Annual Report 2012 (revised Edition)

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EN20124127 EN – TI-AB-13-001-EN-1Annual reportISSN: 1010-125XREVISED EDITIONENREVISED EDITIONAnnual report 2012European Centre for the Developmentof Vocational TrainingEurope 123, 570 01 Thessaloniki (Pylea), GREECEPO Box 22427, 551 02 Thessaloniki, GREECETel. 30 2310490111, Fax 30 2310490020, E-mail: info@cedefop.europa.euISBN 978-92-896-1358-3Annual report2012REVISED EDITION

Annual report2012REVISED EDITIONLuxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2013

A great deal of additional information on the European Unionis available on the Internet.It can be accessed through the Europa server ( data can be found at the end of this publication.Luxembourg:Publications Office of the European Union, 2013ISBN 978-92-896-1358-3ISSN 1010-125Xdoi:10.2801/25330Copyright @ European Centre for the Developmentof Vocational Training (Cedefop), 2013All rights reserved.Layout by adam@artdirector.grCover design by www.beetroot.grPrinted in the European Union

The European Centre for the Developmentof Vocational Training (Cedefop) is the European Union'sreference centre for vocational education and training.We provide information on and analyses of vocationaleducation and training systems, policies, research and practice.Cedefop was established in 1975by Council Regulation (EEC) No 337/75.Europe 123, 570 01 Thessaloniki (Pylea), GREECEPO Box 22427, 551 02 Thessaloniki, GREECETel. 30 2310490111, Fax 30 2310490020E-mail: an F. Lettmayr, Acting DirectorLaurence Martin, Chair of the Governing Board

Table of contentsTable of contentsForeword1. Key achievements in 20111.1. Supporting modernisation of VET systems2661.2. Career and transitions: CVET, adult and work-based learning141.4. Communication, information, and dissemination241.3. Skills and competence analysis1.5. Management, resources and internal controls2. Monitoring performance and assessing implementation of the2012 work programme by medium-term priority, activity and project2.1. Cedefop’s performance2.2. Monitoring implementation of the work programme 2012by medium-term priority, activity and projectAnnexesIIICedefop Governing Board293495Cedefop staff by Area106VBudget implementation 2012VII29101Human resourcesVI26Cedefop organisation chartIIIIV19ABB compact report 2012Performance indicators Cedefop 2012102110112114VIIIMajor publications 2012120XEuropass statistics 2012134IXXIXIIXIIIMajor conferences 2012Study visits statistics 2011/12ReferNet – Cedefop’s network for VETCedefop Photomuseum award 20121261361411481

2Annual report 2012ForewordIn 2012, most European countries entered theirsecond recession in four years. Consequencesof this double-dip recession scenario are moreacute than previously estimated. Latest datashow that employment rate for the low-qualifiedworkforce (15-64) is only 44%, which is fivepercentage points below the peak reached inthe third semester of 2008. For youngEuropeans first-time entry into the labour markethas become particularly difficult. But alsounemployment of 30-34 year-olds peaked at10.5% in 2012 compared to 6.8% reported atthe beginning of 2008. Especially in thosecountries with lower levels of public investmentin education and training, one side-effect of thecrisis has been increasing skill mismatch and agreater number of higher-educated peopletaking up jobs not commensurate with their skillsand competences.This situation required policies that can bringabout immediate and tangible impact. In thecourse of 2012, the European Commissiondevised policy packages for education andemployment. They focus on exploitingopportunities in job-rich sectors and usingvocational education and training’s (VET)potential to support economic development andease transition from learning to work. A youthguarantee is proposed that should give all youngpeople up to the age of 25 a job offer, anapprenticeship or traineeship place or othereducation opportunities. Work-based learning,more generally, should be a main pillar of VET.An EU-level alliance is to help create more andbetter apprenticeships across Member Statesby reinforcing cooperation and peer learning.These actions are in compliance with long-termstrategies which impact on VET developmentsin Member States. Increasing attention toperformance of countries’ education and trainingsystems and follow-up of policy recommendations as well as commonly agreed deliverablesfor VET demand more country-specificinformation and evidence.Demand for Cedefop’s expertise andanalytical capacity has increased further. Despiteadditional tasks requested and necessaryadaptation of several projects, implementation ofthe work programme progressed as planned.In 2012, in line with its mandate, the Centrereviewed Member States’ progress in achievingintermediate objectives agreed in the Brugescommuniqué. Results, for example, ps and other forms of work-basedlearning.Cedefop was invited to contribute to aGerman initiative on apprenticeship allianceslaunched at the end of the year. The Centre wasalso asked to support follow-up of cooperationactivities.One of the Commission’s initiatives toaddress mismatch and unemployment is the EUskills panorama. Launched at the end of theyear, it will provide labour market intelligencefrom different national and European sources.

