Biology DNA: The Genetic Material

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Name PeriodBiologyDNA: The Genetic Material

Date AssignmentChapter 9 VocabularyChapter 9 NotesChapter 9 QuestionsDirected Reading 9-2DNA Structure SkillsWorksheetBiology Homework:DNA/Concept MapDirected Reading 9-3Active Reading 9-3Points Earned Possible Points13

Chapter 9 DNA: The Genetic MaterialVocabularyUse the glossary and don’t shorten the definition. If a page number is listed, use that page todefine the term.Section 1: Identifying the Genetic Material1. vaccine 2. virulent –3. transformation –4. bacteriophage –Section 2: The Structure of DNA5. double helix –6. nucleotide –7. deoxyribose –8. base-pairing rules –9. complementary base pair –Section 3: The Replication of DNA10. DNA replication –11. DNA helicase –12. replication fork –13. DNA polymerase –

PowerPoint Notes on Chapter 9 - DNA: The Genetic MaterialSection 1 Identifying the Genetic MaterialObjectivesRelate Griffith’s conclusions to the observations he made during the transformationexperiments.Summarize the steps involved in Avery’s transformation experiments, and state theresults.Evaluate the results of the Hershey and Chase experiment.Transformation : Griffith’s ExperimentsIn 1928, , a bacteriologist, was trying to prepare aagainst pneumonia.A vaccine is a substance that is prepared from ordisease causing agents, including certain bacteria.The vaccine is introduced into the body to theagainst future infections by the disease-causing agent.Griffith discovered that bacteria could turn virulent when mixedwith bacteria that cause disease.A bacteria that is virulent is .Griffith had discovered what is now called , a change ingenotype caused when cells take up foreign genetic material.Griffith’s Discovery ofTransformationTransformation: Avery’s ExperimentsIn 1944, a series of experiments showed:oThe activity of the material responsible for transformation is not affected by-destroying enzymes.oHOWEVER, the activity IS stopped by a -destroying enzyme.Thus, almost 100 years after Mendel’s experiments, Oswald Avery and his co-workersdemonstrated that is the material responsible for transformation.

Viral Genes and DNA: DNA’s Role RevealedIn 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase used thebacteriophage T2 to prove that carriedgenetic material.A , also referred to as a phage, isa that infects bacteria.When phages infect bacterial cells, the phages are ableto , which arereleased when the bacterial cells rupture.Hershey and Chase carried out the followingexperiment:oStep 1 T2 phages were labeledwith .oStep 2 The phages infect E. colibacterial cells.oStep 3 Bacterial cells were spun toremove the virus'scoats.Hershey and Chase concluded that theof viruses is injected into thebacterial cells, while most of theremain outside.The injected DNA molecules cause thebacterial cells to produce moreand proteins.This meant that the DNA, rather thanproteins,, at least in viruses.Section 2 The Structure of DNAObjectivesDescribe the three components of a nucleotide.Develop a model of the structure of a DNA molecule.Evaluate the contributions of Chargaff, Franklin, and Wilkins in helping Watson and Crickdetermine the double-helical structure of DNA.Relate the role of the base-pairing rules to the structure of DNA.

A Winding StaircaseWatson and Crick determined that a DNA molecule is a — twostrands twisted around each other, like a winding staircase.are the subunits that make up DNA. Each nucleotide ismade of three parts: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar molecule, and a nitrogencontaining base.The five-carbon sugar in DNA nucleotides is called .The nitrogen base in a nucleotide can be either a bulky, ,or a smaller, .Structure of a Nucleotide

Discovering DNA’s Structure:Chargaff’s ObservationsIn 1949, Erwin Chargaff observed that for each organism he studied, the amount ofalways equaled the amount of (A T).Likewise, the amount of always equaled the amount of(G C).However, the amount of adenine and thymine and of guanine and cytosinebetween different organisms.Wilkins and Franklin’s PhotographsBy analyzing the complex patterns onphoto, scientists can determine thestructure of the molecule.In 1952, Maurice Wilkins and RosalindFranklin developed high-qualitydiffraction photographs of strands of .These photographs suggested that the DNAmolecule resembled a tightly coiled and was composed of two or threechains of .Watson and Crick’s DNA ModelIn 1953, Watson and Crick built a model of DNA with the configuration of a, a “spiral staircase” of two strands of nucleotides twisting around acentral axis.The double-helical model of DNA takes into account observationsand the on Franklin’s X-ray diffraction photographs.Pairing Between BasesAn on one strand always pairs with a on theopposite strand, and a on one strand always pairs with aon the opposite strand.These - are supported by Chargaff’sobservations.The strictness of base-pairing results in two strands that contain.

