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DOCUMENT RESUMEED 310 530AUTHORTITLEINSTITUTIONPUB DATENOTEPUB TYPEEDRS PRICEDESCRIPTORSIDENTIFIERSEA 021 252Joyce, MarkCultivating Excellence: A Curriculum for Excellencein School Administration. II. Curriculum andInstruction.New Hampshire School Administrators Association,Durham.Jun 8929p.; For other documents in the series, see EA 021251-256.Viewpoints (120) -- Reports - Descriptive (141)MF01/PCO2 Plus Postage.*Curriculum Development; *Educational Strategies;Elementary Secondary Education; *Excellence inEducation; Instructional Design; *InstructionalDevelopment; Instructional Improvement;*Instructional Leadership; *LeadershipResponsibility*Schiro (M)ABSTRACTThis report is the second of a series on cultivatingexcellence in education for the purpose of training and retrainingschool leaders of the 1990s. The common role of educational leadersin curriculum and instructional programs is discussed in response tothe following question: How can an educational leader make sense outof the many diverse ideas, theories, and strategies that compete forinclusion in curriculum development? The solution to this questionrests with the challenge of developing a thoughtful and balancedcurriculum that includes a representative portion from each of fourinterwoven approaches based on Schiro's (1978) Scholar Academic (SA),Child Study (CS), Social Reconstruction (SR) and Social Efficiency(SE) ideologies. The SA ideology's primary goal is to teach theknowledge that has been accumulated by the culture or to enculturatethe learners. The CS ideology's primary goal is to tap the individualpotential of each learner. Those who follow SR Ideology believe thattheir primary goal is to empower all learners to transform society.SE ideology concentrates its focus on the teaching skills andknowledge that will be productive in society. (JAM)v********* ************* .* **** ****Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be madefrom the original dorliment.

CULTIVATING EXCELLENCEA Curriculum for Excellence inSchool AdministrationII.Curriculum and InstructionByDr. Mark JoyceSuperintendent of Schools, SAU #17U S DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONOffice of Educahonai Research and improvement"PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THISMAIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BYEDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATIONCENTER IERICIATh.s document has been reproduced asrece.ved from the person or orgaruzahonohglnaf ng 4r Minor changes have been made to mprovereproduction QualityPotntS of view or opinions stated In thtS document do not necessarily represent officialTO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCESINFORMATIJN CENTER (ER10)DER, pOSfior, or policyPrepared by theNew Hampshire School Administrators AssociationJune, 1989Morrill Hall, UN H, Durham, NHFunding provided by theGovernor's Initiatives for Excellence in Education2BEST COPY AVAILABLE

1Curriculum and InstructionSeveral years ago, educational reform literature wasclearly calling for the school principal and thesuperintendent to become "Instructional Leaders" and"Curriculum Experts". Our profession was criticized forspending time ci trivia and not monitoring the heart of theschool.Certainly all educators would agree that the curriculum(the WHAT of a school) and the instructional program (theHOW of a school) are collectively the central focus of ourbusiness. Current research has and continues to produceexciting findings of promising practices that may prove toimprove and enhance our WHAT and HOW. The challenge existsas to how educational leaders will use this new information.Will we thoughtfully integrate these new or reshapedstrategies and concepts, or will we haphazardly force theminto an already crowded and overburdened system')At the onset of this work, the author acknowledges thatthis chapter will not be an exhaustive dissertation onCurriculum and Instruction Theory nor a "cookbook" recipefor instituting an efficient and effective quick fix for allschool programs. That task will be left for more ableresearchers and authors, unencumbered by the pressure ofimplementing these practices in real life.Rather, this work will be devoted to addressing the,.challenge identified in our introduction from the3

