A Suggested Approach For Teaching About Communism In The .

2y ago
976.87 KB
29 Pages
Last View : 4m ago
Last Download : 1y ago
Upload by : Jacoby Zeller

.HX19.E341964A Suggested ApproachforTeaching about Communismin The Iowa Public Schools c('()'CY)PUBLICATION NO. l064I 940CISTATE OF IOWA, DEPAIUMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, OCTOBER, 1964


State of IowaDEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTIONDes Moines 50319STATE BOARD OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTIONC. W. ANTES, West Union (President)DELMAR F. BUSSE, Oakland (Vice President)SHERMAN W. HIRSCHLER, FairfieldC. E. JUDD, ThompsonLESTER D. MENKE, CalumetMRS. JAMES SHANNAHAN, Des MoinesMRS. VIRGIL E. SHEPARD, AllisonJOHN D. WARIN, MaloyMRS. OTHA D. WEARIN, HastingsDEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTIONADMINISTRATIONPAUL F. JOHNSTON, Superintendent of Public Instruction andExecutive Officer of State Board of PublicInstructionDAVID H. BECHTEL, Administrative AssistantW. T. EDGREN, Assistant Superintendent -AdministrationL. N. JENSEN, Assistant Superintendent - InstructionPrepared byWilliam J. Edgar, Director, Division of Curriculum and InstructionalServicesPrice .50 per copy. Order from the State Department of PublicInstruction, State Office Building, Des Moines, Iowa 50319

FOREWORDHe who knows only his own side of the case,knows little of that. His reasons may begood, and no one may have been able to refute them. But if he is equally unable torefute the reasons on the opposite side; ifhe does not so much as know what they are,he has no ground for preferring either opinion.On Liberty-John Stuart MillThis approach for teaching about Communism in the Iowa Public Schoolsis undertaken to fulfill the charge that the Senate Concurrent Resolution 24passed by the Sixtieth General Assembly gave to the schools of Iowa.The approach will be directed· to those who teach in the junio:r andsenior high schools but can and should be used in appropriate settings ingrades kindergarten through sixth grade.While this is a fulfillment of a mandate by a state legislature, itdoes not imply that the.doctrinaire approach be used.In the doctrinairemethod where particular empha·sis is placed upon the dangers of Communism, theways to fight Communism, the evil-s of Communism, and the false doctrines ofCommunism, it could become quite dangerous.Richard I. Miller, AssociateDirector of the National Education Association Project on Instruction, in reporting on Communism to the Council of Chief State School Officers at MiamiBeach said:"School officials may need to resist quicklycontrived programs to indoctrinate Americanstudents on the good of democracy and theevil of Communism.This black-and-whiteapproach amounts to benevolent brainwashing,and it has no place in education for democratic

citizenship when free inquiry and reasonedjudgment are vital. ulI believe that the State Legislature was quite careful in the wordingof this document so that this would not take place.The approach suggested to be used is an appropriate context approach.This means increased specific and systematic instruction about Communism inAmerican history, economics, and American government.tive approach.It suggests a compara-The materials used should not constitute a separate unit ofinstruction, but should be used in the social studies courses.This will givean orderly approach at the proper experience and intellectual maturity levelof the students.This latter approach makes it a distihct differentiation between indoctrination and education.Democracy has always made strides because oflearning (through the education process) rather than through forced indoctrination.PAUL F. JOHNSTONState Superintendent of Public Instruction1Education · · · November 22, 1962, Washington, D.C.

