phase G. phase.300 C/572 FCr, Mo, Cu, WTimePossible precipitations in super duplex stainless steels within 25 –40 minutes, while 2205 is 1 hour and 2304 is 8 hours forsignificant precipitations


Welding Welding procedures must be developed toachieve acceptable corrosion resistance andmechanical properties/toughness in the weldzone. Welding of Duplex SS is not difficult. It isjust different! “lean duplex” welder friendly!

WHAT ABOUT WELDED STRUCTURES ?Duplex filler metalWE NEEDCORROSIONRESISTANCECONTROL OF FERRITEin HAZ 70 %in welds20-40 % SAW, SMAW25-60 % TIG, MIG, PLASMACONTROL OF OXYGEN CONTENTSAW with appropriate basic fluxCONTROL OF HYDROGEN CONTENTDegasing of welding consummables.No hydrogen in shielding gasTOUGHNESSAT LOW TEMPERATURECONTROL OF NITROGEN LEVELAdd N2 to the shielding gasCONTROL OF THERMAL CYCLEHeat input adapted to platethickness/weld geometryMinimum and Maximum.

WHAT ABOUT WELDED STRUCTURES ?Austenitic filler metalCONTROL OF FERRITENot required for when usingfully austenitic filler metalWE NEEDCORROSIONRESISTANCECONTROL OF OXYGEN CONTENTSAW with appropriate flux basicityCONTROL OF HYDROGEN CONTENTDegasing of welding consummables.No hydrogen in shielding gasTOUGHNESSAT LOW TEMPERATURECONTROL OF NITROGEN LEVELNot required for when usingaustenitic filler metalCONTROL OF THERMAL CYCLEHAZ is the only concern whenusing a fully austenitic filler material.

Formulinox Formulinox.xlsm

Standard 003*A2402205(S31803)*A2402205(S32205)*A240255* Z100*A2402507*A2402707A789/A790ASME(Sect VIII Div I)-code case 2418-Code Case 2669SA240yes-code case 2503SA240yes-noSA240yesSA789/790 tube/pipe-code case

Standard 552507Z1002707BarXXXXXXXX-W/S PipeXXXXXXXXX(s)W/S TubeXXXXXXXXX(s)FittingsXXXXXXXXX

Cost ComparisonCost ratio based on 304L 1.0 (3/8 pattern mill plate) Duplex2202 2101210223042003/24042205255/2507Z100 0.83 0.83 0.96 1.26Austenitic201LN 0.86304L 1.00316L 1.25317L 1.66 1.16 1.85 1.90317LMN 2.04904L 2.726Mo 2.83 – 3.46Ni 8.46 Mo 12.76 Cr 1.32

Cost Advantage If a vessel design uses the Duplex SS’s additionalstrength to decrease wall thickness savings of up to25% may be achieved for the fabrication vs. acomparable austenitic grade. Machining cost savings may be considerable. Physical property advantages must be evaluated forprocess and fabrication cost savings.

DUPLEX COST SAVINGSIf you save weight (wall thickness reductions) : You reduce the amount of material needed for the project You reduce the labor costs (weldings of thinner plates) You reduce transportation costs You reduce erection costs You reduce structural costs (concrete )THINK ABOUT TOTAL COSTSIceberg

CALRES Corrosion Solutions Calres.xlsm

Some Duplex SS Precautions Thermal history control, to reduce the risk offorming secondary phases(sigma and alphaprime), is minimized for “lean duplex”. Good procedures must be developed for welding,forming, machining and heat treatment. Duplex SSare not difficult to work with but they aredifferent! And “lean duplex” are the easiest! Duplex SS must be used for applications whichoperate between -50ºF and 600ºF.

What DUPLEX Means! A family of excellent engineering materials! A family of excellent cost effective materials! Comparable to austenitics in corrosion resistance –with improved CSCC. Twice the strength of austenitics. Advantageous physical properties. Covered by standard and end user specifications. Advantages with both material cost and engineeredfabrication cost.

