Table of ContentsChapter 9 : Rocks and MineralsSection 2:Igneous and Sedimentary RocksSection 3:Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle
Section 2 and 3:Rocks and the Rock Cycle There are 3 different types of rocks: Sedimentary Igneous MetamorphicThey are all made of mineralsOne rock can turn into a different type, duringthe rock cycle.All rocks are formed during different processes
Igneous:meltedrock thatcoolsMetamorphic:form when existingrocks are heated orput underpressureSedimentary:Made ofcompactedsediments:pieces of rocks,minerals, shells
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v acqRoasmxzg3 Rocks Types Igneous rocks,Sedimentary rocks, Metamorphic rocksfor kidsFrom Makemegenious
The Rock Cycle - see handout
Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock CycleRead “The Rock Cycle” page 275 rock cycle is a model to describe howdifferent kinds of rock are related to oneanother and how rocks change from one typeinto another. It is a never ending process. The materials in the rocks are not destroyed,they are transformed into other materials andthere are several processes involved in thesetransformations:
**The processes involved in the RockCycle:1.Weathering – rocks are broken downinto sediments2.Erosion - sediments are transportedto other places by wind, water, ice,gravity3.Melting – liquefy
4.Heat and pressure5.Cooling6.Compaction – sediments are pressed7.Cementation – minerals dissolve in thepresence of water creating a “cement” thatwill glue the sediments together
Igneous Rocks Classification According to where they form:Intrusive or extrusive According to the composition:Granitic or basaltic
2Igneous Rocks Igneous rocks form when melted rockmaterial ( magma) from inside Earth cools.2 types: Extrusive Intrusive
Igneous Rocks Extrusive igneous rocks form when meltedrock material cools on Earth’s surface.When the melted rockreaches Earth’ssurface, it is calledlava.Extrusive Rocksform from lava
Rocks from Lava Magma can reach the Earth’s surface due tofissures or volcanic eruptions (openings) onthe Earth’s surface.
2Rocks from Lava Lava cools quickly before large mineralcrystals have time to form, so theserocks are composed of minerals withsmall crystals
Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks2 Intrusive igneousrocks are producedwhen magma coolsbelow the surfaceof Earth. ( it is notlava)
Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks2Rocks from Magma Intrusive igneous rocks generally havemineral with large crystals that are easy tosee – they have time to cool because theyform inside the Earth.
Igneous rocks Chemical Composition andcolor The chemicals in the melted rock materialdetermine the color of the rock.Granitic IgneousRocks - Highpercentage ofsilica – rocks arelight in color –usually intrusive– coarse grained
Igneous Rocks Chemical Composition andcolorBasaltic IgneousRocks – highpercentage of iron,magnesium orcalcium – darker –usually extrusive –Fine grained
***Andesitic Igneous Rocks Andesitic igneous rocks have mineralcompositions between those of basalticand granitic rocks.
Sedimentary Rocks Made of compacted sediments. Sediments - Pieces of broken rock, shells,mineral grains, and other materials Sediments are compacted in layersforming Sedimentary Rocks
***Sedimentary rocks form in 3 steps thathappen after the sediments are dropped bywind, water, gravity.1.Accumulation of sediments in layers2.Compaction: As the sediment accumulates,the weight of the layers of sediment pressesdown and compacts the layers underneath.3.Cementation: The sediments becomecemented together, as layers, into a hardrock
Igneous and Sedimentary RocksSedimentary Rocks Most sedimentary rocks take thousands tomillions of years to form. There are 3 types: Detrital Chemical Organic
Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks2Detrital Rocks Detrital rocks are made of grains ofminerals or pieces of rocks that have beencompressed
Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks2Chemical Rocks Chemical sedimentary rock forms whenmineral-rich water from geysers, hotsprings, sea or salty lakes evaporates. As the water evaporates, layers of theminerals are left behind, forming a rock Ex: limestone and rock salt
Limestone – chemicalsedimentary rock
Rock Salt – chemicalsedimentary rock
2Organic Rocks Form by:Living matterthat dies, pilesup, and then iscompressedinto rock.EX: Chalk and coal
Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks2Organic Rocks Coal is produced from plants Chalk is formed from the skeleton of smallmarine animals that deposit on the bottomof the sea
**Fossils, Sedimentary and Metamorphic RocksSedimentary rocks can contain fossils becauseunlike other rocks, they will form at temperaturesand pressure that do not destroy the rests of theOrganisms. Also, the sediments are deposited a littlebit at the time, in layers, and protect the remains fromwater, wind, animals, etc.It is very difficult to find fossils in metamorphicrocks, because the heat and pressure necessary toform a metamorphic rock would destroy the remains.
Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle3Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic means “change of form” Metamorphic rocks form when existingrocks are heated or put under pressure . It is a process that takes millions of yearsto be completed.
Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle3 Limestone (sedimentary) can change intomarble.
Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle3Types of Metamorphic Rocks They are classified according to theirTEXTURE. There are 2 types: Foliated Non foliated
Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle3 Foliated rockshave visible layers Gneiss pg 273
Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle3 Nonfoliated rocks do not have distinct layersor bands.Ex: marble Page 273 fig 21 B
Solids: can be crystalline solids or amorphous solidsThe picture below compares an amorphous(a) and acrystalline (b) structureAtoms are in arandom arrangementAtoms are organized in arepeating pattern
Glass is made by melting together sand andseveral minerals at very high temperatures.Glass is an amorphous solid (cools very fast andthere is no time to make crystals)EX of a glass found in nature: obsidian orvolcanic glass
Metamorphic Rocks and the Rock Cycle Section 2: Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks. Section 2 and 3: Rocks and the Rock Cycle There are 3 different types of rocks: Sedimentary Igneous Metamorphic They are all made of minerals One rock can turn into a different type, during the rock cycle. All rocks are formed during different processes.
Sedimentary Rocks and Sedimentary Basins Reading Stanley, S.M., 2015, Sedimentary Environments, - Ch. 5. Earth Systems History On Ecampus Sedimentary Rocks Intro Origin of sedimentary rocks - Clastic Rocks - Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks Interpreting Sedimentary Rocks - Environment of deposition
Sedimentary rocks Sedimentary rocks are those rocks which are formed by the weathered sediments of pre existing rocks (igneous or metamorphic rocks). The geological processes that involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks are as under: 1. Weathering, 2. Erosion, 3. Deposition, 4. Compaction 5. cementation
Chapter 5 - Sedimentary Rocks 1 CHAPTER 5: SEDIMENTARY ROCKS This chapter is a summary of sedimentary rocks and their terminology. Most of the sedimentary rock units in the Fells are secondary to the igneous rocks in the previous chapter and have mostly been lightly metamorphosed. As a result, this will not be a comprehensive treatment of the .
and the fact that igneous rocks are composed of relatively hard silicate minerals, igneous rocks are very hard rocks that have been used as important building materials by people for thousands of years. Mineralogy of Igneous Rocks All igneous rocks originally form from partial melting of the earth's crust, or even, the earth's upper mantle.
Science Teacher Education Program 2009 Geophysical Institute, UAF Understanding Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rocks UNDERSTANDING IGNEOUS, METAMORPHIC, AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS (MODIFIED FOR ADEED)Science Concept: The rock cycle is made up of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.
Rock Classification Chart Rocks on earth are classified according to the way they were formed.Igneous rocks come from magma or lava.Sedimentary rocks are made from sediments.Metamorphic rocks are the result of great heat and pressure that have changed existing rocks into new rocks. Igneous Igneous
Igneous rocks are one of the three main rock types (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic). Igneous rocks form through the solidification of molten or partially molten rock (lava on the surface or magma underground). Magma and Lava: mixture of liquid rock, solid crystals, gases Igneous rocks constitute one stage of the rock cycle.
Introduction to Magnetic Fields 8.1 Introduction We have seen that a charged object produces an electric field E G at all points in space. In a similar manner, a bar magnet is a source of a magnetic field B G. This can be readily demonstrated by moving a compass near the magnet. The compass needle will line up