PISA For Schools School Report Template - OECD

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Your School NameHow your school comparesinternationallySchool ReportPISA for Schools2020

Your School NameHow Your School Compares InternationallyPISA for Schools2020

This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed andarguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries.This document, as well as any data and map included herein, are without prejudice to the status of or sovereigntyover any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory,city or area.The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. Theuse of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israelisettlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law.Note by TurkeyThe information in this document with reference to “Cyprus” relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authorityrepresenting both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus(TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of the United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its positionconcerning the “Cyprus issue”.Note by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European UnionThe Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in thisdocument relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.Icons made by Good Ware from www.flaticon.com OECD 2020The use of this work, whether digital or print, is governed by the Terms and Conditions to be found atwww.oecd.org/termsandconditions

ForewordTeachers and educational leaders need meaningful and reliable information to assess how well their studentsare prepared for life and work. Many administrators evaluate student learning based upon local or countrywideexpectations. In a global economy, however, the benchmark for educational success is no longer nationalstandards alone, but those set by the world’s best performing schools and education systems.Over the past 20 years, the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has evaluated thequality, equity and efficiency of school systems in over 80 countries and economies that, together, comprise ninetenths of the world economy. Through PISA, schools and countries can learn from each other. Those educationsystems that have been able to secure strong and equitable learning outcomes and mobilise rapid improvementsshow others what is possible.Similar to the international PISA assessment, the PISA-based Test for Schools measures 15-year-old students’knowledge and competences in reading, mathematics and science.It also assesses their attitudes towards learning and school and the learning environments of the schoolsthemselves. Importantly, these assessments measure not just whether students can reproduce what they havelearned, but how well students can extrapolate from what they know and apply their knowledge creatively innovel contexts. The PISA based Test for Schools is a unique tool designed for individual schools to compare theirstudents’ learning outcomes and benchmark them globally in innovative ways.This report provides results from the PISA-based Test for Schools for Your School. But data is only the first step todeeper understanding and is only useful if it paves the way to action. You also have the opportunity to exchangewith and learn from the strategies, policies and practices of other participating schools around the world who shareyour commitment to peer-learning, critical reflection and school improvement. The OECD stands ready to supportall those involved in delivering “better policies for better schools and better lives.”Andreas SchleicherDirector, Directorate for Education and SkillsSpecial Advisor on Education Policy to the Secretary-GeneralOECD OECD 2020HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 20203

AcknowledgmentsThis school report is based primarily on data and project co-ordination provided by [NSP name]. As an accreditedservice provider for the PISA-based Test for Schools in [Your Country], [NSP name] conducted test administration,coding, data management and provided the analytical outputs that comprise the school report. [Space for NSPspecific acknowledgments. ]This digital assessment is provided by Janison Ltd Pty, which serves as the International Platform Provider for thePISA-based Test for Schools, in partnership with the OECD.Strategic guidance and oversight of the PISA for Schools project is provided by Andreas Schleicher and Yuri Belfaliwith Joanne Caddy.This report was prepared by Tanja Bastianic, Federico de Luca, Tiago Fragoso, Tomoya Okubo, Chi Sum Tse andGonçalo Xufre, while Fiorella Cianchi provided administrative support.4HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

Table of contents1.Executive Summary72.What Your School can learn from the PISA-based Test for Schools93.4.5.A. OECD 20202.1 Your sample and your participation112.2 Understanding Your School’s results13Cognitive skills: What students in Your School know and can do153.1 Analysing student performance at Your School153.2 Student performance in reading183.3 Student performance in mathematics203.4 Student performance in science233.5 Your School’s results across PISA proficiency levels263.6 Exploring the performance of girls and boys293.7 Measuring the performance gap between the highest- and lowest-performing students313.8 Exploring the effect of socio-economic status on student performance in Your School343.9 Your School’s performance in the socio-economic context of Your Country383.10 Trends in student performance43Student voice: Exploring student engagement and how students feel at school474.1 Motivation for learning science504.2 Student beliefs in their own self-efficacy524.3 Student perceptions of teaching practices554.4 Classroom disciplinary climate584.5 Student experience of bullying61Insights on students’ social and emotional skills655.1 The different dimensions of social and emotional skills665.2 The relationship between school environment and social and emotional skills685.3 The relationship between social and emotional skills and life outcomes70Annex 175HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 20205

6HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

1.1. Executive SummaryComparative statements describe results that are statistically significant at a 95% confidence level.Performance is reported on a scale having a mean score of 500 and a standard deviation of 100 acrossOECD participating countries.Your School Name OECD 2020HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 20207

