Tamilnadu Board Class 12 Zoology Practical

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ZOOLOGYHigher Secondary - Second yearPRACTICALMANUALZoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 122-03-2019 11:14:18

Zoology Practical ManualGeneral InstructionIn order to get maximum benefit and good training it is necessary for thestudents to follow the following instructions.1. Th e students must attend all practical classes. Each experiment inpracticals has got important relevance to theory subjects.2. Bring this practical manual to your practicals class.3. Bring the following objects to the practicals class – Pencils (HB), Pen,Eraser, a scale and a small hand towel.4. Record the title, date and findings of the experiment in the observationnote book.5. Carefully listen to the instructions given by your Teacher.6. While observation slides or models draw the structure of the specimenas you see it neatly in your observation note book. Use pencil fordrawing.7. While doing experiments neither consult your neighbours nor lookinto their readings or observations.8. If the object under the microscope remains without proper focusingimmediately bring it to the notice of the Teacher.9. D o not touch or lift the models or equipments kept for youridentification.10. Diagrams to be drawn for Prepared slides only in the record note.Relevant photographs can be collected and pasted for the othersections.2Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 222-03-2019 11:14:18

CONTENTS.NoEXPERIMENTSPage No1Fermentation by yeast22Determination of colour and pH in the given water samples33Marking of Wildlife Sanctuary and National parks in India map54Analysing of Mendelian traits in a given population75ABO blood grouping - Demonstration Experiment8A - PREPARED SLIDES6Paramecium – conjugation97Human Sperm98Human ovum109Entamoeba histolytica1010Thymus – T.S1111Lymph node – T.S11B -PRESERVED SPECIMENS12Mutualism – Sea anemone on hermit crab1213Commensalism – Sucker fish (Echeneis) on shark12C -PICTURES14tRNA1315Homologous organs1316Analogous organs1417Animal cloning - Dolly (Sheep)1418Insulin production - Flowchart15D -GENETICS - KARYOTYPING19Normal Human karyotype1520Autosomal Anomaly – Patau’s Syndrome1621Sex Chromosomal Anomaly – Turner’s Syndrome16E -PEDIGREE ANALYSIS22Autosomal Disease – Sickle cell anemia1723X – Linked Disease – Haemophilia18PROJECT WORK1 etermine the universality of variations by studying thumbDimpressions in a given population192Study the effect of a local industry on the environment193Study the ecological role of some insects and birds in a given locality194Visit to a zoological park/wildlife sanctuary in your locality195Visit to a nearby aquatic habitat191Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 122-03-2019 11:14:18

EXPERIMENTS1. FERMENTATION BY YEASTAIM:To demonstrate the process of fermentation by yeast in the given samples I, II and III.MATERIALS REQUIRED: Glucose solution Raw Sugar solution Jaggery with salt solution Beaker Yeast granulesLime water Test tubesPRINCIPLE:Fermentation is an anaerobic metabolic process accompanied with effervescence. Duringthis process, sugar is converted into ethyl alcohol and CO2. It occurs in yeast and bacteria.PROCEDURE: Take 2ml of the given samples I, II and III in three clean test tubes (labelled as 1,2 and 3)respectively. Add few granules of yeast in all the test tubes and plug the tubes with cotton wool. Wait while fermentation takes place and note the time taken. Appearance of effervescence in the test tube indicates that fermentation has taken place. Remove the cotton wool and pass the gas into a test tube containing limewater. Th e lime water turns milky indicating that the gas evolved during fermentation is carbondi oxide. The variation in the time taken for fermentation to take place in the different sugarsolutions indicates that the simple sugars like glucose are fermented much quicker than thecomplex sugars.OBSERVATION:SL.NO.SAMPLETIME TAKENINFERENCE123INFERENCEYeast has an enzyme zymase which catalyses the fermentation process. The time taken forfermentation differs in different sugar solutions.C6H12O6GlucoseZymase2C2H5OH 2CO2YeastEthyl alcohol2Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 222-03-2019 11:14:18

