Quotation Marks - California State University, Chico

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SLCHow to QuotationsI 530-898-6839 . a practical handoutWhat are quotations?Quotations or quotes refer to a single word, phrase, or series of sentences that are said or written by someonewho is not the original writer or speaker. If quotations and original writing are not separated, plagiarismoccurs, which means to claim someone else’s work as your own.In order to prevent plagiarism, quotation marks are used to show where someone else’s work begins. Quotationmarks, like parentheses, must be at the beginning and end of a word, phrase, or series of sentences.Example:At first, Lucy Pevensie was afraid of Aslan. She hid her face in his mane, “But there must havebeen magic in his mane. She could feel lion-strength going into her.”IIThere are a few different rules that describe how quotations should be punctuated and where quotation marksshould go. The following will describe the rules and how to use them in your own writing.Commas and PeriodsRule #1Commas are used to introduce and interrupt a quote.Examples:Lizzie said,II“You could not have made me the offer of your hand in any possible way thatwould have tempted me to accept it.”IIIn the article,II“The Ophelia Syndrome,” the author discusses its application to the learningexperience in college.Rule #2When using dialogue tags (i.e. he said, they shouted, she responded, Larry whispered), a comma comes beforeor after a quote.Examples:“The garden is beautiful,” Penelope responded.III“You were the chosen one,”I he said,II“it was said that you were supposed to destroy the Sith, notjoin them.”I

Rule #3Commas and periods at the end of a quote should go inside the quotation marks. This rule applies to bothdouble and single quotation marks.Examples:“Elizabeth Bennet refuses Mr. Darcy for many reasons, but Darcy’s most insulting commentreferred to her family’s ‘inferiority.’ ”IIIRule #4For research papers, it is important to cite where you found your quote at the end of the sentence. This is calledan in-text citation. There are different in-text citation formats depending on the type of citation style yourprofessor wants. No matter the citation style, periods should go at the end of the sentence after the in-textcitation.Examples:“Apples have the same consistency as potatoes” (Smith 2019).11IExclamation Points/Question MarksRule #5Question marks should go inside of the quotation marks if the quote is a question. If the quote is not a question,but the sentence is, the question mark should be outside the quotation marks.Examples:The caterpillar answered, “Who are you?”IIIIWhy did you say that I was “ugly and annoying”?Rule #6If the quoted question ends in the middle of the sentence, the question marks takes the place of a comma.Example:She asked the question, “Why is a raven like a writing desk?” before jumping into the pool.IIRule #7Similar to a question mark, when a quote has an exclamation mark, the quotation marks should go after theexclamation point. If the sentence does have an exclamation point, but the quote does not, then the exclamationpoint goes outside of the quotation marks.Examples:“Yes, I will marry you!”IIIIThe police shouted at me, saying “Stop right there”!How to Punctuate Quotations 2

Block QuotationsRule #8Block quotations are used when a longer quote (refer to the citation style to determine the characteristics for alonger quote) is included in your writing. Block quotations do not use quotation marks to determine thebeginning and end of the quote. End the quotation with a period, followed by the in-text citation.Example:Many of Agatha Christie’s novels address morality and justice. Her book And Then There WereNone follows twelve people and their stay on an island. All twelve people are accused ofcommitting some crime. As the story progresses, people begin to be killed in unusual and stagedcircumstances. Christie’s genius emerges when she reveals that a majority of the crimes werenot punishable by the law.1(Tavis 2018)BracketsRule #9Brackets are most often used to add clarifying information to a quotation. This added information can be achange in a verb tense, a noun, or a short phrase.-Example:“The shoe snagged on [Pearl’s] dress and ripped a hole in the material.”IISingle Quotation MarksRule #10Single quotation marks are used when there is a quote inside a quote. If the single quotation mark comes at theend of a quotation, add a space between the single and double quotation marks.Examples:“The trial was considered a ‘failure’ because it did not have the intended result” (Depp 2014).IIIII“Elizabeth Bennet refuses Mr. Darcy for many reasons, but Darcy’s most insulting commentreferred to her family’s I‘inferiority.’II”Colons and SemicolonsRule # 11Colons and semicolons should go outside the quotation marks when at the end of a quote.Example:Austen did not “agree with Gregerson’s viewpoint”; nevertheless, Austen treated Gregersonamiably.IIHow to Punctuate Quotations 3

