BASIC HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER - Temporal Publishing

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BASICHEAT AND MASSTRANSFER(Chapter 1 Excerpt for BHMT Students - Not for Reproduction)Third EditionA. F. MillsProfessor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, EmeritusThe University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CAC. F. M. CoimbraProfessor of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringThe University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CATemporal Publishing, LLC – San Diego, CA 92130

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataMills, A. F. and Coimbra, C. F. M.Basic Heat and Mass Transfer 3/E by Anthony F. Mills & Carlos F. M. Coimbrap. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-0-9963053-0-3CIP data available. 2015 by A.F. Mills and C.F.M. Coimbra. All Rights Reserved.Exclusive Publishing Rights to Temporal Publishing, LLC – San Diego, CA 92130The authors and the publisher have used their best efforts in preparing this book. These efforts include the development,research, and (when applicable) testing of the theories and programs to determine their effectiveness. The authors andpublisher make no warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, with regard to these programs or the documentationcontained in this book and in the solutions manual. The authors and publisher shall not be liable in any event for incidentalor consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of, the furnishing, performance, or use of the theory, resultsand/or programs.All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, translated or stored in any storage retrieval device in any formor by any means, without permission in writing from Temporal Publishing, LLC. There are no authorized electronic orinternational hardcopy versions of this book. If the book you are reading is not a hardcopy published by TemporalPublishing LLC, you are infringing on U.S. and international copyright laws.Address inquiries or comments to:contact@temporalpublishing.com www.temporalpublishing.comPrinted in the United States of America10 9 8 7ISBN 978-0-9963053-0-3

To BrigidFor your patience and understanding.To KaoriFor your loving support.

PREFACEFor this third edition of Basic Heat and Mass Transfer Anthony Mills is joined byCarlos Coimbra as a co-author. Professor Coimbra brings to this venture the perspective and skills of a younger generation of heat transfer educators and his own specialexpertise in areas of heat transfer research. Fifteen years after the second editionwas published, a new edition is perhaps overdue, but in a mature field such as heattransfer, it is not at all clear what topics should be introduced, and then what topicsshould be removed to retain an acceptable length for an introductory text. As a result,our main motivation in publishing a third edition has been a different consideration.Our concern was the excessive prices of college textbooks, which in recent yearshave destroyed the established role played by these texts in the education of engineering students. Traditionally, students bought a required textbook, became familiarwith it in taking the course, and then retained the book as a tool for subsequentcourses and an engineering career. Nowadays the pattern is for a student to sell thetextbooks back to the university bookstore at the end of the course in order to obtainfunds for buying textbooks for the next term. Alternatively, electronic versions ofportions of the text are used during the course, or course readers containing selectedmaterial from the text may be used. It is particularly frustrating to instructors ofsubsequent design and laboratory courses to find that the students no longer haveappropriate textbooks. Also, the traditional role formerly played by textbooks asprofessional manuals for engineering practice has been significantly affected. Basicmethodology and data are more easily and reliably obtained from a familiar text thanfrom an internet search.In an attempt to mitigate these problems and improve the experience of our engineering students we decided to retain creative and publishing rights over the contentof this book for this and future editions. A company called Temporal Publishing LLCwas created to publish quality engineering textbooks at more reasonable prices.11Books can be ordered directly at discounted prices at www.temporalpublishing.comv

viPREFACEThis entailed first converting the previous edition of Basic Heat and Mass Transferto LaTeX, which we could then modify efficiently. Since the conversion proved tobe a major project in itself, our objective with this third edition is rather modest. Wehave focused on corrections, clarifications, minor updates and the production of adedicated companion website.2 We envisage this website to be an integral part ofthe project and hope to make it a really useful adjunct to the text, for both studentsand instructors. The website contains links to the dedicated software BHMT thatautomates most of the calculations done in the text, instructor aides (such as complete solutions manual for adoptees of the text, additional examples and exercises,presentations, etc.) and a compilation of answers to odd-numbered exercises to assistself-study by students. We will be continuously adding new technical content to thewebsite while we work on future editions of the textbook. Also, given our closerassociation with the print-on-demand process, it will be easy for the authors to implement small improvements in subsequent printings of this edition. We certainlywelcome input and suggestions from users to improve our product.In preparing this new edition we have had valuable assistance from:Marius AndronieKuang ChaoKaori Yoshida CoimbraWe would like to dedicate the collaborative effort of bringing a new edition ofBasic Heat and Mass Transfer to the memory of Prof. Donald K. Edwards, ourteacher.A. F. MillsSanta Barbara, CAamills@ucla.eduC. F. M. CoimbraLa Jolla, t-students

