BIO - ZOOLOGY Padasalai Higher Secondary - First Year

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BIO - ZOOLOGYHigher Secondary - First yearwww.Padasalai.NetPRACTICAL

Bio-Zoology Practical - General InstructionIn order to get maximum benefit and good training it is necessary for thestudents to follow the following instructions.1. Th e students must attend all practical classes. Each experiment inpracticals has got important relevance to theory subjects.2. Bring this practical manual to your practicals class.3. Bring the following objects to the practicals class – Pencils (HB), Pen,Eraser, a scale and a small hand towel.4. Record the title, date and findings of the experiment in the observationnote book.5. Carefully listen to the instructions given by your Teacher.6. While observation slides or models draw the structure of the specimenas you see it neatly in your observation note book. Use pencil fordrawing.7. While doing experiments neither consult your neighbours nor lookinto their readings or observations.8. If the object under the microscope remains without proper focusingimmediately bring it to the notice of the Teacher.9. Do not touch or lift the models or equipments kept for youridentification.10. No need to draw diagrams from part III to VII in the record note.Relevant photograph can be collected, pasted and notes to bewritten.www.Padasalai.NetII

MODEL QUESTION PAPERCLASS: 11TIME: 75 minMarks: 7 1/2I. Identify the given animal ‘A’ (picture/specimen) draw andwrite any 2 diagnostic features.(1 ½)II. Identify the given animal tissue ‘B’ (slide/photograph /picture)and write any 2 comments with diagram(1)III.(1)Identify and comment on the given bone/joint ‘C’.IV. Identify the deficiency disease / disorder in the givenpicture/photograph “D”. Write any two symptoms.www.Padasalai.Net(1)V. Identify the given sample solution ‘E’ for thepresence/activity of Ammonia/Urea/Salivary amylase (Any one). (1)VI. Observe and write about the given experiment / specimen / picture ‘F’.(1)VII. Identify the photograph / picture andwrite its economic importance ‘G’(1)III

MARKS ALLOTMENTMARKS 71/2I. Identification – ½; Diagram - ½ ;Diagnostic features (any 2 points) -½(1 ½)II. Identification – ½; Comments (any 2 points) – ½Diagram - ½(1)III.Identification – ½; Comments – ½ (any two points)(1)IV.Identification – ½; Symptoms – ½ (any two points)(1)www.Padasalai.NetV.Experiment- ½ ; Result - ½(1)VI.Procedure and Result(1)VII. Identification – ½, ;Economic importance – ½ (any two points)(1)NOTE: Any relevant points, diagnostic features and comments apart from thoseprovided in the practical manual must also be considered for evaluation.IV

CONTENTQUESTION NO-I (A)S.NoList of Slides/SpecimensPage No1Spongilla12Sea 17Rat12www.Padasalai.NetQUESTION NO-II (B)S.No List of Slides/Pictures/PhotographPage no1Squamous Epithelium132Columnar Epithelium133Cardiac Muscles144Smooth Muscles145Adipose Tissue15V

6RBC157WBC16QUESTION NO-III (C)S.No List of model/picture/photograph (Human)Page no1Humerus172Pectoral girdle173Pelvic girdle184Part of the Skull(Occipital, Frontal, Temporal, Parietal)185Rib cage (True ribs, Pseudo ribs, False ribs)196Ball and Socket joint197Pivot joint20QUESTION NO-IV (D)S.No List of Slides/Pictures/PhotographPage nowww.Padasalai.Net1Addison’s lmic Goitre23QUESTION NO-V (E)S.No List of ExperimentsPage no1Test for Ammonia242Test for Urea243Test for Salivary Amylase24VI

QUESTION NO-VI (F)S.No List of ExperimentsPage no1Determine Your Eye Dominance252Determine Your Blind Spot253Identify the sex of cockroach (using hand lens)264Clitellum of earthworm (using hand lens)26QUESTION NO-VII (G)S.No List of photograph/picturesPage no1Kangayam bull272Aquaponics273Honey bee284Bombyx mori28www.Padasalai.NetVII


I. Identify the given animal ‘A’ (picture/specimen) and write any 2 diagnostic featureswith diagram.1. SPONGILLAIdentification:The given specimen is identified as Spongilla. It belongs to the Phylum Porifera.PorocyteOstiumWooden stickOsculumReasons for identification: It is a pore bearing animal. It is an aquatic multicellular animals with cellular level of organization. It possess a canal system where the water enters into the central cavity, spongocoelthrough minute pores called ostia. The spongocoel is lined with special flagellated cells called choanocytes.www.Padasalai.Net2. SEA ANEMONEIdentification:The given specimen is identified as Sea anemone. It belongs to the Phylum Cnidaria.HypostomeTentaclesBasal disk1