2. DETERMINATIONOF COLOUR AND pH IN THE GIVEN WATER SAMPLESAIM:To investigate the colour and pH in the given water samples I, II ,III and thereby determiningthe quality of water for consumption.MATERIALS REQUIRED: pH paper and colour chart Water samples Dropper / glass rodTest tubesPRINCIPLE:The colour of water sample ranges from colourless to green to yellowish brown and greydepending upon the planktonic growth and suspended solids.The pH (negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration) of a solution is a measure of theconcentration of hydrogen ions. It decreases with increasing pH and that a difference of one pHunit signifies a tenfold variation in hydrogen ion concentration.The pH value can vary from 0 to14. Solutions with a pH between 0 and 7 are acidic, while those with a pH between 7 and 14 arebasic. pH 7 is considered neutral.PROCEDURE: Observe and tabulate the colour of the water samples I , II and III taken in test tubesagainst a white background. Take the three different water solutions in separate test tubes and label them. A piece of pH paper is dipped into the sample and compared with that of the colour on thepH chart. The approximate pH value of the samples is thus determined and the results tabulatedOBSERVATION:SL.NO.SAMPLE1I2II3IICOLOUR OF THE SAMPLEpH OF THE SAMPLEINFERENCE: Among the three samples, it is found that, sampleis acidic in nature, while sampleis found alkaline. Hence it is not suitable for consumption. The pH of the sampleis found to besince it is closer to the neutral pH, it isfit for consumption.PRECAUTIONS: Use only the standard colour chart supplied with the pH paper for assessing the pH value. Keep the pH strips away from chemicals. Either use fresh fine dropper or glass rod for each different sample, or wash the dropper orrod well with water every time.3Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 322-03-2019 11:14:18

KazirangaNational ParkGir National Park&Wildlife SanctuaryMudumalai WildlifeSanctuary& National ParkPeriyar WildlifeSanctuaryPoint Calimere Wildlifeand bird Sanctuary4Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 422-03-2019 11:14:18

3. MARKING OF WILDLIFE SANCTUARY AND NATIONAL PARKS IN INDIA MAPMark the given Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park in the given map of India .Write itslocation and significance.1. K aziranga National ParkLocation: Golaghat and Nagaon districts of AssamSignificance: Kaziranga National park's 430 square kilometer area sprinkled with elephant-grassmeadows, swampy lagoons, and dense forests is home to more than 2200 Indian one-hornedrhinoceros, approximately 2/3rd of their total world population. The park is the breeding groundof elephants, wild water buffalo, and swamp deer. Over the time, the tiger population has alsoincreased in Kaziranga, and that's the reason why Kaziranga was declared as Tiger Reserve in 2006.2. P oint Calimere Wildlife and bird SanctuaryLocation: Point Calimere (Kodiakkarai), Nagapattinam (dt)Significance: It was created for the conservation of near threatened species, Black buck antelope,an endemic mammal species of India.3. G ir National Park and Wildlife SanctuaryLocation: Talala Gir in GujaratSignificance: Gir is the only natural habitat of world popular Asiatic Lions. It covers total area of 1412square kilometers of which 258 Km forms the core area of the National Park. The Sambar is countedlargest Indian Deer. The Gir forest is also known for the Chowsingha – the world’s only four hornedantelope. The Jackal, striped Hyena and Indian Fox are some of the smaller carnivores found in Gir Forest.4. P eriyar Wildlife SanctuaryLocation: KeralaSignificance: Apart from Elephants, the other animals to be seen in the Periyar sanctuary areGaur, Wild Pigs, Sambar, Barking Deer, Mouse Deer, Dole or Indian Wild Dog and very rarely, aTiger. There are, now, an estimated 40 tigers here.5. M udumalai Wildlife Sanctuary and National ParkLocation: N ilgiri hills, Nilgiri District, TamilNadu (Shares boundary with the states of Karnatakaand Kerala).Significance: The protected area is home to several endangered and vulnerable species includingIndian elephant, Bengal tiger, Gaur and Indian leopard. There are at least 266 species of birds in thesanctuary, including critically endangered Indian white-rumped vulture and long-billed vulture.5Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 522-03-2019 11:14:18

MENDELIAN TRAITSDOMINANTCleft chinHair curlTonguerollingDimplesEar lobesInterlockingfingersHandednessRECESSIVEHave cleftNo cleftCurlyStraightRollerNon rollerDimpleNo dimpleFreelobeLeft thumbon topRightAttachedlobeRight thumbon topLeftWidow’speakWidow’speakShape offaceOvalSquareHairNo hairFinger middigital hairStraight6Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 622-03-2019 11:14:18

4. HUMAN MENDELIAN TRAITSAIM:To assess the distribution of various genetic traits in a given population.MATERIALS REQUIRED : List of traits Sheet of paperPROCEDURE: Th e students are divided into groups and the assessment of the various genetic traits aredone , first individually and then among themselves. The phenotype and the possible genotypes are recorded in the tabular column. Based on the occurrence of the traits , the frequency of the dominant and recessivecharacters were discussed.TRAITPOSSIBLE ALLELESCleft chinHave cleft (C)No Cleft (c)Hair curlCurly (H)Straight (h)TonguerollingRoller ( T)Non roller (t)DimplesDimple (D)No dimples (d)EarlobesFree lobe (F)Attached (f)YOURPHENOTYPENO.%YOUR GENOTYPEDOMINANT ORRECESSIVENO.%Interlocking Left thumb on top (L)fingersRight thumb on top (l)Handedness Right (R)Left (r)Widow’speakWidow’s peak (W)Straight (w)Shape of the Oval (O)faceSquare (o)Finger mid- Hair (M)digital hair No hair (m)INFERENCE:Discuss and answer the following questions : Did you have mostly dominant or recessive traits? For which trait were most students dominant? For which trait were most students recessive?7Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 722-03-2019 11:14:18