PREFACE TO THESECOND EDITIONBasic Heat and Mass Transfer has been written for undergraduate students in mechanical engineering programs. Apart from the usual lower-division mathematicsand science courses, the preparation required of the student includes introductorycourses in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, and preferably the usual juniorlevel engineering mathematics course. The ordering of the material and the pace atwhich it is presented have been carefully chosen so that the beginning student canproceed from the most elementary concepts to those that are more difficult. As aresult, the book should prove to be quite versatile. It can be used as the text foran introductory course during the junior or senior year, although the coverage issufficiently comprehensive for use as a reference work in undergraduate laboratoryand design courses, and by the practicing engineer.Throughout the text, the emphasis is on engineering calculations, and each topicis developed to a point that will provide students with the tools needed to practice theart of design. The worked examples not only illustrate the use of relevant equationsbut also teach modeling as both an art and science. A supporting feature of BasicHeat and Mass Transfer is the fully integrated software available from the author’swebsite3 . The software is intended to serve primarily as a tool for the student, bothat college and after graduation in engineering practice. The programs are designedto reduce the effort required to obtain reliable numerical results and thereby increasethe efficiency and effectiveness of the engineer. I have found the impact of thesoftware on the educational process to be encouraging. It is now possible to assignmore meaningful and interesting problems, because the students need not get boggeddown in lengthy calculations. Parametric studies, which are the essence of engineering design, are relatively easily performed. Of course, computer programs are not asubstitute for a proper understanding. The instructor is free to choose the extent millsvii

viiiPREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITIONwhich the software is used by students because of the unique exact correspondencebetween the software and the text material. My practice has been to initially requirestudents to perform various hand calculations, using the computer to give immediatefeedback. For example, they do not have to wait a week or two until homework isreturned to find that a calculated convective heat transfer coefficient was incorrectbecause a property table was misread.The extent to which engineering design should be introduced in a heat transfercourse is a controversial subject. It is my experience that students can be best introduced to design methodology through an increased focus on equipment such asheat and mass exchangers: Basic Heat and Mass Transfer presents more extensivecoverage of exchanger design than do comparable texts. In the context of such equipment one can conveniently introduce topics such as synthesis, parametric studies,tradeoffs, optimization, economics, and material or health constraints. The computer programs HEX2 and CTOWER assist the student to explore the consequencesof changing the many parameters involved in the design process. If an appropriateselection of this material is taught, I am confident that Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology guidelines for design content will be met. More important,I believe that engineering undergraduates are well served by being exposed to thismaterial, even if it means studying somewhat less heat transfer science.More than 300 new exercises have been added for this edition. They fall intotwo categories: (1) relatively straightforward exercises designed to help studentsunderstand fundamental concepts, and (2) exercises that introduce new technologyand that have a practical flavor. The latter play a very important role in motivatingstudents; considerable care has been taken to ensure that they are realistic in termsof parameter values and focus on significant aspects of real engineering problems.The practical exercises are first steps in the engineering design process and manyhave substantial design content. Since environmental considerations have requiredthe phasing out of CFC refrigerants, R-12 and R-113 property data, worked examplesand exercises, have been replaced with corresponding material for R-22 and R-134a.Basic Heat and Mass Transfer complements Heat Transfer, which is publishedconcurrently. Basic Heat and Mass Transfer was developed by omitting some ofthe more advanced heat transfer material from Heat Transfer and adding a chapteron mass transfer. As a result, Basic Heat and Mass Transfer contains the followingchapters and appendixes:1. Introduction and Elementary Heat Transfer2. Steady One-Dimensional Heat Conduction3. Multidimensional and Unsteady Conduction4. Convection Fundamentals and Correlations5. Convection Analysis6. Thermal Radiation7. Condensation, Evaporation, and Boiling8. Heat Exchangers