Reasons for identification: S ea anemone is diploblastic and the first group of animals to exhibit tissue level oforganization. It has stinging cells called nematocysts on their tentacles. The central vascular cavity is called coelenteron which opens out through thehypostome. The nervous system is formed of a diffused nerve net. Cnidarians exhibit 2 basic body forms, polyp and medusa. The polyp represents the asexual generation and the medusa represents the sexualgeneration (Alternation of generation). Development includes a ciliated Planula larva.3. TAPEWORMIdentification:The given specimen is identified as Tapeworm. It belongs to the ImmatureproglottidReasons for identification: It is a dorsoventrally flattened, triploblastic, acoelomate animal with organ level oforganization. It is an endoparasites. Hooks and Suckers act as organs of attachment. Excretion is carried out by specialized cells called flame cells.2

4. ASCARISIdentification:The given specimen is identified as Ascaris. It belongs to the Phylum Aschelminthes.MouthExcretory PoreMouthExcretoryPoreFemaleGonoporeLeteral LineCloacalaperturePenialSpiculesAnusTailReasons for identification: Ascaris is a roundworm because it is circular in cross section. It is a triploblastic, pseudocoelomate animal. The unsegmented body is covered by a protective layer called cuticle. Alimentary canal is complete with a well developed mouth, pharynx and anus cloaca. Sexes are separate and exhibit sexual dimorphism. Excretion is carried out through Rennet glands. It is an endoparasite.www.Padasalai.Net5. EARTHWORMIdentification:The given specimen isidentified as Earthworm.It belongs to the PhylumAnnelida.3

Reasons for identification: Earthworm is a triploblastic, schizocoelomate animal. Its elongated body is segmented. The longitudinal and circular muscles in the body wall help in locomotion. The circulatory system is of closed type and the respiratory pigment haemoglobin ispresent in the plasma. It is a hermaphrodite animal.6. COCKROACHIdentification:The given specimen is identified as Cockroach. It belongs to the Phylum .NetHind wingAbdomenAnal cerciReasons for identification: It is a triploblastic, schizocoelomate animal. It has jointed appendages which are used for locomotion. Body is covered by a chitinous exoskeleton which is shed off periodically by aprocess called moulting/ecdysis. Respiration is through trachea. Excretion is by malpighian tubules.4

7. PILAIdentification:The given specimen is identified as Pila. It belongs to the Phylum Mollusca.ApexSutureBodyOuter lipUmbilicusMouthReasons for identification: It is a triploblastic, coelomate animal. Body is covered by a calcareous shell. Internal organs are covered by a soft layer of skin called mantle. Respiration is carried out through a number of feather like gills called ctenidia. The mouth contains a rasping organ called radula. Excretory organs are the nephridia. Blood contains a copper containing respiratory pigment, haemocyanin. Their development includes a Veliger larva.www.Padasalai.Net8. STARFISHIdentification:The given specimen is identified as Starfish. It belongs to the PhylumEchinodermata.Arm or RayMouthAmbulacralgrooveTube feet5

Reasons for identification: It has spiny skin. It has Water vascular system. Tube feet help in locomotion. The adults are radially symmetrical. Larvae are bilaterally symmetrical Circulatory system is open type without heart and blood vessels. It exhibits autotomy with remarkable power of regeneration. Bipinnaria is the first larva in its development.9. BALANOGLOSSUSIdentification: e given specimen is identified as Balanoglossus. It belongs to the larTrunkReasons for identification: It is a connecting link between invertebrates and chordates. The body is divided into anterior proboscis, a short collar and a long trunk. It is a marine and bilaterally symmetrical animal. Excretion is by a single proboscis gland. Development is indirect with a free swimming Tornaria larva. Presence of buccal diverticulum is the significant character of this animal.6

10. AMPHIOXUSIdentification:The given specimen is identified as Amphioxus. It belongs to the Subphylum Cephalochordata.Nerve cordMyotomesNotocordBuccalcirriReasons for identification: A mphioxus is a marine animal, found in shallow waters, leading a burrowing modeof life. C hordate characters such us notochord, dorsal tabular nerve cord and pharyngealgill slits are present throughout their life.www.Padasalai.Net Closed type of circulatory system is seen without heart. Excretion by protonephridia. S exes are separate, fertilization is external, development is indirect and includes afree swimming larva.11. ASCIDIANIdentification:The given specimen is identifiedas Ascidian. It belongs to theSubphylum Urochordata.OralSubstratum7Foot

