www.Padasalai.Netwww.TrbTnps.comGOVERNMENT OF TAMILNADUHIGHER SECONDARY-FIRST YEARBIO-BOTANYwww.Padasalai.NetPRACTICAL MANUALState Council of Educational Research and Training, Chennai - ew-syllabus-based.htmlXI BIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL MANUAL.indd 128-08-2018 12:02:38
AGE. NO.Introduction1Preparation and Demonstration of slides9II Fresh or preserved specimens18www.Padasalai.NetIII Plant Taxonomy - Flower Dissection20IV Bio molecules – Nutrient test22V Plant Physiology sh-medium-new-syllabus-based.htmlXI BIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL MANUAL.indd 228-08-2018 12:02:38
e learning is practical oriented and requires practical activities in the laboratory. Asin any other science subject, practical have an important role in Botany too. The purpose ofteaching botany is not only to acquaint the learner with terms, facts, concepts and principlesbut also to prepare them to understand these concepts by doing exercises relating to them.Practical work also gives students many opportunities to use their minds to discover laws andprinciples of science. It makes difficult and abstract concepts real, remove misconceptions,ignite, increase and sustain students interest in plant science through various practical activities.Self- experience not only eliminates doubts and misbeliefs in one’s mind but also generates aninterest in the subject. Therefore, the students should be adequately taught through practicalactivities to acquire useful practical skills in concepts.THE OBJECTIVES OF BIOLOGY PRACTICALSThe objectives of biology practicals are to: d evelop practical skill for better understanding through first hand experience; d emonstrate the principles covered in the theory;www.Padasalai.Net d evelop observational skill in the form of identifying and locating desired parts inspecimen; d evelop manipulative skills in arranging and handling the apparatus and instrumentsand taking reading on them; c ollect material and to mount it to develop skill in preserving biological material andspecimens; d raw, label and record experimental results and interpret them;Through practical work, not only the theoretical concepts are tested but also it trains thestudent in scientific method of learning.INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTSStudents must attend all the practical classes. They must also remember that there is a greatdegree of co-ordination between theory class and practicals. The following are some of the items that they must bring to the Practical Classes. Practical observation note book Practical ium-new-syllabus-based.htmlXI BIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL MANUAL.indd 128-08-2018 12:02:38
www.Padasalai.Netwww.TrbTnps.com Practical manual Drawing pencils of HB type Pencil sharpener Eraser A measuring scale A small sized clean white hand-kerchief A dissection box containing a pair of scissors, one scalpel with sharp edge, a pair ofsmall forceps, a pair of dissection needles with plastic handle, a blade and a smallsized painting brush. Come prepared with theory part of the practical subject. They should submit the practical records periodically for correction and valuation. Do not keep bags on the work table. They must maintain strict discipline and silence in the laboratory. They should write the date and experiment number in their observation note books.www.Padasalai.Net Th ey should observe microscopic slides, specimens and draw labeled figures in theirobservation note books. A fter the practials are completed, they should ensure the proper arrangement of chairs,microscopes, etc. and clean the work table. A separate practical record for Botany and Zoology is to be maintained. Use only pencils for drawing and writing the notes in the interleaves of the record. Below the diagram, they should write the caption for the diagram in bold letters. W hile labeling different parts of the diagram, draw horizontal indicator lines with thehelp of a scale.SAFETY IN THE LABORATORYThe following precaution and care should be taken while working in the biology laboratory: Th e students should be well aware of the exercise they are going to perform in thelaboratory. Th e instruments, glassware and any other equipment should be kept clean at its properplace before and after its m-new-syllabus-based.htmlXI BIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL MANUAL.indd 228-08-2018 12:02:38