MARKET EVOLUTION OF DUPLEX QUARTO PLATES(2000/2008) in KT2007 fshore :Tubes, blast walls, topsidesflow lines555667101213New applications :hydrometallurgy, water,structures, Pulp Paper777889101010Chemicals, Fertilizers,Petrochemicals56677771214Pollution 3538466380Total SS production660700720680760800850900950% Duplex6%5.5%5%5.5%6%8%9%10%10.5%Chemical tankersTerminalsTOTAL (KT)90100

DESALINATION: INDUSTEEL REFERENCES2002-2006AusteniticgradesDuplexgrades41

Power Generation Two shapes of scrubbers Cylindrical/Rectangular type scrubbers Materials of Construction– 2205, 255, 2507, 2304, 6Mo and Clad– thick plates in carbon steel lined with rubber– Fiberglass and Stebbins Tile Rectangular type scrubber using stiffenersand thin plates in : Stainless Steel Or carbon steel lined with rubber

Pulp and PaperIndustryDuplex ReferencesBlack and White Liquor VesselsS31803, and S32304

Digesters – S3220544

Pulp and PaperIndustryDuplex ReferencesBatch digestersfor Potlatch (USA)S31803

Duplex Bridges46

MALIZIA BRIDGE IN SIENA (Italy)BRIDGE DATA- Total length :51.5 m [169 ft]- Deck width :15.8 m [ 52 ft]- Deck height :1.2 m [ 4 ft]- Arch height :10.0 m [ 33 ft]- Steel used for the deck :290 t- Steel used for the arch : 50 t- Contractor : COMUNE DI SIENA- Project study :SETECO Ingegneria s.r.l.- Project : Ing. Raffaello Fontani- Architect : Arch. Paola D’OrsiJune 5, 2007International Bridge Conference Pittsburgh47

MALIZIA BRIDGE IN SIENA (Italy)Final assemblyJune 5, 2007International Bridge Conference Pittsburgh48

Duplex Stainless StructuresLocationType of equipmentGradeTonsConstructorMain constructorArchitect1989Arche de la Défense - Paris (F)Lift structureS31803501993Bibliothèque nationale François MitterrandParis (F)Wind bracingYork Millenium Bridge (UK)Bridge anchor plates302500CFEM/RinaldiDominique Perrault2000S31803Cimolai2001The Spire of DUBLIN (IR)Monument316L130SIAC Radley30CimolaiCMN CherbourgDublin City councilIan Ritchie2004Arco Ponte Malizia - Siena (I)Les Braves - Omaha Beach (F)Bridge structureSculptureS32304316L/S31803Anilore Banon2005Ministère de la culture "Les Bons enfants" Paris (F)Tay Bridge (UK)BuildingS32304500LauboeufBearing of bridgeS3230430PPC/FreyssinetPiove di Sacco - Padova (I)Bridge structureS32304125Sculptures Tallagh Town Centre in DublinSculptureS3180330Mont Saint-MichelTide protection gatesS3180336Castaldo SpaRoycetonConstruction Design &ManagementCM PaimboeufMinistry of Culture ofCommunicationFrancis Soler2006Eileen Mac DonaghLuc WeizmannMay 29th, 2007June 5, 2007International Bridge Conference Pittsburgh50

Thank you for Your Attention You really deserve a DRINK now!

What is the “Family” Lean Duplex SS – lower nickel and no molybdenum – 2101, 2102, 2202, 2304 Duplex SS – higher nickel and molybdenum - 2205, 2003, 2404 Super Duplex – 25Chromium and higher nickel and molybdenum “plus” – 2507, 255 and Z100 Hyper Duplex – More Cr, Ni, Mo and N - 2707

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DNV-RP-F112 – October 2008 Scope: This is a recommended practice covers all components made from duplex stainless steel that are installed subsea and are exposed to cathodic protection Material requirement of duplex/super duplex Stainless steel according to DNV-RP-F112 Material should be solution annealed and water quenched.

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