Slash MarksRule #12Slash marks are used to separate one to three lines of poetry. Quotation marks should be at the end andbeginning of the poetry lines.Example:In the poem, “Luck,” Em Hamley personifies Luck when they say, “Luck, you are a ladyuntrustworthy. / My friend one moment, foe the next” (2015).IIIEllipsesRule #13Ellipses refer to three spaced dots (. . .) that show part of a quotation has been left out. They can be used whenyou want to leave out information that is not relevant to your writing. However, make sure that the exclusiondoes not change the quote’s original meaning.Example:Monroe argues that, “everyone should read books because it creates well-rounded people whocan healthily function in society” (2014).II Extra RulesRule #14When a quote takes up more than one paragraph, place a opening quotation mark at the beginning of each newparagraph. Only place a closing quotation mark at the end of the last quotation paragraph.Example:“Lulu crept down the stairs, taking care to step over the squeaky step. Once she was on theground floor, she grabbed a coat from the closet.II“Just as she was about to unlock the front door, her mother ran down the stairs and beganpestering Lulu with questions.”IRule #15If a quotation is a complete sentence, always capitalize the first word, even if it is introduced mid-sentence.Example:One example why Hamilton is a musical masterpiece is because “Each character has a specificmusical characteristic.”IHow to Punctuate Quotations 4

Rule #16If a quotation is not a complete sentence, do not capitalize the first word.Example:I believe that high school should begin at 9 AM because “researchers have found that teenagersneed more sleep” to function properly (Aiden 2019).IRule #17Quotation marks can be used to identify: chapter titles in a book, episode titles in a TV series, song titles, andarticle titles.Examples:My favorite song from Hamilton is “You’ll Be Back.”IIThe article, “Museum Education,” by Deborah Hackles, addresses the importance of museumfieldtrips in elementary schools.Rule #18Quotation marks can be used when technical terms are included in a piece of writing.Examples:Marching bands choose one student a year to become a “drum major” whose role is to lead thestudents in their parade and “field show” performances.IIIIReferencesGrammarbook. (2020) Quotation Marks. The Punctuation Guide. (2020) Quotation Marks. s.htmlPurdue Online Writing Lab. (2020) MLA Formatting Quotations. Purdue University.https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research and citation/mla style/mla formatting and style guide/mla formatting quotations.html#: :text e%20maintaining%20double%2Dspacing.How to Punctuate Quotations 5

Single Quotation Marks Rule #10 Single quotation marks are used when there is a quote inside a quote. If the single quotation mark comes at the end of a quotation, add a space between the single and double quotation marks. Examples: “The trial was considered a ‘failure’because it did not have the intended result”(Depp 2014).

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placed inside the closing quotation marks. Periods also are placed inside closing quotation marks. All other punctuation (exclamation marks, question marks) are placed outside closing quotation marks. The one exception to this rule is that when a punctuation mark is part of a quote itself, it is placed within the closing quotation marks

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quotation. The English translation, with source cited the same way, should always come second. Translations within the Text If the translation is the author's own: "original version of the quotation" (source of the quotation; English translation of the quotation). There should be no quotation marks surrounding the English translation.

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Rule 1: Complete sentence: "quotation." (If you use a complete sentence to introduce a quotation, use a colon (:) just before the quotation.) Rule 2: Someone says, "quotation." (If the word just before the quotation is a verb indicating someone uttering the quoted words, use a comma. Examples include the

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