The diagram of DNA below the helix makes it easier to visualize the base-pairing thatoccurs between DNA strands.*3 Things that determine how DNA base pairsbond:1.2.3.Section 3 The Replication of DNAObjectivesSummarize the process of DNA replication.Describe how errors are corrected during DNA replication.Compare the number of replication forks in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA.Roles of Enzymes in DNA ReplicationThe complementary structure of DNA is used as a basis toThe process of making a copy of DNA is called .DNA replication occurs during the phase of the cell cycle,before a cell divides.DNA replication occurs in three steps:oStep 1 opens the double helix by breakingthe bonds that link the complementary nitrogen bases between thetwo strands. The areas where the double helix separates are called.oStep 2 At the replication fork, enzymes known asmove along each of the DNA strands. DNA polymerases addto the exposed nitrogen bases, according to the rules.oStep 3 Two molecules form that are to the originalDNA molecule.

Checking for ErrorsIn the course of DNA replication, sometimes occur andthe wrong is added to the new strand.An important feature of DNA is that DNA polymeraseshave a “ ” role.This proofreading reduces errors in DNA replication to about errorper 1 billion nucleotides.The Rate of ReplicationReplication does NOT begin at one end of the DNA molecule and end at the other.The DNA molecules found inusually have two replication forks that begin at a single point.The replication forks move away from each other until they meet on the opposite side ofthe DNA circle.In cells, each chromosome contains a single, long strandof DNA.Each chromosome is replicated in about 100 sections thatare 100,000 long, EACH section with its own startingpoint.With multiple replication forks working in concert, an entire human chromosome can bereplicated in about hours.Replication Forks Increase the Speed of Replication

Chapter 9 Section 1 Questions1. What question did Mendel’s experiments answer?2. What question did Mendel’s experiment create?3. What was Frederick Griffith trying to find in his experiments?4. How does a vaccine work?5. How were the two types of bacteria different in Griffith’s experiments?Strain #1(S bacteria)Strain #2 (R bacteria)-6. What happened when Griffith injected the mice with S bacteria?7. What happened when Griffith injected the mice with R bacteria?8. What happened when Griffith injected the mice with “heated-killed” S bacteria?9. What happened when Griffith injected the mice with “heated-killed” S bacteriaand live R bacteria?10. How did Griffith explain what happened in his experiment?11. What did Oswald Avery discover?12. What did Hershey and Chase conclude from their experiments?Chapter 9 Section 2 Questions1. What was the importance of discovering DNA’s structure?2. What is meant by double helix?3. Who discovered the structure of the DNA molecule?4. What are the three parts of the nucleotide?a.b.c.5. What is the five carbon sugar in DNA called?6. What parts of the DNA nucleotide remains the same?7. What part changes in DNA nucleotide?

8. What are the four different nitrogen bases in DNA?a.b.c.d.9. What type of bond holds the two strands of the double helix together?10. How did Erwin Chargaff contribute to Watson and Crick’s discovery?11. How did Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind contribute to Watson and Crick’sdiscovery?12. What does adenine always pair with?13. What does guanine always pair with?14. What does cytosine always pair with?15. What does thymine always pair with?Chapter 9 Section 3 Questions1. When does DNA replication occur during the cell cycle?2. What enzyme opens the DNA’s double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds?3. What is the area where the double helix is held apart called?4. What enzyme adds the new nucleotides to the original DNA strand?5. What enzyme is responsible for “proof-reading” the new DNA strands?6. How many replication forks does prokaryotic DNA have?7. How many replication forks does eukaryotic DNA have?

NameClassDateSkills WorksheetDirected ReadingChapter 9 Section 2 Pages 194-197Section: The Structure of DNAIn the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches theterm or phrase.1. double helixa. a five-carbon sugar2. nucleotidesb. type of bond that holds the doublehelix together3. deoxyribose4. DNAc. one of three parts of a nucleotidemade of one or two rings of carbonand nitrogen atoms5. hydrogen bondd. subunits that make up DNA6. nitrogen basee. one of two pyrimidines used as anitrogen base in nucleotides7. adeninef. one of two purines used as anitrogen base in nucleotides8. cytosineg. abbreviation for deoxyribonucleicacidh. two strands of nucleotides twistedaround each otherIn the space provided, explain how the terms in each pair are related toeach other.9. base-pairing rules, complementary10. adenine, thymine11. cytosine, guanineCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Holt Biology3DNA: The Genetic Material

NameClassDateDirected Reading continuedRead each question, and write your answer in the space provided.12. What was Chargaff’s observation about the nitrogen bases in DNA?13. What role did the photographs of Wilkins and Franklin play in the discoveryof the structure of DNA?14. What did Watson and Crick deduce about the structure of DNA?Complete the Section Review questions on page 197, #1-6.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Holt Biology4DNA: The Genetic Material

NameClassDateSkills WorksheetDNA StructureINTERPRETING DIAGRAMSUse the figure below to answer questions 1–3.ABCDERead each question, and write your answer in the space provided.1. In the space provided, identify the structures labeled A–E.A.B.C.D.E.2. What do the lines connecting the two strands represent? Why are there threelines connecting the strands in some instances and only two lines in others?3. Suppose that a strand of DNA has the base sequence ATT-CCG. What is thebase sequence of the complementary strand?Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Holt Science: Biology17Science Skills Worksheets

