Biyani's Think Tank - Free Study Notes For MBA MCA BBA BCA .

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Biyani's Think TankConcept based notesWeb Technology(MCA)Nitasha JainDept. of MCA(IT)Biyani Girls College, Jaipur

2Published by :Think TanksBiyani Group of CollegesConcept & Copyright :Biyani Shikshan SamitiSector-3, Vidhyadhar Nagar,Jaipur-302 023 (Rajasthan)Ph : 0141-2338371, 2338591-95 Fax : 0141-2338007E-mail : acad@biyanicolleges.orgWebsite; www.biyanicolleges.orgEdition: 2011Price :While every effort is taken to avoid errors or omissions in this Publication, anymistake or omission that may have crept in is not intentional. It may be taken note ofthat neither the publisher nor the author will be responsible for any damage or loss ofany kind arising to anyone in any manner on account of such errors and omissions.Leaser Type Setted by :Biyani College Printing Department

Web Technology3PrefaceIam glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs ofthe students. The book has been written keeping in mind the general weakness inunderstanding the fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is selfexplanatory and adopts the “Teach Yourself” style. It is based on questionanswer pattern. The language of book is quite easy and understandable based onscientific approach.Any further improvement in the contents of the book by makingcorrections, omission and inclusion is keen to be achieved based on suggestionsfrom the readers for which the author shall be obliged.I acknowledge special thanks to Mr. Rajeev Biyani, Chairman & Dr. SanjayBiyani, Director (Acad.) Biyani Group of Colleges, who are the backbones andmain concept provider and also have been constant source of motivationthroughout this Endeavour. They played an active role in coordinating thevarious stages of this Endeavour and spearheaded the publishing work.I look forward to receiving valuable suggestions from professors of variouseducational institutions, other faculty members and students for improvement ofthe quality of the book. The reader may feel free to send in their comments andsuggestions to the under mentioned address.Nitasha Jain

4SyllabusThe internet: history of the world wide web, hardware and software trend,object technology – java script object, scripting for the web-browser portability.Introduction of HTML: introduction, markup language, editing HTML : commontags, headers, text styles, linking, images, formatting text, horizontal rules andmore line breaks, unordered lists, nested and ordered lists, basic HTML tables :intermediate HTML tables and formatting : basic HTML forms, more complexHTML forms, internal linking, creating and using image maps.Java script – introduction to scripting: introduction- memory conceptsarithmetic- decisionmaking. Java script control structures, Java script functions:introduction – program modules in java script - function definitions, duration ofidentifiers, scope rules, recursion, java script global functions.Java script arrays: introduction, array-declaring and allocating arrays, referencesand reference parameters – passing arrays to functions, multiple subscriptedarrays. Java script objects: introduction, math, string, data, boolean and numberobjects.Dynamic HTML : CSS : introduction – inline styles, creating style sheets with thestyle element, conflicting styles, linking external style sheets, positioningelements, backgrounds, element dimensions, text flow and the box model, userstyle sheets.Dynamic HTML: object model and collections: introduction, object referencing,collections all and children, dynamic style, dynamic positioning, using theframes collection, navigator object.Dynamic HTML: event model : introduction, event ON CLICK, event ON LOAD– error handling with ON ERROR, tracking the mouse with event, more DHTMLevents. Filters and Transitions: Dynamical HTML: Client side scripting with VBscript: Introduction - operators- data types and control structures – VB scriptfunctions – arrays –string manipulation classes and objects.Introduction to PHP – Advantages of PHP – Functions – Data types – Arrays –SQL – Connecting Databases using ODBC – Files – Forms – Images –Imapobjects.

Web Technology5ContentsS.NoChapter Name1HTML With Tags and Attribute2Java Script3Arrays4Number Name5Object Oriented Programming6DHTML7Dhtml - CSS8PHP9ODBC Connectivity10MCQ’s