1.I8HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

2.2.WHAT YOUR SCHOOLCAN LEARN FROMTHE PISA-BASEDTEST FOR SCHOOLSWhile PISA is intended to deliver national results, the PISA-based Test forSchools (PBTS) is designed to deliver school-level results for school improvementand benchmarking purposes.By administering the PISA-based Test for SchoolsBecause both PISA and PBTS are based on the samein Your School, you have access to internationallyframework, their results are comparable, meaningcomparable estimates of performance of your studentsthat you will be able to benchmark the performanceand information about their learning environment andof Your School with that of national education systemsattitudes.from around the world. This will allow you to bothgauge how prepared your students are to participateFurthermore, the PBTS also provides you within a globalised society and set goals against the bestsome insights concerning your students’ social andschool systems worldwide.emotional skills, an increasingly important aspectin education and that is believed to be core in theThe PBTS also provides you with a bettercapacity of students to be able to adapt and navigateunderstanding of the challenges faced by low-the fast-paced changing world that we live in.performing students in Your School, thus allowingyou to put in place specific targeted measures andGiven our global, knowledge-based economy, it haspractices aimed at reducing all achievement andbecome more important than ever before to comparedevelopmental gaps that may exist.students not only to local or national standards, butalso to the performance of the world’s top-performingschool systems. OECD 2020HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 20209

2.Cognitive skills: What students in YourInsights on students’ social and emotionalSchool know and can do: this chapter displaysskills: this chapter sheds light on your students’your students’ performance in reading, mathematicssocial and emotional skills as measured by statementsand science and how Your School’s results mapabout five sub-domains linked to the Big Fiveonto the PISA proficiency levels. It also exploresdimensions (emotional regulation, engaging withany performance gaps between the highest- andothers, collaboration, task performance and open-lowest-performing students, between genders andmindedness).between students with high or low socio-economicbackgrounds.Finally, the OECD encourages you to take advantageof the opportunity for peer-learning by participatingStudent voice: Exploring studentin the PISA for Schools Community. This online,engagement and how students feel atmultilingual forum enables all schools who haveschool: this chapter investigates your students’ self-received PBTS results to share good practice, posereported motivation for learning, their beliefs in theirquestions, obtain advice from peers, co-createown self-efficacy, and their perception of the teachingteaching resources, and participate in webinars andpractices adopted in their classrooms, of their learningdiscussions on selected themes moderated by theenvironment and of their relations with their peers.OECD or national actors.“What is important for citizens to know and be ableThe major domain in 2018 was reading, as it was into do?” In response to that question and to the need2009. Science was the major domain in 2015 andfor internationally comparable evidence on student2006, and mathematics was the major domain inperformance, the Organisation for Economic2003 and 2012 (and will be again in 2021).Co-operation and Development (OECD) launchedthe triennial survey of 15-year-old students aroundthe world known as the OECD Programme forInternational Student Assessment, or PISA. PISAassesses the extent to which 15-year-old students haveacquired key knowledge and skills that are essentialfor full participation in modern societies.In each round of PISA, one of the three core domainsis tested in detail, requiring nearly half of the totaltesting time.PISA results reveal what is possible ineducation by showing what studentsin the highest-performing and mostrapidly improving education systemscan do.The findings allow policy makers around the worldto gauge the knowledge and skills of students in theirown countries and in their schools in comparison withthose in other countries.Read moreAbout PISAoe.cd/PISA10HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

2.1 Your sample and your participationFigure 2.1 provides a short summary of Your School’s participation in the PBTS, including both samplecharacteristics and information about the logistics of your participation. The accompanying Reader’s Guide2.(www.oecd.org/pisa/pisa-for-schools) provides additional information about the eligibility of schools toparticipate in the PBTS and the sampling procedures that are used to select schools and students.Figure 2.1 Participation summarySource: OECD 2020data for Your Country and the OECD were obtained from OECD (2019), PISA 2018 database, oecd.org/pisa/dataHOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 202011

The PISA for Schools Community aims to support educators from participating schools in the following ways: Give and receive support: Educators can Establish an international professional2.get their questions answered and share theirnetwork: Educators can build their network withideas, concrete practices and materials for theinternational educators. They can also developareas of improvement.their reputation and gain recognition from an Enhance professional knowledge andskills: Educators can improve their knowledgeinternational audience. Stay informed of latest research onin the subject matter as well as pedagogical skills.education and interact with OECDThey can also further develop skills in coachingpersonnel and experts: through regularpeers.webinars and alerts for new OECD publications,educators can stay updated with the latestresearch in education and benefit from theinteraction with OECD personnel and experts.Read more aboutThe PISA for Schools Communitywww.oecdpisaforschools.org12HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