ForewordThe Centre contributed to its development. Thepanorama also includes 2012 results ofCedefop’s biennial EU forecast on skill demandand supply for 2010-20. Based on its researchand evidence, Cedefop was also invited toprepare a chapter on current and anticipatedskill mismatch for the European Commission’sreport on employment and social developmentsin Europe in 2012.Despite focus on the precarious situation ofyoung people, it should not be forgotten that2012 was the European year for active ageingand solidarity between generations. Through itsactivities and projects under the new mediumterm priority on career and transitions ‒ CVET,adult and work-based learning ‒ Cedefopcontributed to a series of events organised byPresidencies and by the European es is key in encouraging adults toengage in further learning and improve theiremployability and career prospects. Althoughvalidation has been on the VET policy agendafor a long time, only a few countries havecomprehensive systems to recognise people’sskills and competences in place. Work onnational qualifications frameworks has drawnmore attention to this issue. Cedefop’s 2012report reveals that NQFs are opening up toqualifications acquired outside formal educationand training. The Council recommendation onvalidation therefore entrusts Cedefop n in the Centre’s annual rs increasingly use the Centre’sresearch and advice. The number of EU-levelpolicy documents and those of internationalorganisations citing Cedefop’s work hasincreased substantially, from 100 in 2011 to 169in 2012. The range of documents and policyareas that use Cedefop evidence has alsobecome wider. This underlines VET’s relevanceto a wide range of policy areas and indicatestrust in Cedefop’s policy advice.More and more documents make extensiveuse of Cedefop’s findings. Examples include areport by the European Parliament on EQFimplementation and the European Commission’sstaff working document Vocational educationand training for better skills, growth and jobswhich accompanied the communication onrethinking education: investing in skills for bettersocioeconomic outcomes or the impactassessment which accompanied the proposalfor the Council recommendation on validatingnon-formal and informal learning. Cedefop’sresearch is also used to help shape theEuropean Parliament’s debate with theEuropean Commission.Demand for Cedefop support in Commissionexpert and working groups has remained strong,in particular on common European tools,qualifications and learning outcomes. As in thepast, Cedefop also provided input and3

4Annual report 2012supported the debate at EU Presidency eventsrelated to VET and employment, in particular theconference on VET-business cooperationpromoting new skills, innovation and growth forthe future in Denmark. Written contributionsincluded comparative analyses (‘snapshots’) forthe meeting of the Directors’ General forVocational Training in Denmark and Cyprus onVET-business cooperation and flexibleeducation and training systems.In response to increasingly frequent requestsfor written contributions, mainly from theEuropean Commission, Cedefop helped shapea wide range of policy documents. Theseinclude staff working documents related to theemployment and education package as well asinput for the recommendation on validating nonformal and informal learning. In addition, severalinternational organisations invited Cedefop tocontribute. The invitation to join the globalagenda council on employment of the WorldEconomic Forum together with the OECD andILO is acknowledgement of the Centre’s strongresearch basis and expertise.Overall, analysis of the performanceindicators points to improvements in most areasof work compared to previous years. Thisindicates greater effectiveness and efficiencyalong with continued relevance of Cedefop’swork for the European policy agenda.Responses to additional ad-hoc requests showthe Centre’s flexibility in addressing changingdemands. This, however, required someadaptations to the work programme reflected inChapter 2. Use of Cedefop’s work by EUinstitutions suggests they trust and appreciatethe quality of Cedefop’s work and consider it anauthoritative source of information and policyadvice on VET.Thessaloniki, March 2012Christian F. LettmayrActing Director