6Chapter 1HTML With Tags and AttributeQ1.Ans:What Exactly Is HTML?The name HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. That’s a mouthful.Many people who create Web pages and work in HTML often forget whatthe letters stand for. The term’s hypertext portion refers to the cross-links,also called hyperlinks, between Web pages. The term’s markup languageportion refers to the commands that format the Web pages that the userssee. Knowing how to write and use HTML is the goal, not rememberingthe archaic abbreviation.Note: The term HTML language is as redundant as ATM machine andPIN number. Literally, HTML language means Hypertext MarkupLanguage. Redundant or not, HTML language is often the phrase used,even by experienced HTML programmers.The Internet is more than just a bunch of Web pages. The Internet consistsof Web pages, e-mail, text, voice, video chat sessions, and an assortment ofother tasks that often hide behind the scenes from typical Internet users.Amidst the array of Internet components, a Web page comprises the mostimportant piece of the Internet because a Web page is the user interface tothe information that resides on the Internet. Close to one billion Webpages comprise the World Wide Web (WWW). Virtually every Web pagethat you’ve ever visited has two things in common: They contain formatted text and graphic images. They are created, in whole or in part, using the HTML language.It may surprise you to learn that HTML is a language that has absolutelyno formatted text or graphic images. The HTML language consists solelyof unformatted text. That text, however, contains instructions, called tagsor command tags that define exactly how formatted text and graphicsappear on Internet Web pages. In other words, HTML determines how a

Web Technology7Web page browser displays the information your HTML-based Web pagesproduce.Q2. What is HTML?Ans: HTML is a language for describing web pages.HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup LanguageHTML is not a programming language, it is a markup languageA markup language is a set of markup tagsHTML uses markup tags to describe web pagesQ3: Define HTML filename extension.Ans: A Web page, defined in an HTML file, always has the filename extensionhtml (Or htm if you want to be compatible with Windows 3x users,although fewer and Fewer of them exist). The html extension separates thefile type from ordinary, unformatted text files whose extensions might betxt. Many browsers, such as Internet Explorer, will refuse to open your filewith an extension such as txt, except by starting another program such asNotepad and loading the text file into that secondary program for yourviewing and editing work. Some browsers will open a file whose namedoes not end with the html extension, but will refuse to interpret anyHTML command tags. In such a case, the file will appear inside thebrowser window displaying the nitty-gritty command tags themselvesinstead of performing the formatting actions that the command tagsrequest.Q4: Define html html tags.Ans: Beginning and Ending html and /html Tags every Web page shouldbegin with the following HTML start tag: html Every Web page should end with the following HTML end tag: /html The poem, therefore, looks like this with those two enclosing tags: html Roses are red,The Web is sure growing.You can use HTML,To keep your page flowing. /html

8More is needed to make this an appealing Web page. All HTML tags areenclosed between angled brackets. Often,related tags appear in pairs with one beginning the formatting processand the other terminating that format. The html and /html tagsindicate the very beginning and ending of a Web page. The end tagcontains the same command name as the start tag except it begins with aforward slash to distinguish where the tag pair begins and ends.Q5: Define head and title tag.Ans: The title command tag must appear inside a special section of your Webpage called the header section. Before adding the title’s tags, you must firstcreate the header section with the head and /head command tags.Start these tags immediately after the opening html tag, like this: html head /head Roses are red,The Web is sure growing.You can use HTML,To keep your page flowing. /html Add ample spacing to make your HTML files readable and to make thecommand tags and HTML sections pronounced. Subsequent HTMLexamples in this weekend course include plenty of this whitespace to makethe file readable and easy to maintain. The value that you type betweenthe title tags becomes the actual title you want the Web browser to displayin the browser window’s title bar. html head title Poem to make you feel good /title /head Roses are red,The Web is sure growing.You can use HTML,To keep your page flowing. /html Figure shows the resulting browser window. The browser windowdisplaysthe poem’s title, “Poem to make you feel good.”The window's title

Web Technology9Q6: Define BR tag?Ans: Use the break tag to break lines. The format of the tag is as follows: br Text that appears on its own line. The br tag is special because, unlikeso many other command tags, br hasno corresponding end tag. The br tag is a stand-alone tag because itrequests that the browser move down to the next line on the screen beforedisplaying the text that follows. Adding br to the beginning of each linein the poem produces a four-line poem. Here is the complete HTML file: html head title Poem to make you feel good /title /head body br Roses are red, br The Web is sure growing. br You can use HTML, br To keep your page flowing. /body /html Output Title Body

10Note:- The br tag creates a line break at each location in which it islaced. The first line of the poem would appear one line higherwithout the br tag in front of it. You can put the br tag atthe end of a line to force a line break for subsequent text.Q7: Which resolution displays the most information: 640 480 or 800 600?Ans: A Web page displayed at 800 600 pixels of resolution. the same Webpage displayed at 640 480. Notice how much less of the Web page thelower resolution displays. actually, the resolutions 800 600 and 640 480are misleading because the user’s browsers consume much of the screenbecause of the menu, toolbars, and status bar. A more realistic design area,if you want to hit virtually every Web user in the world, is only 580 315on a Mac and 635 314 on a PC.Q8: Define with example HTML Documents ( Web Pages)?Ans: HTML Documents ( Web Pages)HTML documents describe web pagesHTML documents contain HTML tags and plain textHTML documents are also called web pages