A CHARGE TO THE SCHOOLSThe Senate Concurrent Resolution 24 passed by the Sixtieth GeneralAssembly states the follmving:Designed to express the collective will of the Legislatorsof the State of Iowa that a program of education in thehistory, dogmas, and tenets of International Communism beundertaken in the schools and colleges of this state, sothat the youth of Iowa may better understand the threat ofInternational Communism to our American way of life, andthus, be better prepared to assume positions of leadershipin the idiological struggle of the cold war.WHEREAS, the totalitarianism of aggressive world communismconstantly threatens the peace of the world andthe continued existence of the United States ofAmerica as a free republic; andWHEREAS, it is becoming increasingly apparent that if weas a na.tion are to successfully combat and defeatthe Communist conspiracy at home and abroad andperpetuate and strengthen our American way oflife, it is essential that every American citizenmust know and understand the fundamental theoriesand basic principles of our American constitutional,social, economic and political systems, and by wayof contrast, the strategy, tactics, nature, effects,logistics, purposes and principles of Communism asit actually operates in the world today; andWHEREAS, the legislature of the State of Iowa finds it to bea fact that:- 1 -

(a)The political ideology commonly known and referredto as communism is in conflict and contrary to theprinciple of individual freedom under law, asepitomized in the Constitution of the UnitedStates, and those of its several states;(b)The exploitation and manipulation of youth andstudent groups throughout the world by the forcesof international communism are a major challengewhich free world forces must meet and defeat.;(c)The best method of meeting this challenge is toinsure that our leaders of tomorrow, the youthof this state and of this nation, are thoroughlyand completely familiar with the history and doctrines of the American political, social, andeconomic institutions in contradistinction to thehistory, doctrines, objectives, and techniques ofinternational communism; and(d)That a sound, comprehensive, and universal program of education in the field of Americanismvs. Communism in the schools and colleges ofthis state and of this nation is essential tothis end.NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the State Board of PublicInstruction, the State Board of Regents, and the governing bodiesof all public and private high schools and colleges in the Stateof Iowa, for the purposes aforesaid, are urged to:(1)Place additional emphasis on present instruction on thehistory of the United States and of the State of Iowa,- 2 -

on the Constitution of the Un:lted States and of that ofthe State of Iowa, and on the rights and responsibilitiesof American citizenship; and to(2)Establish a course or unit of instruction on the history,doctrines, objectives, and techniques of internationalcommunism, or to enrich the present curriculum with in-struction in these subjects at appropriate points so asto insure that the graduates of our schools and collegeswill have a mature appreciation of the international communist movement and its threat to the American way of life.BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the State Board of Public Instructionand the State Board of Regents are urged to take such steps asmay be necessary, and in the manner prescribed by law, to surveythe current teacher education programs being offered in Iowa, andto provide such additional programs as may be necessary to qualifyour teachers to provide objective, meaningful, and comprehensiveinstruction on the history, doctrines, objectives, and techniquesof international communism.- 3 -

OBJECTIVES OF THE APPROACH1.To become acquainted with the historical background of Communism(a)(b)(c)2.(1)Russi.a during the 9th - 13th centuries(2)Russia during the 13th - 18th centuries(3)Russia during the 18th century - 1917Traditions in Russian history(1)The pJace of the Tsar(2)The peasant societyThe Russian revolution(1)The March revolution(2)The November revolution(3)Soviet Russia under Lenin(4)The Soviet Union under StalinTo study the geographic features that have influenced Communism(a)3.The Russian pastThe land(1)Size(2)Location(3)Zones of vegetation and climate(b)Rivers(c)Oceans and seas(d)Mountains(e)Natural resourcesTo study the cultural background of Communism(a)The people - ethnic groups2(1)Turks -Tartars, 11.1%(2)Slavs (Ukrainians, Belorussian) -Great Russia, 78.02%2Howard D. Mehlinger, Communism in Theory and Practice (San Francisco:Chandler Publishing Company, 1964)-- 4 -

4.Caucasians, 3.56%(If)Others, 7.32%(b)Education(c)Position of women(d)Religion(e)CrimeTo study the Communist form of government(a)Early plans for Utopia(l)In Great Britain(2)In France(b)Anarchism and the Anarchists(c)Karl Marx(d)(e)5.(3)(l)Marx view of history(2)Marx political viewsJoseph Stalin(l)Domestic policies(2)Foreign policiesNikita Khrushchev(l)Domestic policies(2)Foreign policies(f)Chinese Communism(g)Dictatorship of the Proletariat(h)Party and government in the Soviet Union(i)International CommunismTo study the economic system of Communism(a)Living standards(b)The planned economy(c)Government controlled agriculture- 5 -