2perspective of a practicing educator. Namely. how caneducational leaders get a handle on the many varied andcomplicated directives that compete for inclusion in theCurriculum and Instructional programs of our schools? Everyeffort will be made to remove the mystery and intrigue thatoften surround these issues and to develop a common modelfor processing new information.There exists a danger in attempting to oversimplify agenuinely complicated topic and in treating such animportant issue in isolation from the many varied local,regional, national, and international variables that shapelocal implementation. However, acknowledging this danger. itis important for us to develop a clear framework fororganizing past. current, and future practices to insurethat thoughtful program decisions will be made byeducational leaders.An Educa'.ional Leader s ResponsibilityPrimary among the challenges for educational leaders isthe need to balance the difficult and variedresponsibilities and expectations that are placed on ourpositionsEach principal or central office administrator isexpected to possess knowledge and skills in the areas offinance, communications and community relations, curriculumand instruction, personnel, capital improvements andmaintenance, and student servicesIn addition, educationalleaders are expected to display magical, generic leadershipabilities involving such skills as planning, communications,4

3and supervision. that may be applied with equal proficencyin all six areas. (This notion is reinforced when the readerconsiders the number and variety of topics that are includedin this overall effort at identifying a curriculum fortraining school leaders.)My favorite analogy for describing the role of a leaderin education is the image of a masterful juggler who isspinning plates on thin sticks (Illustration No1). He/shecarefully balances a spinning plate on a stick andperiodically applies more spin in order to maintain thisapparent magical and precarious balance. As hie /her skillimproves, the juggler/leader is able to simultaneously spinseveral plates and even successfully spin plates on top ofplates. In real-life an educational leader/juggler must spina number of "platcs" everyday.Illustration No. 1Leader/Juggler

4Our juggler is not expected to begin spinning twentyplates at once, nor is he/she expected to spinarefrigerator. a toaster. a football. a grapefruit. and anegg simultaneously. Rather, the juggler is first taught theskills of juggling, given time to practice and experiment,and allowed the opportunity to perform his/her art.Unfortunately, the field of educational leadership doesnotroutinely provide sequential training or practice in allareas of responsibilityIn summary, this chapter will attempt to address justone of these plates; namely, Curriculum and Instruction. Anattempt will be made to identify and describe the plateitself, and the author will offer a concept of how to chooseand arrange items on the plate so that it may spin inbalance. To extend the dinner plate analogy further, someideas will be offered of ways to incluee items on the platethat will not only allow it to spin in balance, but willalso include a healthy, representative choice of"educational nutrition"It is hoped that given thisknowledge the reader will begin to spin this plate moreconfieently and avoid the common "whip-saw" effect thatcurrent educational research and societal change have had onthe "what" en,' "how" of schoolsCurriculumThere exist at least three basic views of thecurriculum of a school (Schiro,1978 pp 24-26)One is basedon the belief that the curriculum is an "object"CAn object

5like a textbook, a curriculum guide, a scope and sequence, alesson plan, a design of an educational environment. or abox of Instructional activity guides.A second perception is that of curriculum as"Interactions". Such interactions may include all theexperiences a student encounters in a school, a serieb ofactivities designed to change student behavior. or simplyeverything that actually occurs during the administration.planning, teaching and learning in a school. This view oftenis artificially separated and treated alone as theinstructional program.The third view sees curriculum as an "Intent"; intentsthat may be stated in the desired outcomes and results of aschool, the goals and objectives that an educational systemhopes its learnern will achieve, or the design of a futureeducational program. This item is also often separated andtreated as the philosophy or goals and objectives of aschoolEducational practitioners have experienced these variedand sometimes conflicting views of curriculum in theoperation of schools. Usually these views are not seen asdiscrete philosophies but rather as shifting points ofemphasis as professionals struggle to improve theperformance of educational programs. For the purposes ofthis chapter. curriculum will be interpreted an the "WH\T"of a school and will include all three views noted aboveP.i1