5. ABO BLOOD GROUPS - DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTAIM:To find out the blood group of a classs / school students.MATERIAL REQUIRED:1. Human blood sample5. Spirit (70% alcohol)2. Antisera A6. , slides. Lancet3. Antisera B7. Cotton4. Antisera D8. Mixing sticksPRINCIPLE:The determination of ABO blood group is based on the agglutination reaction. The A, B and Rhantigens present on the surface of the RBC react with the corresponding antibodies (antisera)to form visible agglutination or clumping.PROCEDURE:1. Take a clean dry slide / white tile and divide it into three divisions.2. Wipe the middle finger with cotton moistened with 70% alcohol and allow to dry.3. Prick disinfected area with sterile lancet.4. Squeeze the finger and allow a drop of blood to fall on each division of the slide/ white tile.5. Add one drop of antiserum into the appropriately labeled drop of blood on the slide/ whitetile.6. Mix serum and blood drops with the applicator stick.7. Observe the mixtures for agglutination and record the blood groups.8. Record the findings in a tabular form.Group OOBSERVATION:Group AAgglutination with .Anti AAnti BAnti DBlood GroupBABGroup BAGroup AB( )-Agglutination (-)-Non AgglutinationBRESULT:The given blood is found to beABAgroupWARNING: A Use only sterilized lancets. void using bell pins or other sharp objects for pricking.8Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 822-03-2019 11:14:18

A - PREPARED SLIDES6. PARAMECIUM – CONJUGATIONIDENTIFICATION:The given slide is identified as Paramecium – Conjugation.COMMENTS1. Conjugation is a form of sexual reproduction,wherein two individuals called conjugantsmutually exchange nuclear material and then onucleus2. The pellicle and cytoplasm at the point of contactis broken and a protoplasmic bridge is formed.Macronucleus3. The large pronucleus acts as female pronucleusand the smaller nucleus acts as male pronucleus.4. The male pronucleus moves through theprotoplasmic bridge and fuses with the femalepronucleus to form the diploid nucleus.7. HUMAN SPERMIDENTIFICATION:AcrosomeThe given slide is identified as Human Sperm.NucleusHeadCOMMENTS1. The human sperm is microscopic, flagellated and a motile malegamete.NeckMitochondriaMiddlepiece2. The sperm is composed of a head, neck, middle piece and a tail.3. The head comprises of acrosome and nucleus.4. The middle piece possesses mitochondria which producesenergy in the form of ATP molecules.Tail5. The tail is the longest part and is slender and tapering.9Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 922-03-2019 11:14:19

8. HUMAN OVUMIDENTIFICATION:The given slide is identified as human ovum.COMMENTS:1. Human ovum is microscopic, noncleidoic and agamete.alecithal female&RURQD UDGLDWD RQD 3HOOXFLGD2. The ovum is surrounded bythree coverings namely vitelline9LWHOOLQHPHPEUDQHmembrane, zona pellucida andcorona radiata.1XFOHXV*HUPLQDO YHVLFOH3. The cytoplasm of the egg is calledooplasm and contains a largenucleus called the germinal vesicle.2RSODVP4. The narrow space between thevitelline membrane and zonapellucida is known as perivitellinespace.9. ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICAIDENTIFICATION:The given slide is identified as Entamoeba histolytica.COMMENTS1. Entamoeba is an endoparasitic protozoan which causes amoebiasis or amoebic dysentery.2. It lives in the lumen of thelarge intestine and feeds on theepithelial cells.Plasmamembrane3. The infective stage of this parasiteis the trophozoite.Endoplasm4. The symptoms of amoebiasis areulceration, bleeding, abdominalpain and stools with excess mucus.NucleusEctoplasm10Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 1022-03-2019 11:14:19

10. THYMUS - T.SIDENTIFICATIONThe given slide is identified as thymus gland – T.S.COMMENTS1. Thymus is a primary lymphoidbi

Zoology Practical Manual EM 18-03-2019.indd 7 22-03-2019 11:14:18. 8 5. ABO BLOOD GROUPS - DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENT AIM: To find out the blood group of a classs / school students. MATERIAL REQUIRED: 1. Human blood sample 5. Spirit (70% alcohol) 2. Antisera A 6. , slides. Lancet 3. Antisera B 7. Cotton 4. Antisera D 8. Mixing sticks PRINCIPLE: The determination of ABO blood group is based on .

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