6.(d)Government controlled industry(e)Population growth(f)Neglect of consumer(g)Individual enterpriseTo study the essential differences between totalitarian and democraticgovernmental structures7.8.(a)The constitution(b)The party government(c)Uncontested elections(d)Persuasion techniques(e)Terror techniques(f)The Soviet citizen and his governmentTo study the influences of Communism on other nations outside the Soviet(a)Comintern calls for revolution in the United States(b)Comintern orders to American Communists(c)American Communist underground(d)Colonialism(e)Guerrilla WarfareTo study the ways in which the free world may meet the philosophy ofCommunism3(a)Worth of Personsis !he basicconcep of American democracy.The unique contributionof American civilization is not to be found in the relatively highlevel of material well-being we have attained, nor in the politicalinstitutions we have perfected, great as that contribution is, nor3American Association of School Administrators, "Ideas We Live By.Educating for American Citizenship.Chapter III, pp. 55-64Thirty-Second Yearbook, 1954.- 6 -11

yet in our esthetic or cultural accomplishments.It lies rather inour conception of the nature and destiny of man, in our high regardfor individual personality.The basic premise of democracy, and theone from which all others stem, is that man is endowed with moral andspiritual qualities, that he is capable of achieving a humaneness, adignity and a worth that all sbould respect, and that he has the capacity to associate with his fellows on a fraternal rather than a differential basis.And always with us the test of this premise is itsapplication to everyone however much he may differ from ourselves instatus, race, national origin, or opinion.(b)Freedom of the IndividualWe hold that men can be free.On the broad base of respe.ct and regardfor the dignity and worth of human personality, Western democracy hasbuilt the whole superstructure of its ideals.First in importance andin time of attainment was the ideal of freedom -- freedom from tyrannyand oppression over the lives of men.We knm full well the record ofhuman tyranny, a record written large on the pages of history, past andpresent, and knowing it, we are committed to a society of free men.Andwith us freedom is more than a word; the liberties and rights men havedeemed essential in a free society have been spelled out in detail.Wehold that within broad limits e.very one is free in his person -- freefrom arbitrary arrest and search, free to demand the right to judgmenton the evidence by a jury of his peers, .free from excessive and cruelpunishments, free to move from place to place, free to engage in anylawful employment.Nor are we any less concerned w:ith the protectionof the property rights of the individual;his home and his papers areprotected from unreasonable search or seizure; the obligation of hiscontracts may not be impaired; his property cannot be taken for a- 7 -

public use without compensation nor can he in any case be deprived ofit without due process of law.More important still is our insistence on freedom of intellect and ofconscience.Tyranny over the mind and conscience of man is tyrannyat its worst; democracy is but an idle dream if "forbidden" signsmay be erected across any of the highways or byways that lead thruall the depth and breadth of human experience.The quest for truthmust be untrammeled and in that quest there must be free and equalaccess to information.With us it is no less important that men bepermitted to speak the truth as they see it and to whomsoever theywill.Our democracy draws no iron curtains across any of the avenuesof communication; it insists rather on broadening these avenues andon making them accessible to 8.11.A corollary of freedom of intellect is tolerance of spirit.Man can-not be intellectually free in any real sense unless they have respectfor one another's sentiments and opinions.The right of every personto seek the truth where he will; to form his own convictions and toconvey them to whom he will; to formulate his own value system, solong as i t does not conflict with the rights of others; to petition,protest, and debate; and to be accorded a tolerant hearing by hispeers -- these are among the rights and freedoms we cherish and defendas a part of our democratic heritage.(c)Government of LawsWe hold. that freed om under law is the essential condition ofsociety. freeAs already indicated, the first great milestone on the roadto human freedom was the recognition of the fact, boldly asserted inour Declaration of Independence, that men are endowed by their Creatorwith certain inalienable rights.But these rights cannot be secured- 8 -