6instructionAs previously identified, the instructional program isclosely related and aligned to the curriculum of a school.Yet, the instructional techniques and strategies used byteachers (the HOW) to deliver the "what" of a school areoften varied and sometimes compete. Perhaps we may gain someinsight into this conflict if we consider the difficult taskof teaching from two practitioners' points of view.It is not uncommon for a practicing educator to assumethe almost exclusive use of one particular technique (e.g.atraditional lecture method) and attempt to apply it withegual success in teaching very different content andstudents. The reasons for this practice are varied, butundoubtedly have some relationship to the individual's priorprofessional training and the personal experiences of theteacher as a student.On the other hand, an educator who may be frustrated bya lack of success, in need of staff development credits orsimply tired of using a longstanding practice, may attend ahigh powered training session or course that features a newand improved techniqueHe/she may be very impressed by thisnew approach and see great promise for improving his/her ownperformance and that of his/her colleaguesUpon returninghe/she expects a wholesale adoption of this new practice andbecomes intolerant of his/her "stagn,nt" colleagues andimpatient with his/her administrator. As a result, a certainmeasure of professional disagreement ensues causing conflict

7among colleagues and shifting learning environments forstudents. This fictitious situation may be all too common inschool systems.Joyce and Well (1980), in Models of Teaching discussthis phenomena and call it the "One Right Way Fallacy".As in the case of art, good teaching is something manypeople feel they can recognize on sight, although mostof us have difficulty expr4seing a reasoned basis forour judgments. Hence, implicit in many discussionsabout teaching is the notion that one certain kind ofteaching is really better than the other kinds. .the evidence to date gives little encouragement tothose who would hope that we have identified a single,reliable. multipurpose teaching strategy as the bestapproach. (pp.7-8)The notion of masterfully using a variety of techniquesin Instruction has been increasing in support and advocacyby educational researchers during the 1980,e. Augmented bythe research on learning styles [eg. Dunn, Beaudry, Kiavas(1989). Gregorc (1982 and 1985) to name only two],researchers have developed overlay models that integrate theuse of a variety of traditional and adapted strategies intoan overall "tool bag" for teachersand Hanson (1986)]( eg. Strong, Silver.Given this information, educationalleaders are still faced with the challenge of integratingthis new view of the "HOW" into the "WHAT" of our publicschoolsA Case StudyFor tne purposes of illustration, consider a mini-casestudy: one concerning a new superintendent's ( DrMaryKnows) efforts et beginning to understand and juggle the

8"Curriculum and Instruction" plate in a fictitious schooldistrict. Dr. Know has been given a two week period of timeto evaluate the present condition of the districtscurriculum and instructional program and to develop aposition paper that descibes its strengths and weaknesses.She begins her task by reading the approved schooldistrict and individual schoolsphilosophies, reviewing theadopted written curricula and skimming the textbooks in usein the basic topic areas. In addition, the spends a day ineach school: observing classes, discussing programs andstrategies with teachers and administrators, and reviewingactivity logs (trips. extra-curricular offerings. etc)Ase result of these experiences she is left feeling a bitconfused and still full of questions.Dr. Know has observed that the programs lackcoordination; and in fact, the actual practiced curriculumis very different from the approved written curriculumInaddition, she experienced serious disagreements among schoolstaff members as to the most appropriate philosophy to guidethe development of the "What" of the school system andsometimes very heated debate about the most effectivemethods or strategies (the "How") for delivering the "Whet"She has scheduled a meeting with her predecessor,DrHarryJones, in order to secure some answersDrJones. an amiable and well respected retiring after spending thirty-five years in publiceducation, with the last ten years at the helm of tLeit)

9fictitious school district. After exchanging pleasantriesand congratulations on career changes, the two educatorsbegin their discussion.Dr. Know: Harry, thank you for taking the time to speak withme today.I know that you must be eager to get to your camp.Dr. Jones: I am, Mary. However,I am also committed toassist this district in its efforts to improveHow can Ihelp ?

This report is the second of a series on cultivating excellence in education for the purpose of training and retraining school leaders of the 1990s. The common role of educational leaders in curriculum and instructional programs is discussed in response to

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