Crowley – Keohane - Bantry

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Crowley – KeohaneIrelandTithe Applotment BooksGriffith’s ValuationCensus 1901Census 1911By: Frank O’Donovan - December 2018Crowley: The surname Crowley was anglicised from the Gaelic O'Cruadhlaoich wholived in the mid-11th century. Some time later, in the late 13th century, descendants ofthe Cruadhlaoch migrated from Connacht to County Cork, and settled in an area northof the Bandon river in the barony of East Carbery. Tradition has it, in the locality, that theyacquired this territory by marrying into the ruling family of the Coughlans, whom theysubsequently ousted. The townlands of East Curraghcrowly and West Curraghcrowly nearBallineen do record their presence. The Cork branch of the family earned a formidablereputation as fighters and, as a result, prospered and multiplied rapidly, while the originalConnacht branch of the sept went into decline.Keohane: There has been much discussion over the origin of the surname, and aview now held is that they are a branch of the Crowleys. In the Bantry area, thesurnames were quite interchangeable in some families up to recent years. There areseveral instances of people with the surname Keohane in Ireland arriving into the UnitedStates as Crowley.As to why the change of name; well there are a few reasons “tossed around” but it appearsthat there is no definite explanation, so we will instead focus on figures from some officialrecords as a guide on the locations and popularity of the surname in Ireland. In this documentI focus on the spelling “Keohane”, aware that the name has various other variations but onexamination I found these to be very small in number.

Tithe Applotment BooksThe Tithe Applotment Books will be our starting point and we will look at the total numberof the surnames Keohane and Crowley listed in the said Books. Of course we must bemindful that only the head of a family who held 1 acre of land, or more, is listed in the Booksand one person may be listed more than once if they held two or more parcels of land.However, we will at least see the relative numbers and locations of both surnames in thecountry.Firstly, looking at the Keohane surname.KeohaneWe find a total of 115 Keohane surnames in Ireland in the following Civil Parishes:Civil 321135Civil ullaghSligo & WestmeathTOTAL:Number62572164112115All except 2 are in County Cork; of those 2 we see one in County Sligo and the other one inCounty WestmeathFrank O’DonovanDecember 2018Crowley – Keohane Ireland Page 2 of 15

The following map indicates the location of the Keohanes in County Cork where more thanone of the surname is foundCrowleyOn the other hand we see that the Crowley surname is spread much more throughout Irelandbut County Cork has the much larger number at 503 followed by Kerry at 37, Waterford at 27and Clare at 24.CountyCarlowClareCorkDublinKerryKildare, 2662Distribution of the Crowley surname inIreland by County from the TitheApplotment Books.We observe the higher concentrations in theSouthern half and in particular from Clare toKerry to Cork, Waterford to Kilkenny.Frank O’DonovanDecember 2018Crowley – Keohane Ireland Page 3 of 15

Griffith’s Valuation of IrelandThis survey to value all pieces of land in Ireland was carried out by a team of surveyorsheaded by Richard Griffith. Most of West Cork was surveyed in the late 1840’s to very early1850’s. The survey recorded the head of the house / property so family members are notincluded and a persons may be listed more than once because of having more than one pieceof property. However for this comparative Crowley – Keohane exercise we will take therelative numbers from the survey results.KeohaneIn Griffith’s Valuation of Ireland we find the spread of the Keohane name in County Cork –or really in West Cork plus 1 in Tuosist, Co.Kerry.The above data in tabular form:Civil ParishAbbeystrowryCaheraghDesertDurrus part ofKilfaughnabeg (part of)KilmocomogeFrank O’DonovanNumber51311161December 2018Civil ParishRossSkullSt FinbarrTemplequinlanTuosistTOTALCrowley – Keohane IrelandNumber106121102 Page 4 of 15

CrowleyThe spread of the Crowley surname by county in Griffith’s Valuation is in tabular form:CountyLimerickQueen's County ry, South RidingTipperary, North RidingWestmeathClareDublinMeathKilkennyKing's County (Offaly)MayoWicklowMonaghanTipperaryLouthGalway, town 12131221,370We can see that the surname is spread throughout much of the country with the significantlylarger number in County Cork at 1,019 followed by Kerry at 105 and Waterford at 58.Census of Ireland 1901

We come forward to the 1901 Census of Ireland which included ALL of the people in ahousehold rather than just the head of the household as in previous records. We will look atthe distribution of the Crowley surname.Total number of Crowley surname in Ireland by County in the 1901 Census (over 73% inCounty cklowAntrimArmaghKildareCavanQueen's King's 21115,728These numbers are shown on the following map.Frank O’DonovanDecember 2018Crowley – Keohane Ireland Page 6 of 15

Total number of Keohane surname in Ireland by County in the 1901 Census is very sparserelative to the Crowley kTOTALNumber1,0281392211,055These numbers are shown on the following map and all are in Munster except 13 in Dublin.We see that Keohane is almost entirely confined to County Cork (97.44%). Then where inthe county were the greatest number of that surname? This is tabulated on the next page.Let us review the birth location of each of the Keohane people who were resident outside ofCounty Cork in the Census of 1901. Limerick – housekeeper, born in County CorkClare – mother and daughter, both born in County LimerickWaterford – husband and wife; he was born in County WaterfordKerry – family of 4, head is retired Sgt RIC, he was born in County Cork- head of house born in England, wife in County Cork, 3 children in EnglandDublin – Head of house (civil servant), and his wife were born in County Cork, theirson in Dublin. All other Keohane residents were born in Roscommon, Dublin, Derryor Sligo.Frank O’DonovanDecember 2018Crowley – Keohane Ireland Page 7 of 15

The following table contains the number of Keohane surnames in a DED (spelling of theDED’s is as on Census 1901). DEDs with less than 5 of the surname are not urtmacsherryCork Urban 27DEDKilfaughnabegAhilKilnagrossBallydehobBantry 88DEDSkibbereenUrbanTeadiesKnocksKinsale venNorthKnockroeBallinspittleYoughal UrbanCahermoreFermoy UrbanRuthbarryDromoreNumber887777776666665On the following map of West Cork I have indicated the number of the Keohane surnamerecorded in Census 1901 in the respective DED areas included on the map (excluding wherejust 1 name found to avoid clutter on the map).Can we drill down further into these figures and view the number of Keohane in eachtownland in Ireland. Derreenkealig, a townland a few miles to the East of Bantry has thegreatest number of Keohanes. (Note: the spelling is Derrcenbealig in the typed version of theCensus of 1901 and I have not amended any such errors in the tables)Frank O’DonovanDecember 2018Crowley – Keohane Ireland Page 8 of 15

sleecourtCullinaghThe enGrangemoreArdrahGlenbanoo UpperInchinagownStrand RoadBallyvaCoolnaconartyGlanaphucaHorse IslandLough RoadVicar StreetArgehaneBarleyfieldBlackrock RoadArdanenigKill NorthKilmoylerane SouthBallinloughLispatrick LowerGarranereaghKilnacronaghLislevaneHollybank RoadCappanaboulShandrum BegBarrack RoadCoomleigh WestGallanesPatrick StreetKnockacullenDouglas StreetFrank O’DonovanDecember eraghCaheraghGlengarriffCastlehaven ehaven mahonMealaghMealaghGlengarriffClonakilty UrbanArdfieldBallingurteenCaheraghBallydehobCork Urban No. 5Cork Urban No. honGlasnevinBantry RuralBantry RuralBantryMealaghClonakiltyClonakilty UrbanKnocksCork Urban No. kCorkCorkCorkCorkCorkCrowley – Keohane 010101010999999999998888888888877777777 Page 9 of 15

KillanyDrinagh WestGlandartDromoreRushanesMoalicarraneBarleyhill hurch StreetMaulereganCross StreetDundeadyGullaneKinsale RuralDrinaghDromdaleague ownTempleomalusBallinspittleCastlehaven SouthYoughal UrbanCahermoreFermoy kCorkCorkCork7777777766666666666666While we have seen that Keohane is very much confined to West Cork, what about Crowley?The following table gives us the numbers of Crowley surname in each DED with at least 25of the surname.DEDCork Urban No. 5DunmanwayBandonCork Urban No. AultaghRathcooneyBlackrockClonakilty UrbanRathmoreBantryFrank 515149DEDKinsale UrbanWoodfortBaurleighKinsale MidletonRossmoreKillarneyQueenstown UrbanCork Urban No. 7DerreenNo. 2 UrbanKilbrittainCashelClonkeenCreeghDecember wley – Keohane IrelandDEDYoughal UrbanRathclarinSaint Mary'sAglishGarrownKilmaloodaSkibbereen North East WardSkibbereen RuralKnockskagh No.3433333232323231313030303029282726262625Page 10 of 15

Looking at some of the townlands with the higher number of Crowley an MoreKilcullenCastle KnockyealaArdcahanBallyneen in StreetAnnaharlickBarrack Street (part)GortnacarrigaInchincurkaShanacrane EastCarrowreagh WestClancoolbegConnaghCurrahyDeanrockDunkerronInch WestKilbrogan StreetTawlaghtWest oliverKnockfinniskLetterPhale UpperRoundhillShannonSouth Main StreetAghalinaneFrank O’DonovanDecember rroorKnocksKilmaloodaDunmanwayKinneighCork Urban No. ymodanBandonBandonKinneighCrowley – Keohane yLimerickCorkCorkCorkCorkCorkCork Page 11 of 15

Census of Ireland 1911Coming forward to the 1911 Census of Ireland.Keohane:We see that the Keohane name has spread in very limited numbers outside of County Corkbut still over 97% are in County merickTOTALNumber1,08414852211,116The above table is represented on the hereunder map of IrelandFrank O’DonovanDecember 2018Crowley – Keohane Ireland Page 12 of 15

Let us review the birth location of each of the Keohane people who were resident outside ofCounty Cork in the Census of 1911. Limerick – born County Cork Kildare – 2 students, born Dublin Galway – RIC Constable – born County Cork, wife born in Kerry Longford – creamery manager born in County Cork, wife and family in Sligo andLongford Tyrone – head RIC Sergt born in County Cork, wife and family born in CountiesLimerick, Clare and Tyrone Dublin – Civil servant born in County Cork, wife and son in DublinCustoms clerk born in County Roscommon, wife and 5 children born ineither Londonderry or Dublincoachman born in County Cork1 born in County Roscommon2 students born in LondonderryCrowley:The Crowley surname in Ireland in 1911 is found in 26 of the 32 counties with over 4,000 inCounty Cork equal to 72.26% of the total in Ireland as on the map and table mmonMayoWicklowAntrimLouthDownQueen's CoKildareMeathKing's CoCarlowDonegalLondonderryLongfordTotalFrank O’DonovanDecember 2018Crowley – Keohane Ireland 877621115,562Page 13 of 15

Summary of figures:Note that in Tithe Applotment Books only those who hold one acre or more are includedand then only the head of the household.In Griffith’s Valuation of Ireland only the head of the household is included.CrowleyKeohane6625031592011511323Tithe ApplotmentNumber of the surname with over 1acreNumber recorded in County CorkNumber recorded in other CountiesSurname found in total number of countiesGriffith's ValuationNumber of tenants of the surname in IrelandNumber recorded in County CorkNumber recorded in other CountiesSurname found in total number of counties1,3701,0193512210210112Census 1901Total number of the surname in IrelandNumber of the surname in County CorkNumber of the surname in other CountiesSurname found in total number of counties5,7284,2071,521291,0551,028276Census 1911Total number of the surname in IrelandNumber of the surname in County CorkNumber of the surname in other CountiesSurname found in total number of counties5,5624,0191,543261,1161,084327Before we close let us check for other likely spellings of the particular surnames in theCensus of Ireland in 1901Keoghan - 1 in Dublin, born in County CorkCohane - 1 in County Cork and born in County CorkMc Cohane - 1 in Co Down and born in Co LouthKeohan – this is rather more numerous especially in County Waterford for the Census of1901 and Census of 1911 as in the following lFrank O’DonovanDecember 201819011911Number61752066Number41159166Crowley – Keohane Ireland Page 14 of 15

I did notice that the spelling Crowly generated a significant number with most in CountyCork in the Census returns for 1901 and 1911 as tabulated wayKerryKilkennyKing's Co.LeitrimQueen's 0203409106Conclusions The surnames Crowley and Keohane are very much rooted in County Cork andCrowley outnumbers Keohane by over 5:1 in both 1901 and 1911 Census returns.Keohane certainly was almost confined to West Cork in the 1800’sThere is substantial evidence of some people born Keohane in West Cork becameCrowley in the United States. One can see that if a Keohane named person wasarriving in the US to a near relative who had already changed to Crowley then thenew arrival needed to be Crowley too so one could understand the “knock-on” effect.There is some speculation about the origin of the Keohane surname but I did not findanything to convince me of its origin, so in such circumstances my attitude is to saythat we don’t really know. As to the “story” that they were a branch of the Crowleyclan who lost their way in the fog going to the Battle of Kinsale in January 1602 –well!, well!Mentioning ‘speculation’ I often see examples in genealogy of speculation todaybeing fact tomorrow.Frank O’DonovanDecember 2018Crowley – Keohane Ireland Page 15 of 15

Crowley The spread of the Crowley surname by county in Griffith’s Valuation is in tabular form: We can see that the surname is spread throughout much of the country with the significantly larger number in County Cork at 1,019 followed by Kerry at 105 and Waterford at 58. Census of Ireland 1901 County Number Limerick 22 Queen's County (Laois) 3

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