ForewordBox 1. Cedefop’s annual reportAccountability and dissemination of its work areimportant elements of Cedefop’s policy to provideassurance to stakeholders for resources used andresults achieved. Especially for a centre of researchand policy advice such as Cedefop, where its impactis hard to gauge for the common European citizen,legitimacy of public expenditure is important and evenmore important in times of crisis and budgetaryconstraint.Cedefop’s annual report is intended as a presentationaland accountability tool to help stakeholders and thegeneral public to understand Cedefop’s priorities andspecific objectives, its main output and outcomes of itswork. Information on each project is presented in astandard format, to make it easier to monitor andreview projects’ implementation.Cedefop fast factsThe European Centre for the Development of VocationalTraining (Cedefop) is an agency of the European Union(EU) supporting European vocational education andtraining (VET) policy development. Its strategicobjective is to strengthen European cooperation andsupport the European Commission, Member States andsocial partners in designing and implementing policiesfor attractive VET that promotes excellence and socialinclusion.Established: 1975Governance: national governments, trade unions,employers’ organisations and the EuropeanCommission are represented in Cedefop governingboardLocation: Thessaloniki, GreeceDirectorate: Christian Lettmayr (Acting Director),Mara Brugia (Acting Deputy Director)Countries: EU-27 Member States, Iceland andNorwayContacts:; Cedefop is onFacebook at http://www. andon Twitter at!/cedefopStaff: 101 (establishment plan)Budget 2012: EUR 17 433 900 (EU subsidy)5

6Annual report 20121. Key1.1.achievements in 2012Supporting modernisationof VET systemsACTIVITYPolicy analysis and reportingIn 2012, Cedefop’s analysis of and reporting onVET policies set out a framework for monitoringprogress on 22 short-term deliverables agreedin the Bruges communiqué, which constitutemeasures and means to reach the strategicgoals set for European VET until 2020.Cedefop’s analysis was based on input fromReferNet (1), the Centre’s European network forVET, evidence and data collected throughCedefop’s projects and studies – in particular onimplementation of common European tools – aswell as qualitative and quantitative data fromseveral other sources. In October, theintermediate review of progress across the EUand candidate countries (in cooperation with theETF), was discussed with the Directors Generalfor Vocational Training (DGVTs) at their meetingin Cyprus. In line with the new monitoringapproach, Cedefop also produced countryspecific information on developments in thedeliverables (country fiches) to be publishedearly 2013.Cedefop’s report Trends in VET policy inEurope 2010-12: progress towards theBruges communiqué (2) aims to reflectcountries’ different starting points in 2010 anddevelopments since then. It reveals that policyhas clearly focused on helping young peopleremain in, and return to, education and trainingthrough apprenticeship and other work-basedlearning routes. Building on achievements of thepast decade, countries have advanced in settingup qualifications frameworks and devisingapproaches to implement the learning outcomesprinciple and assure quality in VET. However,VET is missing from many national innovationstrategies. Areas that need more attention areprofessional development of VET staff, betteruse of VET labour market outcomes to informlearning provision, and, where appropriate,development of suitable incentives and supportschemes. The challenge for the coming years isto keep the momentum as many initiativesintroduced since 2010 are still in the preparationphase and need to be fully implemented.Results of Cedefop’s analysis also figureprominently in the staff working document(1) Cedefop received input from 27 ReferNet partners. Greece did not reply to the questionnaire. Due to institutional changes,Ireland was not a member of the network in 2012.(2) .aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].