Web Technology11The purpose of a web browser (like Internet Explorer or Firefox) is to readHTML documents and display them as web pages. The browser does notdisplay the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of thepage: html body h1 My First Heading /h1 p My first paragraph. /p /body /html Example ExplainedThe text between html and /html describes the web pageThe text between body and /body is the visible page contentThe text between h1 and /h1 is displayed as a headingThe text between p and /p is displayed as a paragraphQ9. Define Body body /body tag.Ans: The body element defines the body of the HTML document.The element has a start tag body and an end tag /body .Example body p This is my first paragraph. /p /body The element content is another HTML element (a p element).Q10: Define HTML Headings.Ans: HTML headings are defined with the h1 to h6 tags.Headings Are Important- Use HTML headings for headings only. Don'tuse headings to make text BIG or bold.Search engines use your headings to index the structure and content ofyour web pages. Since users may skim your pages by its headings, it isimportant to use headings to show the document structure.H1 headingsshould be used as main headings, followed by H2 headings, then the lessimportant H3 headings, and so on.Example h1 hello /h1 h2 hello /h2 h3 hello /h3 h4 hello /h4

12 h5 hello /h5 h6 hello /h6 Q11. Define HTML ParagraphsAns: HTML paragraphs are defined with the p tag.Example: p this is my first paragraph writing /p Q12 Explain the html elementsAns: HTML Element SyntaxAn HTML element starts with a start tag / opening tagAn HTML element ends with an end tag / closing tagThe element content is everything between the start and the end tagSome HTML elements have empty contentEmpty elements are closed in the start tagMost HTML elements can have attributesQ13 What is HTML Attributes?Ans: HTML Attributes are:HTML elements can have attributesAttributes provide additional information about an elementAttributes are always specified in the start tagAttributes come in name/value pairs like: name "value"Attribute ExampleHTML links are defined with the a tag. The link address is specified inthe href attribute: a href "" This is a link /a Q14: Define HTML LinesAns: HTML LinesThe hr / tag creates a horizontal line in an HTMLpage.The hr element can be used to separate content:Example p hello students /p hr / p How Are You /p hr / p God Bless you /p Q15: How to use comment in html document?

Web TechnologyAns:13HTML Comments- Comments can be inserted into the HTML code tomake it more readable and understandable. Comments are ignored by thebrowser and are not displayed.Comments are written like this:Example ! -- This is a comment -- Q16: Define HTML Formatting tags?Ans: HTML Formatting Tags like b and i for formatting output, like boldor italic text.These HTML tags are called formatting tags (look at the table below)TagDescription b Defines bold text big Defines big text em Defines emphasizedtext i Defines italic text small Defines small text strong Defines strong text sub Defines subscripted text sup Defines superscriptedtextQ17 How can we use linking in html document?Ans: HTML Hyperlinks (Links)A hyperlink (or link) is a word, group of words, or image that you canclick on to jump to a new document or a new section within the currentdocument.When you move the cursor over a link in a Web page, thearrow will turn into a little hand.Links are specified in HTML using the a tag.The a tag can be used in two ways:1. To create a link to another document, by using the href attribute2. To create a bookmark inside a document, by using the name attributeSyntax of linking a href "url" Link text /a The target Attribute: The target attribute specifies where to open the linkeddocument.

14Example a href "" target " blank" Visit gurukpo /a For example External linking Html Head title linking internal /title /head Body a href ”” Gurukpo data /a h1 hello /h1 h2 hello /h2 h3 hello /h3 h4 hello /h4 h5 hello /h5 h6 hello /h6 /body /html The name Attribute:The name attribute specifies the name of an anchor.Thename attribute is used to create a bookmark inside an HTML document.Note: Bookmarks are not displayed in any special way. They are invisibleto the reader.For example Internal linking Html Head title linking internal /title /head Body a href ”#gurukpo” Gurukpo data /a h1 hello /h1 h2 hello /h2 h3 hello /h3 h4 hello /h4 h5 hello /h5 h6 hello /h6 a name ”gurukpo” Useful tips define in this paragraph /a /body /html