This report presents the results for Your School basedfor values concerning Your Country and the OECD.on its most recent participation in the PISA-based TestWhile these scores are also subject to a certain degreefor Schools (PBTS). The assessment measures 15-year-of uncertainty, this has been omitted from the visualold students’ competences in reading, mathematicsrepresentation of the data given that they are beingand science. Because the PBTS is based on the OECDused in this report as benchmarks. Nonetheless, allProgramme for International Student Assessmentof the significance tests used for data presented in(PISA), Your School can compare its results with thosethis school report fully account for their inherentfrom over 80 countries and economies that haveuncertainty.2.2.2 Understanding Your School’s resultsparticipated in the various cycles of PISA.If you are interested in exploring further the resultsFocusing the analysis at the school level necessarilyof Your School, you will find additional opportunitiesimplies working with relatively small numbers ofto interact with your data and the data of PISAstudents. As a consequence, in some cases a sub-participating countries on the forthcoming PISA forgroup of students being analysed may consist of only aSchools Digital Dashboard.handful of people (e.g. boys in a school that is mainlyattended by girls). In these instances, we recommendThe accompanying Reader’s Guidecaution in drawing any conclusion when looking at(www.oecd.org/pisa/pisa-for-schools) representsthese results for sub-groups, as their estimates will bea useful toolkit to better understand Your School’sbased on only a few cases. Throughout the report,results. Throughout the report, links are available tothus, a note will appear under any figure to indicategain additional insights based on OECD and PISAwhether one or more sub-groups in that figure consistevidence.of too few students to give reliable conclusions.Furthermore, this report shows only point estimates OECD 2020HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 202013

2.14HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

3.3.COGNITIVE SKILLS:WHAT STUDENTS IN YOURSCHOOL KNOW AND CAN DOThis chapter provides an overview of Your School’s performance on thePISA-based Test for Schools. It focuses on the performance of different groupsof students in Your School and the kinds of tasks that they can perform in eachdomain.3.1 Analysing student performance atYour SchoolAre 15-year-old students in Your School preparedPISA measures the competences, skills and knowledgeto meet the challenges that the future holds? Canof 15-year-old students in reading, mathematics andthey analyse, reason and communicate their ideasscience around the world. The PISA-based Test foreffectively? Have they developed the competences,Schools (PBTS) results of Your School allow you toskills and knowledge that are essential in order tocompare your students’ levels of proficiency in thesesuccessfully participate in 21st century societies?three domains with the levels of other students in YourCountry and in school systems around the world.The results can be used as a gauge of how preparedstudents in Your School are to succeed in a globaleconomy. OECD 2020HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 202015

Figure 3.1 Student performance in reading, mathematics and scienceFigure 3.1 displays the results of Your School in the three domains – reading, mathematics and science – next tothe ones of Your Country and of the OECD in PISA 2018. For each of Your School’s values, the figure also showsits 95% confidence interval. If the respective score of Your Country – or of the OECD – is not comprised in theinterval, then the difference between this score and the score of Your School can be assumed to be statisticallysignificant.3.Source:16data for Your Country and the OECD were obtained from OECD (2019), PISA 2018 database, oecd.org/pisa/dataHOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

Results from PISA indicate the quality and equity of learning outcomes attained around the world, and alloweducators and policy makers to learn from the policies and practices applied in other countries. The results ofthe PISA 2018 survey, the seventh round of the triennial assessment, can be found in its six volumes: Volume IV, Are Students Smart aboutDo, provides a detailed examination of studentMoney?, examines 15-year-old students’performance in reading, mathematics and science,understanding about money matters in the 21and describes how performance has changedcountries and economies that participated in thissince previous PISA assessments.optional assessment. Volume II, Where All Students Can3. Volume I, What Students Know and Can Volume V, Effective Policies, SuccessfulSucceed, examines gender differences in studentSchools, analyses the policies and practicesperformance, and the links between students’used in schools and school systems, and theirsocio-economic status and immigrant background,relationship with education outcomes moreon the one hand, and student performance andgenerally. Volume VI, Are Students Ready towell-being, on the other. Volume III, What School Life Means forThrive in Global Societies?, exploresStudents’ Lives, focuses on the physical andstudents’ ability to examine local, global andemotional health of students, the role of teachersintercultural issues, understand and appreciateand parents in shaping the school climate, anddifferent perspectives and world views, interactthe social life at school. The volume also examinesrespectfully with others, and take responsibleindicators of student well-being, and how theseaction towards sustainability and collective well-are related to the school climate.being.Discover the most recently published and upcomingPISA Volumesoe.cd/publications OECD 2020HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 202017