www.Padasalai.Netwww.TrbTnps.com Th e microscope and other delicate instruments should be handled gently and properly andshould be atleast 5 inches from the edge of the table to avoid its knocking off accidently. D o not throw any broken glassware in the sink. It should be thrown in the dust bin. W henever working with the sharp instrument as blade / scalpel etc. be careful not to cutor puncture your skin. D o not inhale, never taste or apply stain or any chemical as it may harm. N ever eat in the laboratory to avoid infection.The steps involved in performing a practical are listed belowin the chart to help students to do the Net7Prepare aRecord Book2Followeach step6Get itevaluated35Completeworksheet4MakeobservationNote down glish-medium-new-syllabus-based.htmlXI BIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL MANUAL.indd 328-08-2018 12:02:38
www.Padasalai.Netwww.TrbTnps.comBASIC EQUIPMENTS USED IN BIOLOGY LABORATORYMicroscopes:a. Dissection Microscope: Used to observe ground plan of T.S / L.S root, stem, leaf ovule andsmall organisms.b. Compound Microscope: It consists of objective lens and ocular lens, which is used tomagnify the object. The light entering into the microscope is adjusted by diaphragm.Specimen slide placed on the stage is illuminated by light. It is observed through low power orhigh power by changing objective lens. Using coarse and fine adjustment fine details of slidecan be studied.Glassware:Test tubes, Beakers, Flasks, Watch glass, Petri dishes, Slides, Cover slips, Reagent bottles,Pipette, Funnel and Graduated cylinder.Tools for dissection:Scalpel, Forceps, Needle, Brushes, BladeFixatives:Formalin, F.A.A (Formalin-aceto-alcohol).), Ethanol and Acetonewww.Padasalai.NetStains:Safranin (used to stain lignified and cutinised cells)Haematoxylin (used to stain nucleus)Iodine (used to find starch)Eosin (used to stain cytoplasm)Acetocarmine (used to stain chromosomes)Crystal Violet (used to stain bacteria)Mounting agents:Glycerine and Canada balsamReagents and Solutions:Benedict’s reagent, Biuret reagent, Fehling’s solution, Starch solution, Iodine solution, andNaOH.Indicators:pH paperTemperature edium-english-medium-new-syllabus-based.htmlXI BIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL MANUAL.indd 428-08-2018 12:02:38
www.Padasalai.Netwww.TrbTnps.comPREPARATION OF SLIDEBasic techniques used in biology laboratory during the preparation of micro slide anddemonstration of experiments.How to take peel?step: 1. Remove an intact leaf epidermal layerstep: 2. Use needle and forceps to separate out peel from leafstep: 3. Keep the peeling on the slide, add drop of water or stainstep: 4. Observe through the microscope.What is Smear?A technique used to spread the cells uniformly on the slide from the sample or section.step: 1. Section placed in stainstep: 2. Crushed with help of scalpel or another slidestep: 3. Slide gently heated over the flame, mounted with mounting mediumstep: 4. Cover the slide with cover slip and seal with melting wax.How to take Sections?A thin and transparent section is cut with the help of sharp razor or blade. Sections are basicallytwo types: Transverse Sections (T.S) and Longitudinal sections (L.S)www.Padasalai.Netstep: 1. Keep the material between thumb and first finger using pithstep: 2. Cut several thin sections using razor or bladestep: 3. Take out the section with the help of brush and place it in a watch glass containingwater.step: 4. select a thin floating section, avoid oblique/incomplete section.Fixation:Fixation is the technique adopted to kill the cells and stop the cellular activities. It also protectsthe cells from drying and decaying.Some common fixatives: Formalin, Ethanol and FAA (Formalin-aceto-alcohol).Procedures followed in Staining:Staining is the technique used to view and differentiate the cells using specific dyes or Stains.Some common Stains: Safranin, Haematoxylin, Iodine, Eosin, Acetocarmine and CrystalViolet.Mounting:Technique adopted to preserve the sections for longer period of time and also protect thesection from dium-new-syllabus-based.htmlXI BIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL MANUAL.indd 528-08-2018 12:02:38
www.Padasalai.Netwww.TrbTnps.comSome common mounting media: Glycerine, DPX and Canada balsam.Step: 1. Pore a drop of mounting medium on the section over the slideStep: 2. Place the cover slip very gently over the slideStep: 3. Avoid air bubbles while mountingStep: 4. Wipe out excess mounting medium with blotting paper.Know your Compound MicroscopeCompound Microscope is an insdispensable instrument in a Biology laboratrory. Study thediagram of the microscope and compare it with an actual one in the laboratory.Eye-Piece: Contains lenses to increasemagnificationBody Tube: Holds lenses of eyepiece and objectivesat proper working distance from each otherNose Piece: Permits interchange of low and highpowered objectsCoarse Adjustment: Moves body tube up or downto the correct distance from the specimen forfocussing the objectwww.Padasalai.NetArm: Supports body tube and coarse adjustment.Objective Lense: Contains lenses of differentmagnification as 10X, 40X etc.Fine Adjustment: Permits exact focussing bymoving stage or body tube up or down very slightlyStage Clip: Hold slide firmly in placeStage: Supports slide over hole that admitslight from mirror belowDiaphragm: Regulates amount of light passingthrough the specimenMirror: Reflects light upward through diaphgramand hole in stageBase: Firm support bearing weight sh-medium-new-syllabus-based.htmlXI BIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL MANUAL.indd 628-08-2018 12:02:39
