DX - RX
WHAT IS OD?Beckhard :"an effort, planned, organization-wide,and managed from the top, to increaseorganization effectiveness and healththrough planned interventions in theorganization's processes, usingbehavioral-science knowledge."OD is a planned system of change.
WHAT IS AN OD INTERVENTION?a set of sequenced, planned actions orevents intended to help an organizationto increase its effectiveness.purposely disrupt the status quo; theyare deliberate attempts to change anorganization or sub-unit toward adifferent and more effective state.
CRITERIA FOR EFFECTIVEINTERVENTIONS1. The Extent to Which it (the Intervention)fits the needs of the organization , Dx - Rx2. The degree to which it is based oncausal knowledge of intended outcomes3. The extent to which the OD interventiontransfers change-managementcompetence to organization members.
FACTORS THAT IMPACT THESUCCESS OF OD INTERVENTIONSFactors relating to Change Situation:1. Readiness for Change2. Capability to Change3. Cultural Context4. Capabilities of the Change Agent(OD Consultant)
FACTORS THAT IMPACT THESUCCESS OF OD INTERVENTIONSFactors Related to the Target ofChangeA. Organizational Issues1. Strategic Issues2. Technology and Structure Issues3. Human Resource Issues
FACTORS THAT IMPACT THESUCCESS OF OD INTERVENTIONS4. Human Process IssuesB. Organizational LevelsOD interventions are aimed at different levels ofthe organization: individual, group,organization and trans-organization (for exampledifferent offices of the organizationaround the globe; or between organization andits suppliers, customers, etc.)
THREE BASIC APPROACHESTO ORGANIZATION CHANGE1. Structural2. Technical3. BehavioralDeveloping strategy includesplanning activities to resolvedifficulties and build onstrengths.
STRUCTURAL APPROACHTO CHANGEChanges that relate elements oforganization to one another.Includes removing or adding layers tohierarchy.Downsizing associated withrestructuring.Changes can involve decentralizationand centralization.
TECHNICAL APPROACHTO CHANGEChanges in machinery, methods,automation, and job design.Changes help companies becomemore productive.
BEHAVIORAL APPROACHTO CHANGEEmphasizes better utilization of human resources byimproving: Morale. Motivation. Commitment of members.OD traditionally associated with behavioral strategies.
CHANGES REQUIREALL STRATEGIESStructural, technological, andbehavioral strategies not ODchange strategies per se.Determining feature of an ODstrategy is process used to arriveat strategy.
OUR CHANGING WORLD: JAPANTRIES TO RESTRUCTURE (PART 1 OF 2)In 1980s Japanese companies modelto world.Recently, Japanese companies failedto respond to changing world.Nissan first company to close majorfactory in Japanese auto-industry.
OUR CHANGING WORLD: JAPANTRIES TO RESTRUCTURE (PART 2 OF 2)Nissan failing when Renault took control.Ghosn brought in to turn company around.Shut down 5 plants, reduced workforce by23,000, shifted production to U.S.Most experts say do not count Japan out.A viable Japan may emerge.
INTEGRATION OFCHANGE STRATEGIES(PART 1 OF 2)OD deals with change fromintegrated standpoint that ce of sub elements(departments) needs to beconsidered.
FIGURE 8.1INTEGRATED APPROACH TO CHANGE
INTEGRATION OFCHANGE STRATEGIES(PART 2 OF 2)Change strategies need to takeaccount of overt and covertelements.Second-order consequencesconsider change in one area thatinfluences others.
FIGURE 8.2“ORGANIZATION ICEBERG” APPROACH TO OD
STREAM ANALYSISUseful in planning.Helps organization planinterventions.Provides graphical view ofchanges.Allows progress to be plotted.
FIGURE 8.3 STREAM ANALYSIS CHART
OVERVIEW OF MAJOR ODINTERVENTION TECHNIQUESIntervention techniques focus on 4 categories:1.Individual or interpersonal level.2.Team or group level.3.Intergroup level.4.Total organizational system level.
TABLE 8.1OD INTERVENTIONS: AN OVERVIEW (PART 1 OF2)
TABLE 8.1OD INTERVENTIONS: AN OVERVIEW(PART 2 OF 2)
KEY WORDS ANDCONCEPTSBehavioral strategies - places emphasis on human resources.OD intervention - actions designed to improve the health of the client system.OD strategy - a plan for change using structural, technical, and behavioralmethods.Parkinson’s Laws - summarizes the problems of inefficient practices inorganizations.Second-order consequences - indirect consequences that result fromchange.Stream analysis - method useful in planning that plots interventions overperiod of time.Structural strategies - alters framework that relates parts of organization toone another.Technological strategies - changes in machinery, methods, and job design.Virtual meetings - meetings that occur electronically overtelecommunications lines and Internet.
Technological strategies - changes in machinery, methods, and job design. Virtual meetings - meetings that occur electronically over telecommunications lines and Internet. Title: Ch 8 OD Intervention Strategies Author: Dytabs Keywords: OD Created Date: