LATEX Quick Reference Mark Gates November 19, 2012

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LATEX quick referenceMark GatesNovember 19, 2012This guide is available from mgates3/Copyright 2007–2011 by Mark Gates.You may freely copy and modify this document under the CreativeCommons Attribution-ShareAlike license. When distributing modifiedversions, please include your Latex file.Purpose. This document was initially made as a quick reference to all the commands thatI typically use, organized so I can understand it, with examples and without clutter. It alsoincludes many shortcuts that I have defined in my mgates.sty file. It is not intended to beexhaustive, nor overly descriptive. Most of the general LATEXcommands can be found in theNot So Short Introduction to LATEX 2ε [4]; most of the math in the Short Math Guide toLATEX [2]; most of the bibliography information in the BibTeX tutorial [3] and the natbibdocumentation [1].I also wrote a separate Latex fonts guide.1

Contents1 Commands1.1 Document structure . . . . . . .1.2 Page format . . . . . . . . . . .1.3 Chapters and Sections . . . . .1.4 Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.5 Reserved characters . . . . . . .1.6 Special characters . . . . . . . .1.7 Accented characters . . . . . . .1.8 Special spaces . . . . . . . . . .1.9 Special phrases . . . . . . . . .1.10 Line and page breaks . . . . . .1.11 References, citations, footnotes1.12 Hyperlinks . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Environments2.1 Text alignment . .2.2 Boxes . . . . . . .2.3 Block quotes . . . .2.4 Verse . . . . . . . .2.5 Verbatim . . . . . .2.6 Lists . . . . . . . .2.7 Tables (tabular) . .2.8 Figures and Tables.334567788891010.1111111212121313143 Math3.1 Equation numbering . . . . . . . .3.2 Sub/superscripts . . . . . . . . . .3.3 Fractions and binomial coefficient .3.4 Math Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.5 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.6 Accents and over/under commands3.7 Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.8 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.9 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.10 Brackets and delimiters . . . . . . .3.11 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1617171818192021212224254 Bibliography using BibTeX4.1 Enabling BibTeX . . . . . . . . . .4.2 Bibliography formats . . . . . . . .4.3 Citation formats and natbib . . . .4.4 BibTeX database . . . . . . . . . .4.5 Manually formatted bibliographies .2626272829292

11.1CommandsDocument structure\documentclass[options]{class}Common classesarticlearticles without chaptersprocproceedings, based on articleminimal minimal formattingreportreports with chaptersbookreal booksCommon options10pt, 11pt, 12pta4paper, letterpaper, .fleqnleqnotitlepage, notitlepageonecolumn, twocolumntwoside, onesidelandscapeopenright, openanymain font sizepaper sizeequations left-aligned instead of centeredequation numbers on left instead of rightstart new page after titleone or two columnspaper orientationchapters begin on right page, or any nly{filenames}skip \include with listed rt new page with contents of file\input{filename}include contents of file, without starting a new page\end{document}3

1.2Page format\pagestyle{ plain headings empty }plainpage number in footerheadings page number and chapter in headeremptyno header or footer\thispagestyle{ plain headings empty }override \pagestyle on a single page% set 1" margins on 8.5" x 11" paper% top left is measured from 1", 1"\topmargin0in\oddsidemargin0in\evensidemargin 9in\textwidth6.5in% set these after the {1em}\setlength\arraycolsep{2pt}4

1.3Chapters and Sections\title{.}\author{John Doe \and Jane Doe}\date{\today}\maketitle\frontmatter% (book only) starts roman numeral page numbering, unnumbered ainmatter% (book only) starts arabic page & section appendix% whether to display sub- or subsubsections in ection*{.}\paragraph*{.}\subparagraph*{.}% (book only)% (book only) starts alphabetic section numbering\backmatter* Starred versions are unnumbered and not in the table of sectionparagraph Run-in paragraph header. Lorem ipsum dolar blah blah blah blah blah blahblah blah blah blah blah blah blah blahsubparagraph Run-in paragraph header. Lorem ipsum dolar blah blah blah blah blahblah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah5

1.4FontsFont sizesPoint size567881091110 1212 1414 17Latex e\LargeUser-defined xlargeSamplethe quick brown foxthe quick brown foxthe quick brown foxthe quick brown foxthe quick brown foxthe quick brown foxthe quick brown foxthe quick brown foxthe quick brown foxthe quick brown fox* see mgates.sty ormalSampleromansans alicmediumbold fontSmall CapsnormalIn math mode (e.g. inside . ), use the math fonts listed in the math section.6

1.5Reserved charactersChar# % &{} \Special meaning?math modecommentmath superscripttab stopmath subscriptstart parameterend parameternonbreaking spacestart commandCommand\#\ \%\ {}\&\\{\\ {} \backslash These can also be typed in the verbatim environment or with \verb.1.6Special charactersSymbol“‘in-lawyes . . . no†§ Command‘‘‘in-lawyes \ldots no\dag\S\copyright\poundsSymbol”’13–67 (en)¿No?‡¶ CommandSymbolCommand" or ’’’13--67yes—no (em) texteuro ** in textcomp package7

1.7Accented charactersCharòōŏo.œåøCommand\‘o\ o\u o\d o\oe\aa\oCharóȯǒo ŒÅØCommand\’o\.o\v o\b o\OE\AA\OCharôöő ooæCommand\ o\"o\H o\t oo\aeChar Commandõ\ oç\c cÆ\AEl\lL\LThe first 4 lines can be applied to appropriate characters.To put accent over i or j, use \i (ı) or \j ( ).1.8Special spacesCommand\,\:\;\\quad\qquad\!Size1 space 10 spaces3/8 quad()[]4/8 quad()[]5/8 quad()[]en? space()[]em space( )[2 quad() [ 3/8 quad ()] []]In math mode, phantom reserves space for text without printing it, for examplex1 x3 2,x1 x2 5,x1 x2 x3 7.1.9x 1 \phantom{ x 2} x 3 2,x 1 x 2 \phantom{ x 3} 5,x 1 x 2 x 3 7.Special r 19, 2012TEXLATEXLATEX 2ε8\\\\

1.10Line and page breaks\\ or \newlineline break, without new paragraph. \\* also prohibts page break.\linebreak[n]\nolinebreak[n]line break, keeping line justified. n ranges from 0 to 4 (most insistent).For example, here is a paragraph with a newline in it, lorem ipsum dolar blah blah blahblah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah, \newline.It also has a linebreak in it for comparison, lorem ipsum dolar blah blah blahblah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah, \linebreak[4].Notice the difference in justification. Using \linebreak can cause “underfull hbox” warnings.\newpagepage break\pagebreak[n]\nopagebreak[n]page break, keeping line justified. n ranges from 0 to 4 (most insistent).\hyphenation{ fortran hy-phen-a-tion }list of words and where they may be hyphenated (in preamble).\where a word may be hyphenated (in text). Example: su\-per\-scal\-ar\ space not to enlarge space not to enlarge or line break“Mr. Smith” (Mr.\ Smith) or“Mr. Smith” (Mr. Smith) instead of“Mr. Smith” (Mr. Smith)\@ between capital letter and punctuation that really does end a sentance“. . . FORTRAN. But. . . ” (FORTRAN\@. But) instead of“. . . FORTRAN. But. . . ” (FORTRAN. But)9

1.11References, citations, footnotes\label{name} assigns a unique name to an equation, figure, table, or section. For figuresand tables, label must be after the caption.\eqref{name} inserts reference to the labeled equation; equivalent to (\ref{name}).\ref{name} inserts reference to the label. You must add the descriptive text such as“figure.”\pageref{name} inserts page number of the label.\cite{name} inserts reference to bibliography citation. Name is assigned by bibitem, notlabel.\footnote{text} generates a footnote.See also equation numbering on page epackage[colorlinks, urlcolor blue, linkcolor black]{hyperref}To color links, use the colorlinks option. To override default colors, specifylinkcolor redinternal links (sections, pages, etc.)citecolor greencitation links (bibliography)filecolor magenta file linksurlcolor cyanURL links (mail, web)\href{url

22.1EnvironmentsText alignment\begin{flushleft}this paragraph \\is flush left.\end{flushleft}this paragraph isflush left.\begin{flushright}this paragraph \\is flush right.\end{flushright}this paragraph isflush right.\begin{center}this paragraph \\is centered.\end{center}this paragraph iscentered.2.2BoxesOnly minipage is an environment, but these are all related.\mbox{.}\makebox[width][t b c]{.}groups items in a box. Everything must be on one line (?).\fbox{.}\framebox[width][t b c]{.}framed box. Everything must be on one line (?).\parbox[t b c]{width}{.}paragraph box that wraps text.\begin{minipage}[t b c]{width} . \end{minipage}minipage box, similar to parbox but can contain almost anything.\begin{boxedminipage}[t b c]{width} . \end{boxedminipage}with iseboxpage and other parameters to tweak11

2.3Block quotesMartin Luther King Jr. said,\begin{quote}I have a dream that someday\ldots\end{quote}Martin Luther King Jr. said,I have a dream that someday. . .For multiple paragraph quotations, use quotation instead of quote, to indent the first lineof each paragraph.2.4VerseReverse indents if line wraps.\textbf{Humpty Dumpty}\begin{verse}Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall:\\Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.\\All the King’s horses and all theKing’s men\\Couldn’t put Humpty together again.\end{verse}Humpty DumptyHumpty Dumpty sat on awall:Humpty Dumpty had a greatfall.All the King’s horses and allthe King’s menCouldn’t put Humpty together again.2.5Verbatimverbatim reproduces text exactly as you type it, not interpretting any characters or commands. It was used here for all the LaTeX code listings.\begin{verbatim}text can include special characters # and \textbf{commands}.\end{verbatim}\verb text where the delimiter ‘ ’ is any character except letters, *, and space.Adding a star highlights spaces.\begin{verbatim*} . \end{verbatim*}\verb* text with spaces text with spaces12

2.6Lists\begin{enumerate}\item One\item[3.] Two (with special number)\item Three\end{enumerate}1. One3. Two (with special number)2. Three\begin{itemize}\item One\item[-] Two (with special bullet)\end{itemize} One- Two (with special bullet)\begin{description}\item[One] Description of one\item[Two] Description of two\end{description}One Description of oneTwo Description of two2.7Tables (tabular)col1 col2col1 col2col1 col2\begin{tabular}{l ll}col1 & col2 & col3 \\\hlinecol1 & col2 & col3 \\col1 & col2 & col3 \\\end{tabular}col3col3col3In general:\begin{tabular}[t b c]{column spec}col1 & col2 & . & coln \\col1 & col2 & . & coln \\\end{tabular}In column spec, for each column use l, r, c for a left, right, or centered column, p{width} fora column of given width that wraps text. Use (pipe) for a vertical line between columns.Use @{.} to specify the delimiter between columns. An empty @{} deletes the gutter orleft indent.Between lines, use \hline for a horizontal line.Use \multicolumn{n}{column spec}{text} to have text span multiple columns.13

2.8Figures and TablesA figure typically includes 1 or more graphics. tering\includegraphics[scale 0.8]{sine}\caption{ \sin(x) }\label{sine}\end{figure}6Figure 1: sin(x)A table typically includes a tabular environment; see previous section. abular}{ccc}& sales& growth \\2000 & 10,000 & 15\% \\2001 & 12,000 & 20\% \\\end{tabular}\caption{Sales growth}\label{sales-growth}\end{table}sales growth10,00015%12,00020%Table 1: Sales growthfigure and table take an optional placement specifier:h here in the textt top of a pageb bottom of a pagep on a special page of only floats! be insistentTo use includegraphics, include \usepackage[driver ]{graphicx} in the preamble. Thedriver should normally be omitted; if necesary, it is dvips for latex and pdftex for pdflatex.Files must be eps for dvips, while pdftex takes pdf, jpg, tif, or png. It’s convenient to leave offthe extension; latex/pdflatex will look for the appropriate file. (In this example, spring.pdfor spring.eps.) Since many journals want eps files instead of pdf files, I often generate epsfiles first, then convert them to pdf using epstopdf.includegraphics options14

width widthheight heightangle degreesscale scalescale to width, maintaining aspect ratio if no heightscale to height, maintaining aspect ratio if no widthrotate counterclockwiseresize image by scalar value15

3MathSurround inline equations with dollar signs, for example x 2 produces x 2. For equationsin their own block, use one of the environments below. For unnumbered equations appenda * star to the environment name. As a shortcut for unnumbered equations, \[.\] is thesame as \begin{equation*}.\end{equation*}.equation sets a single equation (1).x a b.\begin{equation} \label{x1}x a b.\end{equation}(1)gather sets multiple equations (2,3), centered on each other.x a b,y c d e f.\begin{gather}x a b,\label{x2} \\y c d e f. \label{y2}\end{gather}(2)(3)align sets multiple equations (4,5), alignedtypically on sign.x a b,y c d e f,\begin{align}x & a b,\label{x3} \\y & c d e f, \label{y3}\end{align}(4)(5)multline splits a long equation (6) over multiple lines, distributing the space.\begin{multline} \label{x6}x a b c d e f \\ g h i j k. \\ l m n.\end{multline}x a b c d e f g h i j k. l m n. (6)split splits a long equation (7) over multiple lines, aligning it. Use inside equation,align, or gather.x a b c d e.\begin{equation}\begin{split} \label{x5}x & a b\\& c d e.\end{split}\end{equation}(7)subequations assigns all enclosed equationssubordinate equation numbering, so (8a,8b)are parts of (8).x a b,y c d e f.\begin{subequations} \label{group4}\begin{align}x & a b,\label{x4} \\y & c d e f. \label{y4}\end{align}\end{subequations}(8a)(8b)16

align can also have several columns ofequations or descriptions. The intertextcommand is useful to insert text while preserving alignment.x 1,z 3,y 2,w 4,initialize\begin{align*}x & 1, & y & 2, && \text{initialize}\\z & 3, & w & 4,\intertext{some more text, and}a & 5, & b & 5.\end{align*}some more text, anda 5,b 5.The non-AMS command for aligning equations is eqnarray, but it produces ratherpoor spacing and is not recommended.x a b,y c d e f.3.1\begin{eqnarray}x & & a b,\label{x7} \\y & & c d e f. \label{y7}\end{eqnarray}(9)(10)Equation numbering\label{name} assigns a unique name to an equation.\eqref{name} generates reference to equation; equivalent to (\ref{name})For subequations, both the whole group and individial equations can have labels.To get equation numbers of form m.n where m is the section number and n is the equationnumber within section, use \numberwithin{equation}{section} in preamble.See also references on page 10.3.2Sub/superscriptsSubscripts are done with underbar, like x {1} for x1 .Superscripts are done with ˆ caret, like x {1} for x1 .RUse braces for double sub/superscripts, like {B a} T for B a T or \int {x 1} for x1 .17

3.3Fractions and binomial coefficient\frac{numerator }{denominator } makes fractions in either display or text style, dependingon context.\dfrac forces display (big) style.\tfrac forces text (small) style.1Inline: frac 12 , dfrac , tfrac 12 .2In rac{1}{2}tfrac 12 .Similarly, \binom, \dbinom, \tbinom for binomial coefficient (i.e. n choose k) nbinom,k3.4 ndbinom,ktbinom nk\binom{n}{k}\dbinom{n}{k}\tbinom{n}{k}.Math \mathbb\mathcal\mathfrak\mathnormalNameromansans seriftypewriteritalicbold fontbold ABCDEABCDEABCDEABCDEABCDEABCDEABCDEABCDEABCDEabcde 12345abcde 12345abcde 12345abcde12345abcde 12345abcde 12345abcdeabcde1812345 PackageαωΩαωΩαωΩαωΩαωΩαωΩ bmαωΩamsfonts, amssymbamsfonts, amssymb

3.5FunctionsFunctions to typeset in roman\sin\cos\tan\sec\csc\sinh\cosh\tanh\arcsin \arccos \arctan\exp\lg\ln\log\min\max\arg\inf\sup\liminf \limsup \lim\det\ker\dim\gcd\deg\hom\PrUser-defined (see mgates.sty file)\sech\cond\range\rank\cot\cothLimits specified in subscript: \lim {n \to 0} is limn 0 .To add new functions, for example rank(A), use \DeclareMathOperator{\rank}{rank}.The starred version \DeclareMathOperator* makes functions with limits like lim.Modular arithmetic has 4 variants. This expression means “5 is congruent to 1, modulo 2.”5 15 15 15 &\equiv 1 \pmod 25 &\equiv 1 \mod 25 &\equiv 1 \pod 2(mod 2)mod 2(2)\\\\Denote the modulo operation of finding the remainder with equals and the binary bmod,1 5 \bmod 2.1 5 mod 2.19

3.6Accents and over/under commandsx̂ \hat{x}x̃x̌ \check{x} x̄\tilde{x} ẋ\bar{x}ẍ\dot{x}x́ \acute{x} x \vec{x}\ddot{x} x̀ \grave{x} x̆ \breve{x}The wide and over/under commands span multiple elements. The over/underbrace alsotake super/subscripts for a description. Note the over/underset take two arguments, not asuper/subscript, and are backwards of over/underbrace.xdyzxyz xyz xyz xyzaxgyzxyzxyz \overrightarrow{xyz}xyz \overleftrightarrow{xyz} xyz \widehat{xyz}\overline{xyz}\overleftarrow{xyz}z} {xyz \overbrace{xyz} yz}xyz {z}\underbrace{xyz} {a}xyz\underset{a}{xyz}a\overset{a}{xyz}a20

3.7Inαβχδ ηγικλµνωoφπψρστθυξζGreekEnglish alphabetic order\alphaA A\betaB B\chiC C\delta \Delta\epsilon E EH H\eta\gammaΓ \Gamma\iotaII\kappaK K\lambdaΛ \Lambda\muM M\nuN N\omegaΩ \OmegaoO O (omicron)\phiΦ \PhiΠ \Pi\pi\psiΨ \Psi\rhoP P\sigmaΣ \Sigma\tauT T\thetaΘ \Theta\upsilon Υ \Upsilon\xiΞ \Xi\zetaZ ZGreek alphabetic order isα β γ δ ζ ηA B Γ E Z H3.8ℵi ג kε\varepsilonz\digammaϕ \varphi\varpi%ς\varrho\varsigmaϑ\varthetaθ ιΘ πΠoOρPσ τΣ TυΥφ χΦ CψΨωΩ.

3.9Symbols(A selective list. See the AMS Short Math Guide and the Not So Short Introduction formore exhaustive lists.)Relationships (negate \le \ll \subset \subseteq \in3 / \notink \parallel Operators \pm \oplus \cupS\bigcup \vee P \lor\sumR\int \partialUser-defined(seeR\intORΩ\intGΓdx \dxdΩ \dO f \p f \unionusing \not) \ge\gg\supset\supseteq\ni, \owns \propto6 \ne \cong\perp \mp\ominus \capT\bigcap \wedge Q \land\prodH\oint \nablamgates.sty)·?RR\intGgdy \dydΓ \dG f \del f \interΓg \equiv\sim\approx\U RRΓhdzdθ ff \iint\intGh\dz\dT\grad f\compose \times *, \ast\otimesRRR\iiintRRRΩedr\intOe\intGhe\drdt ·f\divr f fΓehLimits are specified as sub- and superscripts: \sum {i 0} {n} isRoots use \sqrt, with optional radix 2 \sqrt{2} 3 2 \sqrt[3]{2}22Pni 0 .\div\oslash···R\idotsint\dt\curl f

Misc symbols \gets. . . \dots \Re \forall \emptyset \angleUser-defined (seex\xxA \AR\RealN\Natural t rpoonup\leftharpoondown \to· · · \cdots \Im \exists \infty4 \trianglemgates.sty file)y\yyI\IC\ComplexZ\Integer1\half2L ()R LR , * 7 .\mapsto\iff\vdots .@ \nexists\hbar\square \therefore \wp\DiamondfJIQ \ff\J\Imag\Rational\implies0KRe(x)P\0 (zero)\K\re{x}\PolyU UDlmLL LR LLR D right,leftright,longleft, longright, longleftright,up,down,updownfor left in the command to get the desired direction and length. Note \leftrightharpoonsis plural. There are many more variants available; see the AMS Short Math Guide.For putting super/subscripts on arrows, usea ba bA B Cc dA \xleftarrow{a b} B \xrightarrow[c-d]{a-b} CSee also accents on page 20 for arrows above/below elements.23

3.10Brackets and delimitersLeftRight(())[[]]}\}{ \{CommonUser-definedpairing (see mgates.sty) x\parens{.}yh ixyn oxyD Exyh\langle i\rangleb\lfloor c\rfloord\lceile\rceil \lvert \rvert , \vertk \lVertk\rVertk\ , \Vert/\\backslash/j kxyl .}xy\abs{.}xy\norm{.}Use paired \leftdelimiter and \rightdelimiter to resize delimiters to fit their contents. Touse delimiter on only one side, use invisible \left. or \right. for other side. (Doesn’t workacross lines in multiline equations.)AMS provides cases for piecewise function:(0, i j,δij 1, else.\delta {ij} \begin{cases}0, & i j, \\1, & \text{else}.\end{cases}Non-AMS convention is to use an array: δij 0, i j,1, else.\delta {ij} \left\{ \begin{array}{ll}0, & i j, \\1, & \text{else}.\end{array} \right.24

3.11MatricesAMS provides 4 matrix environments differing in delimiters, and 1 for small inline matrices.ExampleAMS command1 23 4\begin{matrix}1 & 2 \\3 & 4\end{matrix}User-defined shortcut\begin{bmatrix}1 & 2 \\3 & 4\end{bmatrix}\mat{1 & 2 \\3 & 4} 1 23 4\begin{pmatrix}1 & 2 \\3 & 4\end{pmatrix}\pmat{1 & 2 \\3 & 4} 1 23 4\begin{Bmatrix}1 & 2 \\3 & 4\end{Bmatrix}\qmat{1 & 2 \\3 & 4}Inline [ 13 24 ] matrix.\left[\begin{smallmatrix}1 & 2 \\3 & 4\end{smallmatrix}\right]\smat{1 & 2 \\3 & 4} 1 23 4 Non-AMS convention is to use an array. This has the advantage of allowing vetical andhorizontal lines to partition the matrix. 1 2 3 43 4 5 6 \left[ \begin{array}{cc cc}1 & 2 \\\hline3 & 4\end{array} \right]array is similar to tabular but in the math environment.25

4Bibliography using BibTeXThere are 2 ways to make a bibliography: create a BibTeX database, or manually formatit. BibTeX can automatically format various citation and bibliography styles, eliminatingtedious manual re-formatting. Multiple tex files can use the same BibTeX database, eliminating redundant data entry. I’ll give notes for BibTeX first, but include manual formattingat the end for completeness.4.1Enabling BibTeXIn your .tex file set the bibliography style (e.g. plain) and BibTeX database (e.g. references.bib). For plainnat, abbrvnat, unsrtnat, and custom-bib styles add \usepackage{natbib}.For apalike add sNotesby author numeric, like [1]by author numeric or author-year\usepackage{natbib}by author numericabbreviates authors and journalsby author numeric or author-year\usepackage{natbib}by author alphanumeric, like [SJL05]as citednumericas citednumeric or author-year\usepackage{natbib}by author author-year, like [Smith 2005] \usepackage{apalike}asks questions to generate custom bibliography styleTo change the title of the bibliography section (e.g. to “References”) use\renewcommand{\refname}{References} (for articles)\renewcommand{\bibname}{References} (for reports and books)To compile the bibliography, run latex, then bibtex, then latex twice more! (What were theythinking when they designed this .texfile.tex26

4.2Bibliography formatsThese are common styles. Many more are available, or use custom-bib to build one tomatch your needs or a journal’s demands.References, for style plain[1] Nicolas Markey. Tame the BeaST, 2005.[2] Mark Smith, Adam Jones, and Wei Lee. Caffeine usage in Chicago. Journal of CoffeeDrinkers, 6:121–142, 2005.References, for style unsrt[1] Mark Smith, Adam Jones, and Wei Lee. Caffeine usage in Chicago. Journal of CoffeeDrinkers, 6:121–142, 2005.[2] Nicolas Markey. Tame the BeaST, 2005.References, for style abbrv[1] N. Markey. Tame the BeaST, 2005.[2] M. Smith, A. Jones, and W. Lee. Caffeine usage in Chicago. Journal of Coffee Drinkers,6:121–142, 2005.References, for style alpha[Mar05] Nicolas Markey. Tame the BeaST, 2005.[SJL05] Mark Smith, Adam Jones, and Wei Lee. Caffeine usage in Chicago. Journal ofCoffee Drinkers, 6:121–142, 2005.References, for style apalikeMarkey, N. (2005). Tame the BeaST.Smith, M., Jones, A., and Lee, W. (2005). Caffeine usage in Chicago. Journal of CoffeeDrinkers, 6:121–142.27

4.3Citation formats and natbib\cite makes a citation and includes its entry in the bibliography. Natbib recommendsusing \citep and \citet instead.\citep makes a parenthetical citation such as [2] or (Gates, 2011).\citet makes a textual citation such as Gates [2] or Gates (2011).\nocite{name} includes an entry in the bibliography without citing it.\nocite{*} includes all BibTeX entries in the bibliography.The natbib package provides the \citet, \citep, and other variants. To use natbib, addit to the preamble, and choose a natbib-compatible style. It has extensive commands andoptions; see the natbib raphystyle{plainnat}Some natbib package criptionround parenthesis ( )square brackets [ ]author-year citationsnumeric citationssuperscript numeric citationsThe original plain, unsrt, abbrv make the top 3 numeric citations. Depending on its options,natbib can generates author-year, numeric citations, or superscript citations (not }\cite[p. year{Smith05}\citeyearpar{Smith05}author-year citationSmith et al. (2005)Smith et al. (2005); Markey (2005)(Smith et al., 2005, p. 135)Smith et al. (2005)Smith, Jones, and Lee (2005)(Smith et al., 2005)(Smith, Jones, and Lee, 2005)Smith et rkey05}\cite[p. 135]{Smith05}apalike citationalpha citation(Smith et al., 2005)[SJL05](Smith et al., 2005; Markey, 2005) [SJL05, Mar05](Smith et al., 2005, p. 135)[SJL05, p. 135]28numeric citation[3][3, 2][3, p. 135]Smith et al. [3]Smith, Jones, and Lee [3][3][3]Smith et al.2005[2005]