or enforced without resortinstitutions. oestablished rules and :legal forms andOne of the great chi.evementsof the western world,and of our American democracy i.n particular, i.s a legal system bywhich the relationships of individuals to one another and to societycan be and are determined according to established rules.It is thisgovernment of laws and not of men that protects the individual citizenfrom the caprice and injustice of irresponsible rulers.The conceptof freedom under law and the establishment of. a legal and governmentalstructure for the orderly regulation of human relation in a complexsociety is one of the greatest achievement of humanity.It is free-dom under law that distinguishes a democracy from a totalitarianstate; men who do not have it can neither be free themselves norbuild a free community.But i.nsti tutions of government for the making of laws and for theirinterpretation and enforcement are not enough to insure freedom.Government itself must be restrained.Above i t is placed a. bodyof fundamental law which is called a constitution.The functionof a constitution is to establish government, to define its organsand agencies, and to confer upon them their appropriate powers andduties; more important still, it limits the powers of government.says to government,11ItThis far you can go and no further."Much of the struggle for human freedom has taken the form of discovering the. civil liberties that are essential to free men in a free societyand of developing a. legal. structure to protect those freedoms once theconscience of mankind had made them clear.With us this protectivestructure is a Bill of Rights embodied in our Constitution.It isthis concept of the function of a constitution as a body of principlesembodying the highest moral and spiritual values of mankind, standing- 9 .

above government and forcing i t to deal with individual's equitablyand in good conscience, that makes possible a government whichrespects the natural and inalienable rights of men.(d)Sense of JusticeWe hold that in dealing with g !). another, houldbe governed xof justice, good conscience, equity, and fair dealing.It is important that men have a system of legal institutions andforms by means of which their individual rights can be protectedand their common ends attained thru programs of positive action.It is equally important that in the whole area of their behavior,private and public, men should be governed by a sensitive regardfor what is just and fair.(e)Capacity for Self-GovernmentWe hold that men have the ability to govern themselves.In thelong struggle to establish the democratic state the first greatvictory was the attainment of a constitutional law.The AmericanConstitution with its Bill of Rights provided protection for theindividual citizen in the exercise of certain rights and liberties.But the concept that common men have the capacity to govern themselves had not yet won general acceptance.That men are capableof governing themselves, of managing their own affairs, and ofachieving their own destiny is a relatively new concept in humanhistory; it came into being and won acceptance even in this countryno more than a century and a half ago.The age-old record had beena record of the government of the many by the few.The great massesof men had been denied the right to vote or hold office; in the council of state their opinions had not been asked and their voice hadnot been heard.But the 19th century brought a change.- 10 -With us the

struggle for liberty took the form of a determined movement todemocratize the political state by shifting the locus of politicalpower from the few to the many.We progressively extended the suf-frage and removed property qualifications for public office.Wecommitted ourselves to the world's greatest experiment in freepolitical institutions and to an abiding faith in man's abilityto govern himself.This faith rests upon the conviction that menhave enough goodwill toward one another and enough loyalty to thecommon weal to compromise their differences without resort to force;that their sense of justice, tolerance, and fair dealing is such thatthey can be relied upon to employ the instruments of conference, deliberation, debate, and compromise to build the political state on the solidrock of common consent.(f)Civic ParticipationWe hold that the individual hasaffecting himself. right ! participate in decisionsThe American system of values stresses the im-portance of cooperation in all forms of associated behavior.Inthe making of policy decisions and in the processes of carrying theminto operation those who are affected by them have a right to participate.The principle that policy decisions should be arrived at thrugroup discussion and that all who are to be affected by the decisionsshould have had an opportunity to be heard applies to all the relationships of life.And a corollary of the right to participate is theobligation, within the bounds of reason, to abide by majority decision.The right to participate where one is to be affected can be defended onthe grounds of simple justice; it can be defended, too, because it isof the essence of the democratic process.For democracy to operatesuccessfully, the individual citizen must understand and be committed- 11 -