Key achievements in 2012‘Vocational education and training for betterskills, growth and jobs’ (3) that accompanies g education: investing in skills forbetter socioeconomic outcomes’ (4).To provide up-to-date information on VET atnational level, Cedefop regularly publishesreviews of national VET systems (5). In 2012,Cedefop published online about 50 ReferNetnews on new initiatives and policydevelopments in Member States (6). Newscovers VET, employment and labour marketissues. To offer special support to Presidencycountries, hard-copy publications describe themain features of their national VET systems. A‘short description’ (7) and a ‘spotlight’ (8) on VETin Denmark were prepared to support theDanish Presidency of the EU and distributedat the April meeting of DGVTs. The publicationsshow that challenges for modernising VET inDenmark include: increasing completion rates ofupper secondary education (target set at 95% in2015),includingbyimprovingVETattractiveness; increasing suitable trainingplacements in enterprises so that supply meetsdemand; and improving vertical permeabilityfrom VET to higher education by creating doublequalification programmes. In addition, despiteDenmark having the highest participation rate inadult education and continuing training in theEU, including among the low skilled (23.4%compared to 3.8% in the EU in 2010), risingunemployment levels, and particularly youthlong-term unemployment, increase the need forupskilling and reskilling. A thematic snapshot onVET-business cooperation was also preparedfor the Danish Presidency conference ‘VETbusiness cooperation promoting new skills,innovation and growth for the future’.To support the Cypriot Presidency, Cedefopreleased Vocational education and training inCyprus – Short description (9) and a Spotlight onVET Cyprus (10) for the DGVTs meeting inOctober. In Cyprus, VET helps dealing withadverse effects of the economic crisis on thelabour market, as well as laying the foundationsfor future socioeconomic development. VETfeatures prominently in the Cyprus lifelonglearning strategy 2007-13 and the nationalreform programme on the 2020 strategy. Keypriorities for VET in Cyprus include: modernisingand upgrading curricula, improving quality andattractiveness, strengthening links betweenVET, vocational training for adults and the labour(3) Commission staff working document on vocational education and training for better skills, growth and jobs.SWD(2012) 375 final. 5 en.pdf [accessed 7.3.2013].(4) European Commission. communication on rethinking education. Investing in skills for better social and economic king/com669 en.pdf [accessed 7.3.2013].(5) es/vet-in-europe-country-reports.aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].(6) orks/refernet/refernet-national-news-on-vet.aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].(7) .aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].(8) .aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].(9) .aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].(10) .aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].7

8Annual report 2012market, and promoting transnational mobility byincreasing participation in EU ty, relevance and quality of Europeandata by providing advice and expertise incooperation with key stakeholders (such asEurostat, Commission, OECD, Unesco), as wellas disseminating relevant statistics. Statisticsof the month (11) are short articles on issues ofpolicy interest based on statistical indicators anddata. In 2012, several Statistics of the monthfocused on assessing the impact of the crisis.They show that young people are arypart-timejobs(12),risingunemployment hits low-skilled adults thehardest (13), and labour market prospects forearly leavers from education and training havedeteriorated during the crisis (14). An article(November 2012) discussed VET’s contributionto reducing unemployment and increasingemployability and job quality for youth.ACTIVITYCommon European tools,qualifications and learningoutcomesIn 2012, an increasingly important part ofCedefop’s work was related to implementationof the common European tools and principles atnational and sectoral levels along with initiativesto increase synergy and coherence betweenthem.Cedefop directly supported the EU politicaland institutional process by providing policyadvice, expertise and coordination support toworking groups, committees and networks setup at European level for implementation of thetools, namely: the EQF advisory group and itssubgroups – which Cedefop jointly coordinateswith the European Commission; ECVET usersand steering groups and forum; EQAVETsteering committee and thematic groups; theESCO board, maintenance committee andcross-sectoral reference group.Through its comparative studies andanalytical work, Cedefop promoted policy/peerlearning among Member States and socialpartners and provided evidence to policymakers on key issues and challenges related toimplementation of the tools. The two peer(11) icators/2239.aspx [accessed 7.3.2013]. Nine articles were published in 2012.(12) ‘Crisis pushes young people towards involuntary part-time jobs’ (February 2012).(13) ‘Rising unemployment hits low-skilled adults the hardest’ (May 2012).(14) ‘Labour market prospects deteriorated for early leavers from education and training’ (December 2012).