4.4BibTeX databaseA .bib file contains the bibliography database. Each entry has a unique name that is referenced by \cite, and multiple field value pairs terminated with commas. Values shouldbe in "." quotes. Acronyms and proper names that must be capitalized in titles, put in{.} braces. Abbreviations can be made using @STRING.Author and editor names are either “First von Last” or “von Last, First”, separated by“and”. For et al. use “and others”.Various other peculiarities are dealt with in [3].See table 2 for entry types and fields. Here is an example:@STRING{ JCD "Journal of Coffee Drinkers" }@Article{ Smith05,author "Mark Smith and Adam Jones and Wei Lee",title "Caffeine usage in {Chicago}",journal JCDyear 2005,volume 6,pages "121--142",}4.5Manually formatted bibliographiesFor manual formatting, instead of \bibliographystyle and \bibliography, use thebibliographyenvironment. The argument is the widest label, here “SJL05”, so it can be indented properly.\bibitem takes the label as an optional argument; otherwise the label is just 05]{Smith05}M. Smith, A. Jones, and W. Lee.\newblock{Caffeine usage in Chicago.}\newblock \emph{Journal of Coffee Drinkers} 2005; \textbf{6}:121--142.\end{thebibliography}(BibTeX builds thebibliography in a .bbl file, based on the current style. Thus if a BibTeXstyle is not quite right, you can use BibTeX to build the bibliography until the final edits,then copy the .bbl file into the .tex file and make final tweaks manually.)29

gsoxxooo@PhdThesis / ooxxoxxoooxoxoxoxxoooxoxxooooxoxoxoxExample"New York, NY""Mark Smith""Multigrid Methods""2.1""Second""Mark Smith""Intel""Acta Numerica"5 (e.g. May)"In press"1"SIAM""73--130""Wiley""Yale University""In a Nutshell""Algebraic Multigrid""Research note"31987""Table 2: BibTeX entry types and associated fields. x is required, or is choice between2 required fields, o is optional. url is not recognized by the classical plain, alpha, unsrtstyles, but is supported by

1.4 Fonts Font sizes Point size Latex cmd User-de ned * Sample 5 6 \tiny \xxxsmall the quick brown fox 7 8 \scriptsize \xxsmall the quick brown fox 8 10 \footnotesize \xsmall the quick brown fox 9 11 \small \small the quick brown fox 10 12 \normal \normal the quick brown fox

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Many types of gates have been used in a variety of reservoir spillway structures. The most common spillway gates are the radial (Tainter) gates, wheel-mounted type gates, Stoney gates,drum gates, crest gates, Obermeyer crest gates, or the one time - use fuse gates [USSD 2002]. In general,

Chapter 1: Getting started with LaTeX Version Release Date LaTeX 2.09 1985-09-01 LaTeX 2e 1994-06-01 Section 1.1: LaTeX Editors While you can create LaTeX documents using any editor and compiling using the console, there exist several plugins for widely used editors to simplify creating LaTeX documents, and there are specialized LaTeX editors. An

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Matthew 27 Matthew 28 Mark 1 Mark 2 Mark 3 Mark 4 Mark 5 Mark 6 Mark 7 Mark 8 Mark 9 Mark 10 Mark 11 Mark 12 Mark 13 Mark 14 Mark 15 Mark 16 Catch-up Day CORAMDEOBIBLE.CHURCH/TOGETHER PAGE 1 OF 1 MAY 16 . Proverbs 2—3 Psalms 13—15 Psalms 16—17 Psalm 18 Psalms 19—21 Psalms

Getting Started with LaTeX A Brief Tutorial on how to access, install and begin use of LaTeX Section I: What is LaTeX? Briefly put, LaTeX is a text editing and typesetting platform designed especially for the use in Mathematics, Engineering, Science and Industry. However, it should be noted that LaTeX is not only restricted to these fields.

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The new industry standard ANSI A300 (Part 4) – 2002, Lightning Protection Systems incorporates significant research in the field of atmospheric meteorology. This relatively new information has a pro-found impact on the requirements and recommendations for all arborists who sell tree lightning protection systems. Since there are an average of 25 million strikes of lightning from the cloud to .