3.2 Student performance in readingThe PBTS assesses several different cognitiveAs it is not possible to include sufficient items in theprocesses, or elements, involved in reading. ThesePBTS to report on each element as a separate sub-elements represent the mental strategies, approachesscale, these five elements are organised into threeor purposes that readers use to negotiate their waysub-scales for reporting on reading literacy:into, around and between texts.3. Locating information: this element involvesFive elements guide the developmentof the reading literacy assessmenttasks in PISA: retrieving information,forming a broad understanding,developing an interpretation,reflecting on and evaluating thecontent of a text, and reflecting onand evaluating the form of a text.going to the information space provided andnavigating in that space to locate and retrieve oneor more distinct pieces of information. Understanding: this element involvesprocessing what is read to make internal sense ofa text, whether this is clearly stated or not. Evaluating and reflecting: this elementinvolves drawing upon knowledge, ideas orattitudes beyond the text in order to relate theinformation provided within the text to one’s ownconceptual and experiential frames of reference.The PISA assessment frameworks define competenceRather than assessing whether students can reproduceas far more than the capacity to reproducewhat they have learned, PISA measures whetheraccumulated knowledge.students can extrapolate from what they have learnedand apply their competences in novel situations.According to PISA, competenceis the ability to successfully meetcomplex demands in variedcontexts through the mobilisation ofpsychosocial resources, includingknowledge and skills, motivation,attitudes, emotions and other socialand behavioural components.Tasks that can be solved through simple memorisationor with pre-set algorithms are those that are alsoeasiest to digitise and automate. These types of skills,therefore, will be less relevant in a modern knowledgebased society and are not the focus of PISA.Read more aboutThe PISA Assessment Frameworksoe.cd/publications18HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

Figure 3.2 Student performance in sub-scales of readingWhile not all PBTS tasks engage students in every sub-scale, items can be classified according to the dominantprocess. Figure 3.2 shows the results of Your School in the three sub-scales of reading, next to the results of YourCountry and of the OECD in PISA 2018. For each of Your School’s values, the figure also shows its 95% confidenceinterval. If the respective score of Your Country – or of the OECD – is not comprised in the interval, then the3.difference between this score and the score of Your School can be assumed to be statistically significant.Source: OECD 2020data for Your Country and the OECD were obtained from OECD (2019), PISA 2018 database, oecd.org/pisa/dataHOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 202019

3.3 Student performance in mathematics3.The PISA mathematics frameworkdefines the theoretical underpinningsof the PISA mathematics assessmentbased on the fundamental conceptof mathematical literacy, relatingmathematical reasoning and threeprocesses, or elements, of theproblem-solving (mathematicalmodeling) cycle.Each of these elements draws on fundamentalmathematical capabilities, and, in turn, on theproblem-solver’s detailed mathematical knowledge, asdetailed below: Formulate: the action begins with the “problemin context.” The problem-solver tries to identifythe mathematics relevant to the problem situation,formulates the situation mathematically accordingto the concepts and relationships identified, andmakes assumptions to simplify the situation. TheThe PBTS assessment measures how effectively schoolsproblem-solver thus transforms the “problem inare preparing students to use mathematics in everycontext” into a “mathematical problem” that canaspect of their personal, civic and professional lives,be solved using mathematics.as constructive, engaged and reflective 21st century Employ: to solve the problem using mathematics,the problem-solver employs mathematicalcitizens.concepts, facts, procedures and reasoning toThe framework schematises three elements of theobtain the “mathematical results.” This stagemathematical modeling cycle: formulate, employ andusually involves mathematical manipulation,interpret.transformation and computation, with and withouttools. Interpret outcomes: the “mathematicalresults” then need to be interpreted in terms ofthe original problem to obtain the “results incontext.” The problem-solver thus must interpret,apply and evaluate mathematical outcomes andtheir reasonableness in the context of a real-worldproblem.20HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

Figure 3.3 Student performance in sub-scales of mathematicsWhile not all PBTS tasks engage students in every stage of the modeling cycle, items can be classified accordingto the dominant process. Figure 3.3 shows the results of Your School in the three sub-scales of mathematics, nextto the results of Your Country and of the OECD in PISA 2012. For each of Your School’s values, the figure alsoshows its 95% confidence interval. If the respective score of Your Country – or of the OECD – is not comprised inthe interval, then the difference between this score and the score of Your School can be assumed to be statistically3.significant.Source: OECD 2020data for Your Country and the OECD were obtained from OECD (2013), PISA 2012 database, oecd.org/pisa/dataHOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 202021

