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8441 C000.fm Page i Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:20 AMDigital Avionics HandbookSECOND EDITIONAVIONICSDEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION

8441 C000.fm Page ii Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:20 AMThe Electrical Engineering Handbook SeriesSeries EditorRichard C. DorfUniversity of California, DavisTitles Included in the SeriesThe Handbook of Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, Mohammad IlyasThe Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Third Edition, Joseph D. BronzinoThe Circuits and Filters Handbook, Second Edition, Wai-Kai ChenThe Communications Handbook, Second Edition, Jerry GibsonThe Computer Engineering Handbook, Vojin G. OklobdzijaThe Control Handbook, William S. LevineThe CRC Handbook of Engineering Tables, Richard C. DorfThe Digital Avionics Handbook, Second Edition Cary R. SpitzerThe Digital Signal Processing Handbook, Vijay K. Madisetti and Douglas WilliamsThe Electrical Engineering Handbook, Second Edition, Richard C. DorfThe Electric Power Engineering Handbook, Leo L. GrigsbyThe Electronics Handbook, Second Edition, Jerry C. WhitakerThe Engineering Handbook, Third Edition, Richard C. DorfThe Handbook of Formulas and Tables for Signal Processing, Alexander D. PoularikasThe Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering, and Technology, William A. Goddard, III,Donald W. Brenner, Sergey E. Lyshevski, and Gerald J. IafrateThe Handbook of Optical Communication Networks, Mohammad Ilyas andHussein T. MouftahThe Industrial Electronics Handbook, J. David IrwinThe Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook, John G. WebsterThe Mechanical Systems Design Handbook, Osita D.I. Nwokah and Yidirim HurmuzluThe Mechatronics Handbook, Robert H. BishopThe Mobile Communications Handbook, Second Edition, Jerry D. GibsonThe Ocean Engineering Handbook, Ferial El-HawaryThe RF and Microwave Handbook, Mike GolioThe Technology Management Handbook, Richard C. DorfThe Transforms and Applications Handbook, Second Edition, Alexander D. PoularikasThe VLSI Handbook, Wai-Kai Chen

8441 C000.fm Page iii Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:20 AMDigital Avionics HandbookSECOND EDITIONAVIONICSDEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATIONEdited byCARY R. SPITZERAvioniCon, Inc.Williamsburg, Virginia, U.S.A.

8441 C000.fm Page iv Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:20 AMCRC PressTaylor & Francis Group6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLCCRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa businessNo claim to original U.S. Government worksPrinted in the United States of America on acid-free paper10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1International Standard Book Number-10: 0-8493-8441-9 (Hardcover)International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-8493-8441-7 (Hardcover)This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quotedwith permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made topublish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity ofall materials or for the consequences of their use.No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, orother means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923,978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged.Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only foridentification and explanation without intent to infringe.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataSpitzer, Cary R.Avionics : development and implementation / Cary R. Spitzer.p. cm. -- (Electrical engineering handbook ; 37)Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-8493-8441-91. Avionics. I. Title.TL695.S7475 2006629.135--dc22Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site athttp://www.taylorandfrancis.comand the CRC Press Web site athttp://www.crcpress.com2006050266

8441 C000.fm Page v Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:20 AMPrefaceAvionics is the cornerstone of modern aircraft. More and more, vital functions on both military and civilaircraft involve electronic devices. After the cost of the airframe and the engines, avionics is the mostexpensive item on the aircraft, but well worth every cent of the price.Many technologies emerged in the last decade that will be utilized in the new millennium. After proofof soundness in design through ground application, advanced microprocessors are finding their way ontoaircraft to provide new capabilities that were unheard of a decade ago. The Global Positioning Systemhas enabled satellite-based precise navigation and landing, and communication satellites are now capableof supporting aviation services. Thus, the aviation world is changing to satellite-based communications,navigation, and surveillance for air traffic management. Both the aircraft operator and the air trafficservices provider are realizing significant benefits.Familiar technologies in this book include data buses, one type of which has been in use for over 20years, head mounted displays, and fly-by-wire flight controls. New bus and display concepts are emergingthat may displace these veteran devices. An example is a retinal scanning display.Other emerging technologies include speech interaction with the aircraft and synthetic vision. Speechinteraction may soon enter commercial service on business aircraft as another way to perform somenoncritical functions. Synthetic vision offers enormous potential for both military and civil aircraft foroperations under reduced visibility conditions or in cases where it is difficult to install sufficient windowsin an aircraft.This book offers a comprehensive view of avionics, from the technology and elements of a system toexamples of modern systems flying on the latest military and civil aircraft. The chapters have been writtenwith the reader in mind by working practitioners in the field. This book was prepared for the workingengineer and his or her boss and others who need the latest information on some aspect of avionics. Itwill not make one an expert in avionics, but it will provide the knowledge needed to approach a problem.