Web Technology15Q18 How to define an image in html document?Ans: HTML Images - The img Tag and the Src AttributeIn HTML, images are defined with the img tag. The img tag isempty, which means that it contains attributes only, and has no closi ngtag. To display an image on a page, you need to use the src attribute. Srcstands for "source". The value of the src attribute is the URL of the imageyou want to display.Syntax for defining an image: img src "url" alt "some text"/ The URL points to the location where the image is stored.The Alt Attribute:The required alt attribute specifies an alternate text for an image, if theimage cannot be displayed.The value of the alt attribute is an author-defined text: img src "gurukpo.gif" alt "Big Boat" / The alt attribute provides alternative information for an image if a user forsome reason cannot view it (because of slow connection, an error in the srcattribute, or if the user uses a screen reader).HTML Images - Set Height and Width of an ImageThe height and width attributes are used to specify the height and widthof an image.The attribute values are specified in pixels by default: img src "gurukpo.jpg" alt "gurukpo image" width "304" height "228"/ Q19: Explain table tagAns: HTML TablesTables are defined with the table tag. A table is divided into rows (withthe tr tag), and each row is divided into data cells (with the td tag).td stands for "table data," and holds the content of a data cell. A td tagcan contain text, links, images, lists, forms, other tables, etc.Table Example table border "1" tr td row 1, cell 1 /td td row 1, cell 2 /td /tr tr

16 td row 2, cell 1 /td td row 2, cell 2 /td /tr /table How the HTML code above looks in a browser:row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2HTML Tables and the Border AttributeIf you do not specify a border attribute, the table will be displayedwithout borders. Sometimes this can be useful, but most of the time, wewant the borders to show. To display a table with borders, specify theborder attribute: table border "1" tr td Row 1, cell 1 /td td Row 1, cell 2 /td /tr /table HTML Table HeadersHeader information in a table are defined with the th tag.All major browsers will display the text in the th element as bold andcentered. table border "1" tr th Header 1 /th th Header 2 /th /tr tr td row 1, cell 1 /td td row 1, cell 2 /td /tr tr td row 2, cell 1 /td td row 2, cell 2 /td /tr /table How the HTML code above looks in your browser:

Web TechnologyHeader 117Header 2row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2Q20: Explain Ordered and unordered list in html?Ans: HTML Unordered ListsAn unordered list starts with the ul tag. Each list item starts with the li tag. The list items are marked with bullets (typically small blackcircles). ul li Coffee /li li Milk /li /ul How the HTML code above looks in a browser:CoffeeMilkHTML Ordered ListsAn ordered list starts with the ol tag. Each list item starts with the li tag. The list items are marked with numbers. ol li Coffee /li li Milk /li /ol How the HTML code above looks in a browser:1. Coffee2. MilkHTML Definition ListsA definition list is a list of items, with a description of each item. The dl tag defines a definition list.The dl tag is used in conjunction with dt (defines the item in the list)and dd (describes the item in the list): dl dt Coffee /dt dd - black hot drink /dd dt Milk /dt dd - white cold drink /dd /dl

18How the HTML code above looks in a browser:Coffee- black hot drinkMilk- white cold drinkHTML List TagsTag DescriptionDefines an orderedlistDefines an unordered ul list ol li Defines a list itemDefines a definition dl list dt Defines an item in adefinition listDefines a description dd of an item in adefinition listQ21: Exaplain html FormsAns: HTML FormsHTML forms are used to pass data to a server.A form can contain input elements like text fields, checkboxes, radiobuttons, submit buttons and more. A form can also contain select lists,textarea, fieldset, legend, and label elements.The form tag is used to create an HTML form: form .input elements. /form HTML Forms - The Input ElementThe most important form element is the input element.The input element is used to select user information.

Web Technology19An input element can vary in many ways, depending on the typeattribut

of Web pages, e-mail, text, voice, video chat sessions, and an assortment of other tasks that often hide behind the scenes from typical Internet users. Amidst the array of Internet components, a Web page comprises the most important piece of the Internet because a Web page is the user interface to the information that resides on the Internet.

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Fin – Input flow rate of the tank F out – Output flow rate of the tank H - Total height of the conical tank. R - Top radius of the conical tank h - Nominal level of the tank r - Radius at nominal level Fig3. Mathematical modeling of a conical tank The area of the conical tank is given by (3.1) R

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variable. And level of conical tank is a control variable[3]. This can be achieved by controlling the input flow of the conical tank. Fin Fig2. Schematic diagram of conical tank Process operating Parameters are, Fin - Input flow rate of the tank F out - Output flow rate of the tank H - Total height of the conical tank.

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