to its basic ideals; it is no less important that he be skilled inthe democratic process of action.These skills involve argumentationand debate, the presentation and weighing of evidence, sensitive regard for the views and rights of others, the give and take of compromise,and willingness to abide by majority opinion.The structure of agovernment or of any social institution or enterprise may conformto the requirements of a democracy, those who shape its policiesmay be committed to democratic goals, but if skill in the essentialprocesses of democratic participation is lacking, the whole undertaking willfai in practical operation.And these skills, so es-sential to the success of any democratic enterprise, can be learnedonly thru practice.Our insistence on the right of the individualto participate in the making of decisions that concern himself growsout of our regard for individual personality and our sense of justice;it is based, too, on our k

ways to fight Communism, the evil-s of Communism, and the false doctrines of Communism, it could become quite dangerous. Richard I. Miller, Associate Director of the National Education Association Project on Instruction, in re-porting on Communism to the Council of Chief State School Officers at Miami Beach said:

Related Documents:

Bruksanvisning för bilstereo . Bruksanvisning for bilstereo . Instrukcja obsługi samochodowego odtwarzacza stereo . Operating Instructions for Car Stereo . 610-104 . SV . Bruksanvisning i original

10 tips och tricks för att lyckas med ert sap-projekt 20 SAPSANYTT 2/2015 De flesta projektledare känner säkert till Cobb’s paradox. Martin Cobb verkade som CIO för sekretariatet för Treasury Board of Canada 1995 då han ställde frågan

service i Norge och Finland drivs inom ramen för ett enskilt företag (NRK. 1 och Yleisradio), fin ns det i Sverige tre: Ett för tv (Sveriges Television , SVT ), ett för radio (Sveriges Radio , SR ) och ett för utbildnings program (Sveriges Utbildningsradio, UR, vilket till följd av sin begränsade storlek inte återfinns bland de 25 största

Hotell För hotell anges de tre klasserna A/B, C och D. Det betyder att den "normala" standarden C är acceptabel men att motiven för en högre standard är starka. Ljudklass C motsvarar de tidigare normkraven för hotell, ljudklass A/B motsvarar kraven för moderna hotell med hög standard och ljudklass D kan användas vid

LÄS NOGGRANT FÖLJANDE VILLKOR FÖR APPLE DEVELOPER PROGRAM LICENCE . Apple Developer Program License Agreement Syfte Du vill använda Apple-mjukvara (enligt definitionen nedan) för att utveckla en eller flera Applikationer (enligt definitionen nedan) för Apple-märkta produkter. . Applikationer som utvecklas för iOS-produkter, Apple .

och krav. Maskinerna skriver ut upp till fyra tum breda etiketter med direkt termoteknik och termotransferteknik och är lämpliga för en lång rad användningsområden på vertikala marknader. TD-seriens professionella etikettskrivare för . skrivbordet. Brothers nya avancerade 4-tums etikettskrivare för skrivbordet är effektiva och enkla att

Den kanadensiska språkvetaren Jim Cummins har visat i sin forskning från år 1979 att det kan ta 1 till 3 år för att lära sig ett vardagsspråk och mellan 5 till 7 år för att behärska ett akademiskt språk.4 Han införde två begrepp för att beskriva elevernas språkliga kompetens: BI

**Godkänd av MAN för upp till 120 000 km och Mercedes Benz, Volvo och Renault för upp till 100 000 km i enlighet med deras specifikationer. Faktiskt oljebyte beror på motortyp, körförhållanden, servicehistorik, OBD och bränslekvalitet. Se alltid tillverkarens instruktionsbok. Art.Nr. 159CAC Art.Nr. 159CAA Art.Nr. 159CAB Art.Nr. 217B1B