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8441 C000.fm Page vii Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:20 AMEditorCary R. Spitzer is a graduate of Virginia Tech and George Washington University. After service in theAir Force, he joined NASA Langley Research Center.During the last half of his tenure at NASA he focused on avionics. He was the NASA manager of ajoint NASA/Honeywell program that made the first satellite-guided automatic landing of a passengertransport aircraft in November 1990. In recognition of this accomplishment, he was nominated jointlyby ARINC, ALPA, AOPA, ATA, NBAA, and RTCA for the 1991 Collier Trophy “for his pioneering workin proving the concept of GPS aided precision approaches.” He led a project to define the experimentaland operational requirements for a transport aircraft suitable for conducting flight experiments and toacquire such an aircraft. Today, that aircraft is the NASA Langley B-757 ARIES flight research platform.Mr. Spitzer was the NASA representative to the Airlines Electronic Engineering Committee. In 1988he received the Airlines Avionics Institute Chairman’s Special Volare Award. He is only the second federalgovernment employee so honored in over 30 years.He has been active in the RTCA, including serving as chairman of Special Committee 200 IntegratedModular Avionics (IMA), chairman of the Airport Surface Operations Subgroup of Task Force 1 onGlobal Navigation Satellite System Transition and Implementation Strategy, and as Technical ProgramChairman of the 1992 Technical Symposium. He was a member of the Technical Management Committee.In 1993 Mr. Spitzer founded AvioniCon, an international avionics consulting firm that specializes instrategic planning, business development, technology analysis, and in-house training.Mr. Spitzer is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and an AssociateFellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). He received the AIAA 1994Digital Avionics Award and an IEEE Centennial Medal and Millennium Medal. He is a Past President ofthe IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society. Since 1979, he has played a major role in the highlysuccessful Digital Avionics Systems Conferences, including serving as General Chairman.Mr. Spitzer presents one-week shortcourses on digital avionics systems and on satellite-based communication, navigation, and surveillance for air traffic management at the UCLA Extension Division.He has also lectured for the International Air Transport Association.He is the author of Digital Avionics Systems, the first book in the field, published by McGraw-Hill, andEditor-in-Chief of The Avionics Handbook, published by CRC Press.He and his wife, Laura, have a son, Danny.His hobbies are working on old Ford products and kite flying.

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8441 C000.fm Page ix Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:20 AMContributorsRicky W. ButlerJim MooreGrant StumpfNASA Langley Research CenterSmiths Aerospace LLCSpectral Systems Inc.Diganta DasMichael J. MorganNikhil VichareUniversity of MarylandHoneywellUniversity of MarylandRichard HessDennis MulcareTerry VenemaHoneywellRetiredXcelsi GroupEllis F. HittMichael G. PechtRandy WalterStrategic Systems SolutionsUniversity of MarylandSmiths Aerospace LLCSally C. JohnsonPeter Potocki de MontalkChris WatkinsNASA Langley Research CenterAirbus IndustrieSmiths Aerospace LLCJoseph LyversGordon R.A. SandellPing ZhaoXcelsi GroupThe Boeing CorporationMedtronicG. Frank McCormickCary R. SpitzerCertification Services, Inc.AvioniConJames N. MartinJack StraussThe Aerospace CorporationXcelsi Group

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8441 C000.fm Page xi Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:20 AMTable of ContentsSECTION IDevelopment1 Processes for Engineering a System .1-1James N. Martin2 Digital Avionics Modeling and Simulation .2-1Jack Strauss, Joseph Lyvers, Terry Venema, and Grant Stumpf3 Formal Methods.3-1Sally C. Johnson and Ricky W. Butler4 Electronic Hardware Reliability .4-1Nikhil Vichare, Ping Zhao, Diganta Das, and Michael G. Pecht5 Electromagnetic Environment.5-1Richard Hess6 RTCA DO-297/EUROCAE ED-124 Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA)Design Guidance and Certification Considerations .6-1Cary R. Spitzer7 Certification of Civil Avionics .7-1G. Frank McCormickSECTION IIImplementation8 Fault-Tolerant Avionics .8-1Ellis F. Hitt and Dennis Mulcare9 Boeing B-777 .9-1Michael J. Morgan10 New Avionics Systems — Airbus A330/A340 .10-1Peter Potocki de Montalk11 McDonnell Douglas MD-11 Avionics System .11-1Gordon R.A. Sandell12 Genesis Platform.12-1Randy Walter and Chris Watkins13 Advanced Distributed Architectures.13-1Jim MooreIndex. I-1

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8441 S001.fm Page 1 Thursday, July 27, 2006 10:09 AMSection IDevelopment