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITIONix9. Mass TransferA. Property DataB. Units, Conversion Factors, and MathematicsC. ChartsIn a first course, the focus is always on the key topics of conduction, convection,radiation, and heat exchangers. Particular care has been taken to order the material onthese topics from simpler to more difficult concepts. In Chapter 2 one-dimensionalconduction and fins are treated before deriving the general partial differential heatconduction equation in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the student is taught how to use convection correlations before encountering the partial differential equations governingmomentum and energy conservation in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6 radiation propertiesare introduced on a total energy basis and the shape factor is introduced as a geometrical concept to allow engineering problem solving before having to deal withthe directional and spectral aspects of radiation. Also, wherever possible, advancedtopics are located at the ends of chapters, and thus can be easily omitted in a firstcourse.Chapter 1 is a brief but self-contained introduction to heat transfer. Students aregiven an overview of the subject and some material needed in subsequent chapters.Interesting and relevant engineering problems can then be introduced at the earliest opportunity, thereby motivating student interest. All the exercises can be solvedwithout accessing the property data in Appendix A.Chapters 2 and 3 present a relatively conventional treatment of heat conduction,though the outdated and approximate Heissler and Grober charts are replaced byexact charts and the computer program COND2. The treatment of finite-differencenumerical methods for conduction has been kept concise and is based on finitevolume energy balances. Students are encouraged to solve the difference equationsby writing their own computer programs, or by using standard mathematics softwaresuch as Mathcad or MATLAB.In keeping with the overall philosophy of the book, the objective of Chapter 4is to develop the students’ ability to calculate convective heat transfer coefficients.The physics of convection is explained in a brief introduction, and the heat transfercoefficient is defined. Dimensional analysis using the Buckingham pi theorem isused to introduce the required dimensional groups and to allow a discussion of theimportance of laboratory experiments. A large number of correlation formulas follow; instructors can discuss selected geometrical configurations as class time allows,and students can use the associated computer program CONV to reliably calculateheat transfer coefficients and skin friction coefficients or pressure drop for a widerange of configurations. Being able to do parametric studies with a wide variety ofcorrelations enhances the students’ understanding more than can be accomplishedby hand calculations. Design alternatives can also be explored using CONV.Analysis of convection is deferred to Chapter 5: simple laminar flows are considered, and high-speed flows are treated first in Section 5.2, since an understanding of

xPREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITIONthe recovery temperature concept enhances the students’ problem-solving capabilities. Mixing length turbulence models are briefly discussed, and the chapter closeswith a development of the general conservation equations.Chapter 6 focuses on thermal radiation. Radiation properties are initially definedon a total energy basis, and the shape factor is introduced as a simple geometricalconcept. This approach allows students to immediately begin solving engineeringradiation exchange problems. Only subsequently need they tackle the more difficultdirectional and spectral aspects of radiation. For gas radiation, the ubiquitous Hottelcharts have been replaced by the more accurate methods developed by Edwards; theaccompanying computer program RAD3 makes their use particularly simple.The treatment of condensation and evaporation heat transfer in Chapter 7 hasnovel features, while the treatment of pool boiling is quite conventional. Heatpipesare dealt with in some detail, enabling students to calculate the wicking limit and toanalyze the performance of simple gas-controlled heatpipes.Chapter 8 expands the presentation of the thermal analysis of heat exchangersbeyond the customary and includes the calculation of exchanger pressure drop,thermal-hydraulic design, heat transfer surface selection for compact heat exchangers, and economic analysis leading to the calculation of the benefit-cost differentialassociated with heat recovery operations. The computer program HEX2 serves tointroduce students to computer-aided design of heat exchangers.Chapter 9 is an introduction to mass transfer. The focus is on diffusion in a stationary medium and low mass-transfer rate convection. As was the case with heatconvection in Chapter 4, mass convection is introduced using dimensional analysisand the Buckingham pi theorem. Of particular importance to mechanical engineersis simultaneous heat and mass transfer, and this topic is given detailed considerationwith a focus on problems involving water evaporation into air.The author and publisher appreciate the-efforts of all those who provided inputthat helped develop and improve the text. We remain dedicated to further refiningthe text in future editions, and encourage you to contact us with any suggestions orcomments you might have.A. F. Millsamills@ucla.eduBill StenquistExecutive Editorwilliam stenquist@prenhall.com