Name Score PeriodBiology Homework: DNA1. Draw a nucleotide and label its three basic parts.2. Which parts make up the sides of the ladders?Which parts make up the rungs of the ladder?To which part do the rungs of the ladder attach on the sides?3. What 2 parts do all nucleotides have in common?4. What part of a nucleotide makes them different?5. What is the base pair rule? Who discovered this idea?6. What did Franklin and Wilkins’ x-ray diffraction photograph of strands of DNA suggest aboutthe structure of the DNA molecule?7. Using Chargaff’s data and the x-ray diffraction photograph of DNA, who built the first modelof DNA and describe its structure?8. What 3 things determine which nitrogen bases pair with which?9. Which of the 4 nitrogen bases are purines?Which of the 4 nitrogen bases are pyrimidines?10. Use the base pair rule to complete the missing side of DNA. Pretend the list of nitrogen basesis an entire nucleotide. Match up the correct missing side of this DNA molecule.GGCTCCCTTTGCGCAAAATGCTATCGCCGGAAATTGTCA

NameClassDateSkills WorksheetConcept MappingUsing the terms and phrases provided below, complete the concept map showingthe discovery of DNA structure.amount of base pairsDNA polymerasesdouble helixfive-carbon sugarFranklin and Wilkinsnitrogen basephosphate grouppurinepyrimidinereplicationWatson and CrickDiscovery ofDNA structureincludes research byChargaff1.who showedwho showedwho showed3.2.X-ray photosof DNA4.whichcan be awhich undergoeswhich is composed of7.nucleotides5.6.which involvesmade of asuch as8.9.10.11.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Holt Biology17DNA: The Genetic Material

NameClassDateSkills WorksheetDirected ReadingChapter 9 Section 3 Pages 198-200Section: The Replication of DNAIn the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches theterm or phrase.1. DNA replication2. DNA helicases3. replication forks4. DNA polymerases5. synthesisa. add nucleotides to the exposed nitrogenbases according to the base-pairing rulesb. process of making a copy of DNAc. the two areas that result when the doublehelix separates during DNA replicationd. open up the double helix by breaking thehydrogen bonds between nitrogen basese. phase during the life cycle of a cell duringwhich DNA replication occursRead each question, and write your answer in the space provided.6. How did the complementary relationship between the sequences ofnucleotides lead to the discovery of DNA replication?7. What prevents the separated DNA strands from reattaching to one anotherduring DNA replication?8. What prevents the wrong nucleotide from being added to the new strandduring DNA replication?Complete each statement by writing the correct term or phrase in the spaceprovided.9. Prokaryotic DNA is reproduced withforks.replicationCopyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Holt Biology5DNA: The Genetic Material

NameClassDateDirected Reading continued10. Each human chromosome is replicated in aboutsections.11. The number of nucleotides between each replication fork in human DNA isapproximately.Complete Section Review questions on page 200, # 1-5 below.Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Holt Biology6DNA: The Genetic Material

NameClassDateSkills WorksheetActive ReadingChapter 9 Section 3 Pages 198-200Section: The Replication of DNARead the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow.The process of making a copy of DNA is called DNA replication.It occurs during the synthesis (S) phase of the cell cycle, before acell divides. The process can be broken down into three steps.Step 1: Before replication can begin, the double helix mustunwind. This is accomplished by enzymes called DNA helicases,which open up the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bondsthat link the complimentary nitrogen bases. Once the two strandsof DNA are separated, additional enzymes and other proteinsattach to each strand, holding them apart and preventing themfrom twisting back into their double-helical shape. The two areason either end of the DNA where the double helix separates arecalled replication forks because of their Y shape.Step 2: At the replication fork, enzymes known as DNApolymerases move along each of the DNA strands, addingnucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases according to thebase-pairing rules. As the DNA polymerases move along, twonew double helixes are formed.Step 3: Once a DNA polymerase has begun adding nucleotidesto a growing double helix, the enzyme remains attached untilall of the DNA has been copied and it is signaled to detach. Thisprocess produces two DNA molecules, each composed of a newand an original strand. The nucleotide sequences in both of theseDNA molecules are identical to each other and to the originalDNA molecule.SKILL: READING EFFECTIVELYRead each question, and write your answer in the space provided.1. What is replication?2. When does replication occur?Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Holt Biology11DNA: The Genetic Material

NameClassDateActive Reading continued3. What must occur before replication can begin?SKILL: INTERPRETING GRAPHICS4. The figure below shows DNA replicating. In the space provided, describewhat is occurring at each lettered section of the figure.Part a.Part b.Part c.Part a.Part b.Part c.In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completesthe statement.5. DNA helicases and DNA polymerases are alike in that both aretypes ofa. nucleotides.b. nitrogen bases.c. enzymes.d. Both (a) and (b)Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.Holt Biology12DNA: The Genetic Material

The diagram of DNA below the helix makes it easier to visualize the base-pairing that occurs between DNA strands. *3 Things that determine how DNA base pairs bond: 1. _ 2. _ 3. _ Section 3 The Replication of DNA Objectives Summarize the process of DNA replication. Describe how errors are corrected during DNA replication.

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