Learning happens well before children start schooland continues throughout adulthood. It happensin the family, the neighbourhood and in isolation.Above all, it happens in the classroom. It is in schoolswhere students most strongly experience the joysand frustrations that come along with learning, andwhere many of them, mostly inadvertently, learn howto learn. Even if most education systems focus on3.“what” is learned, rather than “how” students learn,most students inevitably develop particular learningstrategies to complete school assignments and prepareLearning strategies are definedas cognitive and metacognitiveprocesses employed by studentsas they attempt to learn somethingnew. In PISA, the main strategiesstudents use to learn mathematicsare grouped into three broadapproaches: memorisation,elaboration and control strategies.for exams. Which strategies they adopt can make allStudents differ in how intensively they use these typesthe difference in their learning.of learning strategies. Some feel more comfortablewith particular strategies; others may adopt differentAs an integral part of the learning process, students’strategies depending on their teachers’ expectations,learning strategies have a direct influence ontheir motivation, the type of task and, more generally,academic performance and thus have an impact onon their learning environment. Students may alsostudents’ daily lives. In addition to this immediategive different weight to particular learning strategiesinfluence, learning strategies can also have long-termwhen they are faced with new information, dependingconsequences for students. Rote learning, for instance,on in which phase of the learning process they findcan be useful in certain school environments, butthemselves: identification, comprehension, retention orrelying on that strategy alone may seriously penaliseretrieval. After all, “no single strategy is a panacea”.students later on in their educational career or in manywork situations where simply storing and reproducinginformation may not be enough to get a job done.Sooner or later, a lack of deep, critical, creative andflexible thinking becomes a problem, particularly ininnovative societies where the demand for non-routineskills is rising.Read more aboutStudents’ learning strategies in Mathematicsoe.cd/il/teach22HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

3.4 Student performance in scienceThese three elements are interconnected. Explainingscientific and technological phenomena, for instance,demands knowledge of the content of science.Evaluating scientific inquiry and interpreting evidencescientifically also require an understanding of howscientific knowledge is established and the degree ofconfidence with which it is held.According to the PISA definition, a science-literateperson is able and willing to engage in reasoneddiscourse about science and technology.This requires the necessary competences tosuccessfully:3.Performance in science requires threeelements of knowledge: scientificcompetences, knowledge of thestandard methodological proceduresused in science, and knowledge ofscience subject content. Explain: this element implies being ableto recognise, offer and evaluate scientificexplanations for a range of natural andtechnological phenomena. Evaluate and plan: this element implies beingable to describe, design and appraise scientificinvestigations and propose ways of addressingquestions scientifically. Scientifically interpret: this element impliesbeing able to analyse and evaluate data, claimsand arguments in a variety of representations, anddraw appropriate scientific conclusions. OECD 2020HOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 202023

Figure 3.4 Student performance in sub-scales of scienceWhile not all PBTS tasks require all of these competences, items can be classified according to the dominant one.Figure 3.4 shows the results of Your School in the three sub-scales of science, next to the results of Your Countryand of the OECD in PISA 2015. For each of Your School’s values, the figure also shows its 95% confidence interval.If the respective score of Your Country – or of the OECD – is not comprised in the interval, then the differencebetween this score and the score of Your School can be assumed to be statistically significant.3.Source:24data for Your Country and the OECD were obtained from OECD (2016), PISA 2015 database, oecd.org/pisa/dataHOW YOUR SCHOOL COMPARES INTERNATIONALLY 2020 OECD 2020

This rise will be accompanied by the progressiveOECD work shows that the negative associationautomation of routine and low-skilled jobs. Figuresbetween inquiry-based science teaching and sciencefrom the World Bank show that a wide range of jobsperformance is greatly attenuated when lessons are– from truck drivers to finance professionals – havedelivered in disciplined science classes. This approacha high probability of being automated in the comingcould help close the gender gap between girls andyears, with technology entirely or largely replacingboys when it comes to attitudes towards science and toroutine tasks performed by human workers. Thisthe decision to pursue a career in STEM-related fields.all around us, from the humble toaster to the mightyrocket putting satellites into orbit. Science’s record inimproving our living circumstances through medicine,communication, transport and many o

This school report is based primarily on data and project co-ordination provided by [NSP name]. As an accredited service provider for the PISA-based Test for Schools in [Your Country], [NSP name] conducted test administration, coding, data management and provided the analytical outputs that comprise the school report. [Space for NSP-

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