www.Padasalai.Netwww.TrbTnps.comBIO-BOTANY PRACTICALMODEL QUESTIONI.Identify the given slide ‘A’ and give any two reasonsII.Identify the given specimen ‘B’ and give any two reasonsIII.Identify the family, dissect and display the given flower ‘C’. Write the floralcharacters of essential parts, draw floral diagram and write floral formula.IV.Test the given sample solution ‘D’ for the presence of Reducing sugar(Glucose), Starch, Protein and Lipids Write the Principle and Tabulate theresult.V.Write aim, procedure, observation and inference of the given plantphysiological experiment setup ‘E’.MARKS ALLOTMENT-PRACTICAL EXAMINATIONI.Identification- ½ Reasons (any two) – ½(1)www.Padasalai.NetII.Identification – ½ Reasons (any two) – ½(1)III.I dentification ½, Dissection – ½, Floral character – ½,Floral Diagram – ½, Floral formula – ½(2 ½)IV.Principle – ½, Test - ½, Table - ½ ( Procedure, Observation, Inference)(1½)V.Aim – ½, Procedure & Observation – ½, Inference – ½(1 ½)TotalRecord7 ½ marks1 ½ marksSkill1 marksMaximum marks10 um-new-syllabus-based.htmlXI BIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL MANUAL.indd 728-08-2018 12:02:39
www.Padasalai.Netwww.TrbTnps.comBIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL CONTENTQUESTION No- I (A)Note: Teacher must prepare a temporary slide using fresh specimen for demonstration during the practicalhours. (If temporary slide preparation is not possible, permanent slides are allowed only during Boardpractical examination)Preparation and Demonstration of SlidesExercise 1Bacteria - LactobacillusExercise 2Fungi – Yeast and RhizopusExercise 3Algae - Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Spirogyra, OedogoniumExercise 4Mitotic cell division Stages - Metaphase, AnaphasePlant Anatomical structure –Dicot – Root, Stem, Leaf and Monocot – Root, Stem & LeafPlasmolysis and DeplasmolysisExercise 5Exercise 6QUESTION No- II (B)Fresh or preserved specimensExercise 7Agaricus – BasidiocarpExercise 8Foliose LichenExercise 9Phylloclade – Opuntiawww.Padasalai.NetExercise 10Special inflorescence – CyathiumExercise 11Aggregate fruit – PolyalthiaQUESTION No- III (C)Taxonomy - Flower DissectionExercise 12Fabaceae - Clitoria ternateaExercise 13Solanaceae – Datura metalQUESTION No- IV (D)Bio molecules – Nutrient testExercise 14Test for reducing sugar-Benedict testExercise 15Starch – Iodine testExercise 16Protein –Biuret testExercise 17Lipid –Saponification testQUESTION No- V (E)Plant Physiology ExperimentsExercise 18Potato OsmoscopeExercise 19Paper ChromatographyExercise 20Wilmott’s BubblerExercise 21Demonstration of production of CO2 during respirationExercise 22Arc h-medium-new-syllabus-based.htmlXI BIO-BOTANY PRACTICAL MANUAL.indd 828-08-2018 12:02:39
www.Padasalai.Netwww.TrbTnps.comBIO - BOTANY PRACTICALSI - Preparation and Demonstration of SlidesNote: Teacher must prepare a temporary slide using fresh specimen for demonstrationduring the practical hours. (If temporary slide preparation is not possible,permanent slides are allowed only during Board practical examination)Aim: To study and identify the morpholo
A separate practical record for Botany and Zoology is to be maintained. Use only pencils for drawing and writing the notes in the interleaves of the record. Below the diagram, they should write the caption for the diagram in bold letters. While labeling different parts of the diagram, draw horizontal indicator lines with the help of a scale. SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY: The following precaution .
10. www.Padasalai.OrgThe radius of an atom is 200pm, if it crystallizes in a face centered cubic lattice, the length of the edge of the unit cell is a) 565.6pm b) 848.5pm c) 884.5pm d) 484.5pm 11. The ratio of close packed atoms to tetrahedral hole in cubic packing is a) 1:1 b) 1:2 c) 2:1 d) 1:4 12.
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Contract HHSM-500-2015-00246C ; Enhanced Direct Enrollment (EDE) API Companion Guide Version 5.6 August 17, 2020 : CMS FFE Companion Guide ii . Document Control . Author Versio n Rev. date Summary of Changes Section Page Abigail Flock, Alexandra Astarita, Sean Song 1.0 . 1/23/2018 . Initial Version . All . All . Scott Bickle, Alexandra Astarita, Sean Song 2.0 . 3/15/2018 . Incorporated Client .