Fundamentals Handbook Engineering Symbology, Prints, And .

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DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93JANUARY 1993DOE FUNDAMENTALS HANDBOOKENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY,PRINTS, AND DRAWINGSVolume 1 of 2U.S. Department of EnergyWashington, D.C. 20585FSC-6910DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy.Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific andTechnical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN37831.Available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, U.S.Department of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, VA 22161.Order No. DE93012220This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS, AND DRAWINGSABSTRACTThe Engineering Sym bology, Prints, and Drawings Handbook was developed to assistnuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, andtechnical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding ofengineering prints, their use, and their function. The handbook includes information onengineering fluid drawings and prints; piping and instrument drawings; major symbols andconventions; electronic diagrams and schematics; logic circuits and diagrams; and fabrication,construction, and architectural drawings. This information will provide personnel with afoundation for reading, interpreting, and using the engineering prints and drawings that areassociated with various DOE nuclear facility operations and maintenance.Key Words: Training Material, Print Reading, Piping and Instrument Drawings, Schematics,Electrical Diagrams, Block Diagrams, Logic Diagrams, Fabrication Drawings, ConstructionDrawings, Architectural DrawingsRev. 0PRThis document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS, AND DRAWINGSFOREWORDThe Departm ent of Energy (DOE) Fundam entals Handbooks consist of ten academicsubjects, which include Mathematics; Classical Physics; Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, andFluid Flow; Instrumentation and Control; Electrical Science; Material Science; MechanicalScience; Chemistry; Engineering Symbology, Prints, and Drawings; and Nuclear Physics andReactor Theory. The handbooks are provided as an aid to DOE nuclear facility contractors.These handbooks were first published as Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals in1985 for use by DOE category A reactors. The subject areas, subject matter content, and levelof detail of the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals were determined from several sources.DOE Category A reactor training managers determined which materials should be included, andserved as a primary reference in the initial development phase. Training guidelines from thecommercial nuclear power industry, results of job and task analyses, and independent input fromcontractors and operations-oriented personnel were all considered and included to some degreein developing the text material and learning objectives.The DOE Fundam entals Handbooks represent the needs of various DOE nuclear facilities'fundamental training requirements. To increase their applicability to nonreactor nuclearfacilities, the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manual learning objectives were distributed to theNuclear Facility Training Coordination Program Steering Committee for review and comment.To update their reactor-specific content, DOE Category A reactor training managers alsoreviewed and commented on the content. On the basis of feedback from these sources,information that applied to two or more DOE nuclear facilities was considered generic and wasincluded. The final draft of each of the handbooks was then reviewed by these two groups.This approach has resulted in revised modular handbooks that contain sufficient detail such thateach facility may adjust the content to fit their specific needs.Each handbook contains an abstract, a foreword, an overview, learning objectives, andtext material, and is divided into modules so that content and order may be modified byindividual DOE contractors to suit their specific training needs. Each handbook is supportedby a separate examination bank with an answer key.The DOE Fundam entals Handbooks have been prepared for the Assistant Secretary forNuclear Energy, Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards, by the DOE TrainingCoordination Program. This program is managed by EG&G Idaho, Inc.Rev. 0PRThis document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS, AND DRAWINGSOVERVIEWThe Departm ent of Energy Fundam entals Handbook entitled Engineering Sym bology,Prints, and Drawings was prepared as an information resource for personnel who are responsiblefor the operation of the Department's nuclear facilities. A basic understanding of engineeringprints and drawings is necessary for DOE nuclear facility operators, maintenance personnel, andthe technical staff to safely operate and maintain the facility and facility support systems. Theinformation in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineeringconcepts to the job. This knowledge will improve personnel understanding of the impact thattheir actions may have on the safe and reliable operation of facility components and systems.The Engineering Sym bology, Prints, and Drawings handbook consists of six modulesthat are contained in two volumes. The following is a brief description of the informationpresented in each module of the handbook.Volume 1 of 2Module 1 - Introduction to Print ReadingThis module introduces each type of drawing and its various formats. It alsoreviews the information contained in the non-drawing areas of a drawing.Module 2 - Engineering Fluid Diagrams and PrintsThis module introduces engineering fluid diagrams and prints (P&IDs); reviewsthe common symbols and conventions used on P&IDs; and provides severalexamples of how to read a P&ID.Module 3 - Electrical Diagrams and SchematicsThis module reviews the major symbols and conventions used on electricalschematics and single line drawings and provides several examples of readingelectrical prints.Rev. 0PRThis document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93ENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS, AND DRAWINGSOVERVIEW (Cont.)Volume 2 of 2Module 4 - Electronic Diagrams and SchematicsThis module reviews electronic schematics and block diagrams. It covers themajor symbols used and provides several examples of reading these types ofdiagrams.Module 5 - Logic DiagramsThis module introduces the basic symbols and common conventions used on logicdiagrams. It explains how logic prints are used to represent a component'scontrol circuits. Truth tables are also briefly discusses and several examples ofreading logic diagrams are provided.Module 6 - Engineering Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural DrawingsThis module reviews fabrication, construction, and architectural drawings andintroduces the symbols and conventions used to dimension and tolerance thesetypes of drawings.The information contained in this handbook is by no means all encompassing. Anattempt to present the entire subject of engineering drawings would be impractical. However,the Engineering Sym bology, Prints, and Drawings handbook does present enough informationto provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advancedtheoretical concepts presented in other subject areas, and to improve understanding of basicsystem operation and equipment operations.Rev. 0PRThis document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

