Year 9 Science

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Year 9 ScienceChemistryWeek 4, Lesson 1

Learning Intention: Review balancing chemical equations Investigate acids and bases and the pH scaleSuccess Criteria: Balance chemical equations Define properties of acids and bases Understand the purpose of the pH scale

Review: We Do:Balance the following chemical equation:CH4 O2 H2O

Review: You Do:Balance the following chemical equations:a) N2 O2 N2Ob) KI Cl2 KCl I2c) S O2 SO3d) Na H20 NaOH H2

Answers:a) 2N2 O2 2N2Ob) 2KI Cl2 2KCl I2c) 2S 3O2 2SO3d) 2Na 2H20 2NaOH H2

Acids and BasesAcids and bases are all around us.We use them in cooking, cleaning, farming and medicine.Can you think of any acids?Can you think of any bases?

AcidsAn acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H )into an aqueous solution (water).Common examples of acids includehydrochloric acid (which is found inyour stomach) and acetic acid(which is found in vinegar).

Properties of Acids Acids are corrosive - this means they will burn our skin Acids have a sour taste - think of lemon juice React with some metals to produce hydrogen gas and a salt Conduct electricity Can be neutralized by bases, producing water and a salt Turn blue litmus paper red

Strength of AcidsThe acids we work with in the school laboratory are not puresubstances.They are solutions – meaning the acid has been mixed with water.When acids are mixed with water they release hydrogen ions (H ).The strength of an acid depends on how many of thesehydrogen ions are released.

Nitric acid, hydrochloric acid andsulfuric acid are examples ofstrong acids.Acetic acid (vinegar) and carbonicacid (found in soft drinks) areexamples of weak acids.

Copy and complete:1. An acid is a substance that releases ions (H )into an aqueous solution (water).2. Acids are meaning they will burn our skin.3. Acids react with some metals to form gas and asalt.4. Common examples of acids include acid whichis found in your stomach and acid which isfound in vinegar.

Copy and complete:1. An acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H )into an aqueous solution (water).2. Acids are meaning they will burn our skin.3. Acids react with some metals to form gas and asalt.4. Common examples of acids include acid whichis found in your stomach and acid which isfound in vinegar.

Copy and complete:1. An acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H )into an aqueous solution (water).2. Acids are corrosive meaning they will burn our skin.3. Acids react with some metals to form gas and asalt.4. Common examples of acids include acid whichis found in your stomach and acid which isfound in vinegar.

Copy and complete:1. An acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H )into an aqueous solution (water).2. Acids are corrosive meaning they will burn our skin.3. Acids react with some metals to form hydrogen gas and asalt.4. Common examples of acids include acid whichis found in your stomach and acid which isfound in vinegar.

Copy and complete:1. An acid is a substance that releases hydrogen ions (H )into an aqueous solution (water).2. Acids are corrosive meaning they will burn our skin.3. Acids react with some metals to form hydrogen gas and asalt.4. Common examples of acids include hydrochloric acidwhich is found in your stomach and acetic acid which isfound in vinegar.

BasesA base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-).If a base can be dissolved in water it is known as an alkali.The solution it forms is called an alkaline solution.Common examples of bases includesodium hydroxide which is used in soapammonia which is used for householdcleaning.and

Properties of Bases Bases are caustic – meaning they can burn your skin Bases have a soapy, slimy feel Bases have a bitter taste Bases conduct electricity Bases are neutralized by acids, producing water and a salt Turn red litmus paper blue

Copy and complete:1.2.3.4.An base is a substance that releases ions (OH-).Bases that dissolve in water produce solutions.Bases are meaning they will burn our skin.Common examples of bases include hydroxidewhich is found in soap and which is used forhousehold cleaning.

Copy and complete:1.2.3.4.An base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-).Bases that dissolve in water produce solutions.Bases are meaning they will burn our skin.Common examples of bases include hydroxidewhich is found in soap and which is used forhousehold cleaning.

Copy and complete:1.2.3.4.An base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-).Bases that dissolve in water produce alkaline solutions.Bases are meaning they will burn our skin.Common examples of bases include hydroxidewhich is found in soap and which is used forhousehold cleaning.

Copy and complete:1.2.3.4.An base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-).Bases that dissolve in water produce alkaline solutions.Bases are caustic meaning they will burn our skin.Common examples of bases include hydroxidewhich is found in soap and which is used forhousehold cleaning.

Copy and complete:1.2.3.4.An base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-).Bases that dissolve in water produce alkaline solutions.Bases are caustic meaning they will burn our skin.Common examples of bases include sodium hydroxidewhich is found in soap and ammonia which is used forhousehold cleaning.

The pH ScaleWe use pH to measure the concentration of hydrogen ions(H ) in a solution.Remember that in an acidic solution there are more hydrogen ions(H ) than hydroxide ions (OH-).In a basic, or alkaline, solution there are more hydroxide ions (OH-)than hydrogen ions (H ).

Pure water is neutral (neither acidic or basic).It has an equal number of hydrogen and hydroxide ions.Pure water has a pH of 7. It is in the middle of the pH scale.Acidic solutions have a pH below 7 (1 being the most acidic).Basic, or alkaline, solutions have a pH above 7 (14 being themost basic).

The pH ScaleSulfuric acid(car battery acid)Pure waterSodium hydroxide(found in soap)

Measuring pHWe use indicators that change colour to determine the pH of asolution.We can use blue litmus paper which turns red when dipped in anacidic solution.We can use red litmus paper which turns blue when dipped in abasic solution.We can also use universal indicator which changes colour dependingon the pH of a solution.

Properties of Bases Bases are caustic –meaning they can burn your skin Bases have a soapy, slimy feel Bases have a bitter taste Bases conduct electricity Bases are neutralized by acids

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