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTO THE FIRST ANDSECOND EDITIONSReviewers commissioned for the first edition, published by Richard D. Irwin, Inc.,provided helpful feedback. The author would like to thank the following for theircontributions to the first edition.Martin Crawford, University of Alabama—BirminghamLea Der Chen, University of IowaPrakash R. Damshala, University of Tennessee—ChattanoogaTom Diller, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityAbraham Engeda, Michigan State UniversityGlenn Gebert, Utah State UniversityClark E. Hermance, University of VermontHarold R. Jacobs, Pennsylvania State University—University ParkJohn H. Lienhard V, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyJennifer Linderman, University of Michigan—Ann ArborVincent P. Mano, Tufts UniversityRobert J. Ribando, University of VirginiaJamal Seyed-Yagoobi, Texas A&M University—College StationThe publisher would also like to acknowledge the excellent editorial efforts onthe first edition. Elizabeth Jones was the sponsoring editor, and Kelley Butcher wasthe senior developmental editor.xi

xiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TO THE FIRST AND SECOND EDITIONSSome of the material in Basic Heat and Mass Transfer, in the form of examplesand exercises, has been adapted from an earlier text by my former colleagues atUCLA, D. K. Edwards and V. E. Denny (Transfer Processes 1/e, Holt, Rinehart &Winston, 1973; 2/e Hemisphere-McGraw-Hill, 1979). I have also drawn on materialin radiation heat transfer from a more recent text by D. K. Edwards (Radiation HeatTransfer Notes, Hemisphere, 1981). I gratefully acknowledge the contributions ofthese gentlemen, both to this book and to my professional career. The late D. N.Bennion provided a chemical engineering perspective to some of the material onmass exchangers. The computer software was ably written by Baek Youn, Hae-JinChoi, and Benjamin Tan. I would also like to thank former students S. W. Hiebert,R. Tsai, B. Cowan, E. Myhre, B. H. Chang, D. C. Weatherly, A. Gopinath, J. I.Rodriguez, B. P. Dooher, M. A. Friedman, and C. Yuen.In preparing the second edition, I have had useful input from a number of people, including Professor F. Forster, University of Washington; Professor N. Shamsundar, University of Houston; Professor S. Kim, Kukmin University; and ProfessorA. Lavine, UCLA. Students who have helped include P. Hwang, M. Tari, B. Tan, J.Sigler, M. Fabbri, F. Chao, and A. Na-Nakornpanom.My special thanks to the secretarial staff at UCLA and the University of Auckland: Phyllis Gilbert, Joy Wallace, and Julie Austin provided enthusiastic and experttyping of the manuscript. Mrs. Gilbert also provided expert typing of the solutionsmanual.

NOTES TO THEINSTRUCTORAND STUDENTThese notes have been prepared to assist the instructor and student and should beread before the text is used. Topics covered include conventions for artwork andmathematics, the format for example problems, organization of the exercises, comments on the thermophysical property data in Appendix A, and a guide for use ofthe accompanying computer software.ARTWORKConventions used in the figures are as follows. !—–! Conduction or convection heat flowRadiation heat flowFluid flowSpecies flowMATHEMATICAL SYMBOLSSymbols that may need clarification are as follows. Nearly equal ! Of the same order of magnitude! All quantities in the term to the left of the bar are evaluated at xxxiii

xivNOTES TO THE INSTRUCTOR AND STUDENTEXAMPLESUse of standard format for presenting the solutions of engineering problems is agood practice. The

Basic Heat and Mass Transfer complements Heat Transfer,whichispublished concurrently. Basic Heat and Mass Transfer was developed by omitting some of the more advanced heat transfer material fromHeat Transfer and adding a chapter on mass transfer. As a result, Basic Heat and Mass Transfer contains the following chapters and appendixes: 1.

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