Key achievements in 2012learning activities (PLA) organised by the EQFadvisory group in 2012 – the content of whichCedefop coshaped – fed directly NQFdevelopments and deepened its analysis. Thefirst PLA (February) focused on qualificationsrelated to lower levels of the EQF (1-2) andpointed to the need to increase understandingof these qualifications to ensure consistentcross-country referencing processes. Thesecond PLA (April) focused on qualifications atEQF level 5. By illustrating that level 5 operatesat the cross-roads between general, VET andhigher education, the PLA underlined the keyrole these qualifications play in promoting furtherlearning and employment, by providing thelabour market with advanced VET skills andcompetences, potentially responding quickly tonew demands.Substantial analytical work was devoted tocommenting systematically on the (draft andfinal) national EQF referencing reportssubmitted in 2012 by Austria, Belgium (Frenchspeaking community), Bulgaria, Croatia,Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxemburg, Romaniaand Slovenia (15). Cedefop’s analysis shows thatcountries are putting considerable effort intopreparing credible and reliable referencingreports. However, they encounter severalchallenges, including: how to ensure coherentreferencing of some ‘critical’ qualifications (suchas school leaving certificates giving access tohigher education); how learning outcome-basedlevels are quality assured; how to involve allrelevant stakeholders, including social partners,and improve cooperation between EQFreferencing and Bologna self-certificationprocesses. Work was carried out in closecooperation with the Council of Europe(coordinating self-certification in the Bolognaprocess) and the countries concerned.Cedefop’s fourth annual report onEuropean NQF developments was drafted inhouse and results published in the briefing noteQualifications frameworks in Europe: aninstrument for transparency and change (16)released in October for the DGVTs meetingunder the Cypriot Presidency. Cedefop’sanalysis confirms that qualifications frameworksare seen as key tools for improvingtransparency and comparability of qualificationsat national and international levels. Moreover,frameworks are increasingly used to promoteand support incremental changes in educationand training. A significant development in 2012is opening up NQFs to qualifications awardedoutside formal education and training systems,for example by sectoral organisations,chambers and other private providers, thus(15) Cedefop provides systematic comments at two different stages of the referencing process: (a) when countries first present theirreferencing approach and progress at the EQF advisory group (in 2012 this was the case for Belgium French-speakingcommunity, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Italy, Romania, Slovenia) and (b) when countries submit their referencing reports (in2012 this was the case for Austria, Croatia, Germany and Luxembourg).(16) .aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].9

10Annual report 2012allowing for better links between initial andcontinuing VET. If successful, this would turn theNQF into an instrument for identifying learningpaths and possibilities for vertical and horizontalprogression. The 2012 report also shows thatNQFs have given new impetus to introducingmore coherent actions for validation of nonformal and informal learning. The recentlyadopted Council recommendation on validationof non-formal learning (17) confirms that NQFshave a reform role to play, acting as referencepoints for national validation arrangementspotentially open to all. Cedefop’s analysis alsopoints to intensifying discussion in severalcountries on comparability of qualifications atlower levels of the EQF (such as lowersecondary education qualifications equivalent toEQF levels 1-3) also addressing vocationalqualifications. Similarly, qualifications at EQFlevel 5 received increased attention in 2012 withseveral countries introducing this level as aplatform to develop new qualifications. Thisshows EQF levels work as a reference point notonly for comparing existing qualifications, butalso for developing new ones. In accordancewith the theme selected by Cyprus for itsPresidency, Cedefop also released a briefingnote on Permeable education and trainingsystems: reducing barriers and increasingopportunity (18) and presented it at the OctoberDGVTs meeting.Cedefop also contributed to development ofthe European standard terminology forskills, competences, occupations andqualifications (ESCO) by outlining how thisinitiative can best be linked to and interact withthe EQF. In 2012, work focused on developmentof a data-model for the qualifications pillar anda terminological structure for cross-sectoral andtransversal skills and competences. Building onand feeding directly into the abovedevelopments, Cedefop analysed qualifications,diplomas, certificates and licences awardedoutside public authorities’ jurisdiction. Byproviding examples of various sectors andoccupations and developing a typology ofinternational qualifications, the bookletInternational qualifications (19) – published inJuly – is a first attempt to shed light on the role,diversity and increasing complexity of ‘nonState’ qualifications. The analysis underlinesthat key challenges for policy-makers and users– individual citizens and employers alike – aretransparency, accountability and qualityassurance, which are the bases for trust inqualifications.Cedefop continued its analytical work on thechanging role of qualifications and how VET(17) uri OJ:C:2012:398:0001:0005:EN:PDF [accessed 7.3.2013].(18) .aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].(19) .aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].