Reasons for identification: It is exclusively marine. Body is covered by a tunic/test. Notochord is present only in the tail region of the larval stage. Hence namedurochordata. Dorsal tubular nerve cord is present only in the larval stage. Mostly hermaphrodites and development is indirect with a free swimming tadpolelarva. Retrogressive metamorphosis is seen in Ascidian.12. SHARKIdentification: The given specimen is identified as Shark. It belongs to the Phylum Chordata , Sub phylumVertebrata and Class Chondrichthyes.Dorsal finwww.Padasalai.NetEyeHeterocercaltailPectoral finPelvic finReasons for identification: It is a marine fish with cartilaginous endoskeleton. Skin is tough and covered by placoid scales. Caudal fin is heterocercal. Respiration is by gill slits without operculum. Excretory organs are mesonephric kidneys. It is a poikilothermic animal.8

13. SEA HORSEIdentification: The given specimen is identified as Sea horse. It belongs to the Phylum Chordataand Sub phylum Vertebrata and Class Osteichthyes.SnoutDorsal s for identification: Seahorse is mainly found in shallow tropical seas. It is a bony fish which do not have scales but rather its skin is stretched over aseries of bony plates. It swims upright propelling itselves by using a dorsal fin. It has a prehensile tail to hold the object. When mating, the female seahorse deposits eggs in the male’s brood pouch.Further development occurs in the male seahorse. Seahorse populations are thought to be endangered as a result of overfishing andhabitat destruction.9

14. FROGIdentification: The given specimen is identified as Frog. It belongs to the Phylum Chordata, SubphylumVertebrata and Class Amphibia.NostrilNictitatingmembraneEyeTympanumHind limbFore limbWebReasons for identification: It is commonly found in fresh water ponds, pools and moist surfaces. It is adapted tolive both on land and in water. Amphibians are poikilothermic. Heart is three chambered. Sinus venosus, a large triangular chamber, is present on the dorsal side of the heart. Sexes are separate and fertilization is external. Development is indirect with a tadpole stage.www.Padasalai.Net15. CALOTESIdentification: The given specimen isidentified as Calotes. Itbelongs to the PhylumChordata, SubphylumVertebrata and ClassReptilia.SpinesScalesTailFront limb10Hind limb

Reasons for identification: It is a terrestrial, poikilothermic animal. Body is covered with dry horny scales. Heart is 3 chambered. Excretion is by metanephric kidneys and is uricotelic. It is monoecious. Fertilization is internal. It is oviparous and lays cledoic eggs.16. PIGEONIdentification: The given specimen is identified as Pigeon. It belongs to the Phylum Chordata,Sub phylum Vertebrata and Class easons for identification: It is a feathered, bipedel flying vertebrate. Its skin is dry and without glands except the preen gland. Endoskeleton is ossified and the long bones are pneumatic. Flight muscles are well developed. Heart is four chambered. Urinary bladder is absent. Fertilization is internal. Presence of Quill feathers on wings and tail.11Tail

17. RATIdentification: The specimen kept for identification is the Rat. It belongs to the Phylum Chordata ,Subphylum Vertebrata and Class Reasons for identification: Presence of mammary gland is the unique feature of mammals. It has 2 pairs of limbs. Pair of pinnae or external ears are present. Heart is 4 chambered. Kidneys are metanephric and are ureotelic animal Rats are homeothermic and viviparous.12

II. Identify the given animal tissue ‘B’ (slide/photograph/picture) and give any 2comments with diagram.1. SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUMIdentificationThe given slide/picture is identified as squamous epithelium.CellmembraneNucleiNotes: Squamous epithelium is a type of simple epithelium It is made of a single thin layer of flattened cells with irregular boundaries. Found in cheek, kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, lining of heart and blood vessels. It is involved in diffusion and filtration.www.Padasalai.Net2. COLUMN

Bio-Zoology Practical - General Instruction In order to get maximum benefit and good training it is necessary for the students to follow the following instructions. 1. The students must attend all practical classes. Each experiment in practicals has got important relevance to theory subjects. 2. Bring this practical manual to your practicals class. 3. Bring the following objects to the .

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