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8441 C001.fm Page 1 Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:23 AM1Processes forEngineering a SystemJames N. MartinThe Aerospace Corporation1. . 1-1Structure of the Standard . 1-2Role of the EIA 632 Standard . 1-2Heritage of EIA 632 . 1-2The Processes. 1-3Process Hierarchy Technical ManagementProcesses Acquisition and Supply Processes SystemDesign Processes Product Realization Processes TechnicalEvaluation Processes1.61.7Project Context. 1-4Key Concepts . 1-4The System and Its Products Building BlockFramework Development of EnablingProducts Relationship between the Building Blocks and theProcesses Hierarchy of BuildingBlocks Requirements Functional, Performance, andInterface Requirements Verification and ValidationDefining Terms . 1-15References . 1-16Further Information . 1-161.1IntroductionIn April 1995, the G47 Systems Engineering Committee of the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)chartered a working group to convert the interim standard EIA/IS 632 into a full standard. This fullstandard was developed and released in December 1998 as ANSI/EIA-632-1998.The interim standard (IS), EIA/IS 632, was titled “Systems Engineering.” The full standard wasexpanded in scope to include all the technical processes for engineering a system. It is intended to be ahigher-level abstraction of the activities and tasks found in the IS version plus those other technicalactivities and tasks deemed to be essential to the engineering of a system.This chapter describes the elements of these processes and related key concepts. The intended purposeis to give the reader of the standard some background in its development and to help other standardsactivities in developing their own standard. There is a paper that describes the evolution from an interimstandard to the full standard [Martin, 1998].This standard is intended to be a “top tier” standard for the processes essential to engineering a system.It is expected that there will be second- and third-tier standards that define specific practices related to1-1

8441 C001.fm Page 2 Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:23 AM1-2Avionics: Development and Implementationcertain disciplines (e.g., systems engineering, electrical engineering, software engineering) and industrydomains (e.g., aircraft, automotive, pharmaceutical, building, and highway construction).It is important to understand several things that are not covered by this standard:1. It does not define what “systems engineering” is;2. It does not define what a “systems engineer” is supposed to do; and3. It does not define what a “systems engineering organization” is supposed to do.1.2Structure of the StandardThe standard is organized as shown below:Clause 1Clause 2Clause 3Clause 4Clause 5Clause 6Annex AAnnex BAnnex CAnnex DAnnex EAnnex FAnnex G1.3ScopeNormative referencesDefinitions and acronymsRequirementsApplication contextApplication key conceptsGlossaryEnterprise-based life cycleProcess task outcomesPlanning documentsSystem technical reviewsUnprecedented and precedented developmentRequirement relationshipsRole of the EIA 632 StandardImplementation of the requirements of EIA 632 are intended to be through establishment of enterprisepolicies and procedures that define the requirements for application and improvement of the adoptedprocesses from the standard. This is illustrated in Figure of EIA 632Figure 1.2 shows the relationship between EIA 632 and other standards on systems engineering. Someof the key software engineering standards are shown for comparison since there has been an intimaterelationship between the development of both types of standards. There has been much activity recentlyin unifying the processes contained in each.FIGURE ishesEIA 632standardPolicies &proceduresProjectimplementsPlans &schedulesRole of the standard in relation to development projects. (Adapted from ANSI/EIA-632-1998. With

8441 C001.fm Page 3 Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:23 AM1-3Processes for Engineering a System2000 ISO/IEC15288LegendSupersedesDerived from2000 Mil-Std499B1994(Not released)IEEE1220(Trial use)EIA632ANSI/EIA632(Updates)1998EIA/IS 731 SECapab. model1998IEEE1220(Full std)Others .IEEE1220(Updates)FIGURE 1.21.5Heritage of systems engineering standards.The ProcessesFigure 1.3 shows the processes described in EIA 632 and their relationship to one another. Each enterprisewill determine which of these processes are implemented by systems engineering personnel and how theyare allocated to the organizational elements of the enterprise and its functional disciplines.1.5.1Process HierarchyThe processes for engineering a system are grouped into the five categories as shown in Figure 1.4. Thisgrouping was made for ease of organizing the standard and is not a required structure for processimplementation. Traditional systems engineering is most often considered to include two of these processes: Requirements Definition and Systems Analysis. Often, Planning and Assessment are included inwhat is called systems engineering management.1.5.2Technical Management ProcessesTechnical Management provides oversight and control of the technical activities within a developmentproject. The processes necessary to accomplish this are shown in Figure and Supply ProcessesAcquisition and Supply provides the mechanism for a project to supply its own products to a customeror higher-level project and to acquire the necessary products for its own product development activities.The processes necessary to accomplish this are shown in Figure Design ProcessesSystem Design provides the activities for a project to define the relevant requirements for its productdevelopment effort and to design solutions that meet these requirements. The processes necessary toaccomplish this are shown in Figure Realization ProcessesProduct Realization provides the activities for a project to implement the product designs and to transitionthese products to their place of use. The processes necessary to accomplish this are shown in Figure 1.8.

8441 C001.fm Page 4 Wednesday, November 8, 2006 10:23 AM1-4Avionics: Development and ImplementationTechnical managementPlanningprocessPlansdirectives& backAcquisiti

The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Third Edition, Joseph D. Bronzino The Circuits and Filters Handbook, Second Edition, Wai-Kai Chen The Communications Handbook, Second Edition, Jerry Gibson The Computer Engineering Handbook, Vo jin G. Oklobdzija The Control Handbook, William S. Levine The CRC Handbook of Engineering Tables, Richard C. Dorf

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