Key achievements in 2012systems are governed and interact with otherparts of the education and training system andthe labour market. Building on comparative datafrom several countries and occupational sectors,the study on the role of qualifications ingoverning occupations and professions,finalised late 2012, provides an overview of thedifferent forms of regulation and types ofgovernance, how these are changing in thecurrent economic and political situation due tonational and sectoral factors and discusses theimplications for VET systems. Four differentmodels of governance in using qualifications asregulatory instruments were identified:(a) traditional sector-based licensing;(b) international sector-based licensing;(c) generic national governance; and(d) independent sectoral governance.Analysis shows that countries differ stronglyregarding general intensity of labour marketregulation and role of social partners in thegovernance framework. Most countries areincreasingly focusing on labour marketrelevance of qualifications, using learningoutcomes to describe the content ofqualifications in relation to occupations andprofessions.To support and promote further discussion ongovernance, Cedefop organised an expertworkshop on the changing role of qualificationsin governing the labour market (Thessaloniki, 27and 28 September 2012) that shed more lighton the role qualifications play in the relationshipbetween education and training and the labourmarket.In 2012, Cedefop continued to support theEuropean Commission in implementation of theEuropean quality assurance in vocationaleducation and training (EQAVET) recommendation. The workshop ‘Quality managementapproaches to establishing a quality culturewithin VET institutions’ (Brussels, 19 and 20July) discussed interim results of Cedefop’songoing study on this subject. Discussionspointed to variety of existing self-assessmentapproaches, use of standardised instruments forcollecting data and importance of performancemeasurement. The workshop also confirmedthat outcomes of Cedefop’s work on qualityassurance of VET providers feed directly intoEQAVET implementation.The European credit system for vocationaleducation and training (ECVET) entered its thirdyear of development in 2012. Cedefopcontinued to support ECVET implementation inEurope through policy advice and analyticalwork. First, in its booklet Necessary conditionsfor ECVET implementation (20), Cedefop(20) .aspx [accessed 7.3.2013].11

12Annual report 2012considered the conditions and measures thatMember States need to have in place by 2012to implement ECVET according to the 2009recommendation.Thebookletwasdisseminated at the annual ECVET forum 2012‘Taking the next step: building the ECVETcommunity of practice’ (Paris, 31 May and 1June) that Cedefop jointly organised with theEuropean Commission.Second, building on its previous monitoringreports, Cedefop reviewed progress achieved inEuropean countries and presented outcomes ofits analysis at the October DGVTs meetingunder the Cypriot Presidency. The 2012 ECVETreport shows that, despite some progress inputting in place the conditions for implementingECVET and increasing countries’ commitmentto apply ECVET, only few Member States areready for full-scale implementation. One markedprogress is designation of national contactpoints (NCP) for ECVET. While in mostcountries the main objective of ECVET is crossborder mobility, an increasing number ofcountries see ECVET also as a tool to alignbetter qualifications with the learning outcomesapproach and there is common agreement onimportance of the principles underlying ECVET.On the other hand, some countries still do notsee a clear added value for ECVET and mostcountries give priority to establishing NQFs. Thereport also shows that ECVET implementationis strongly supported by EU funding (forexample, setting up ‘national teams of ECVETexperts’), with only a minority of countriesreporting specific national budgets for ECVET.To feed these developments, Cedefop’sworkshop ‘Sustaining permeability, implementing mechanisms, testing credits’ (Brussels, 23and 24 January) underlined the need to linkECVET more directly to needs of education andtraining and its opening up to permeability.Europass continued to be a success story. In2012, the Europass website showed acontinuing

Annual report 2012 REVISED EDITION Annual report 2012 Annual report 2012 ISBN 978-92-896-1358-3 REVISED EDITION REVISED EDITION. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2013 Annual report 2012 REVISED EDITION. A great deal of additional information on the European Union . Cover desig

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