Department of EnergyFundamentals HandbookENGINEERING SYMBOLOGY, PRINTS,AND DRAWINGSModule 1Introduction to Print ReadingThis document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

Introduction To Print ReadingDOE-HDBK-1016/1-93TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiLIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iiiREFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ivOBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vINTRODUCTION TO PRINT READING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Introduction . . . . . . .Anatomy of a DrawingThe Title Block . . . . .Grid System . . . . . . .Revision Block . . . . .Changes . . . . . . . . . .Notes and Legend . . .Summary . . . . . . . . .12256789INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES OF DRAWINGS,VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Categories of Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Piping and Instrument Drawings (P&IDs) . . . . . . . . .Electrical Single Lines and Schematics . . . . . . . . . . .Electronic Diagrams and Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . .Logic Diagrams and Prints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fabrication, Construction, and Architectural DrawingsDrawing Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Views and Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rev. 0.Page iThis document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net.101011131414161922PR-01

LIST OF FIGURESDOE-HDBK-1016/1-93Introduction To Print ReadingLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1 Title Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Figure 2 Example of a Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Figure 3 Revision Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Figure 4 Methods of Denoting Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Figure 5 Notes and Legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Figure 6 Example P&ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Figure 7 Example of a Single Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Figure 8 Example of a Schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Figure 9 Example of an Electronic Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Figure 10 Example of a Logic Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Figure 11 Example of a Fabrication Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Figure 12 Example of a Single Line P&ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Figure 13 Example Pictorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Figure 14 Example of an Assembly Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Figure 15 Example of a Cutaway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Figure 16 Example Orthographic Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Figure 17 Orthographic Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Figure 18 Example of an Isometric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21PR-01Page iiRev. 0This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

Introduction To Print ReadingDOE-HDBK-1016/1-93LIST OF TABLESLIST OF TABLESNONERev. 0Page iiiThis document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.netPR-01

REFERENCESDOE-HDBK-1016/1-93Introduction To Print ReadingREFERENCESANSI Y14.5M - 1982, Dimensioning and Tolerancing, American National StandardsInstitute.ANSI Y32.2 - 1975, Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic Diagrams, AmericanNational Standards Institute.Gasperini, Richard E., Digital Troubleshooting, Movonics Company; Los Altos,California, 1976.Jensen - Helsel, Engineering Drawing and Design, Second Ed., McGraw-Hill BookCompany, New York, 1979.Lenk, John D., Handbook of Logic Circuits, Reston Publishing Company, Reston,Virginia, 1972.Wickes, William E., Logic Design with Integrated Circuits, John Wiley & Sons, Inc,1968.Naval Auxiliary Machinery, United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 1951.TPC Training Systems, Reading Schematics and Symbols, Technical Publishing Company,Barrington, Illinois, 1974.Arnell, Alvin, Standard Graphical Symbols, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1963.George Mashe, Systems Summary of a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor,Westinghouse Electric Corporation, 1971.Zappe, R.W., Valve Selection Handbook, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas,1968.PR-01Page ivRev. 0This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

Introduction To Print ReadingDOE-HDBK-1016/1-93OBJECTIVESTERMINAL OBJECTIVE1.0Given an engineering print, READ and INTERPRET the information contained in thetitle block, the notes and legend, the revision block, and the drawing grid.ENABLING OBJECTIVES1.1STATE the five types of information provided in the title block of an engineeringdrawing.1.2STATE how the grid system on an engineering drawing is used to locate a piece ofequipment.1.3STATE the three types of information provided in the revision block of an engineeringdrawing.1.4STATE the purpose of the notes and legend section of an engineering drawing.1.5LIST the five drawing categories used on engineering drawings.Rev. 0Page vThis document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.netPR-01

DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93Introduction to Print ReadingIntentionally Left Blank.PR-01Page viRev. 0This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net

Introduction To Print ReadingDOE-HDBK-1016/1-93INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READINGINTRODUCTION T O PRINT READINGA through knowledge of the information presented in the title block, the revisionblock, the notes and legend, and the drawing grid is necessary before a drawingcan be read. This information is displayed in the areas surrounding the graphicportion of the drawing.EO 1.1STATE the five types of information provided in the title blockof an engineering drawing.EO 1.2STATE how the grid system on an engineering drawing is usedto locate a piece of equipment.EO 1.3STATE the three types of information provided in the revisionblock of an engineering drawing.EO 1.4STATE the purpose of the notes and legend section of anengineering drawing .IntroductionThe ability to read and understand information contained on drawings is essential to perform mostengineering-related jobs. Engineering drawings are the industry's means of communicatingdetailed and accurate information on how to fabricate, assemble, troubleshoot, repair, and operatea piece of equipment or a system. To understand how to "read" a drawing it is necessary to befamiliar with the standard conventions, rules, and basic symbols used on the various types ofdrawings. But before learning how to read the actual "drawing," an understanding of theinformation contained in the various non-drawing areas of a print is also necessary. This chapterwill address the information most commonly seen in the non-drawing areas of a nuclear gradeengineering type drawing. Because of the extreme variation in format, location of information,and types of information presented on drawings from vendor to vendor and site to site, alldrawings will not necessarily contain the following information or format, but will usually besimilar in nature.In this handbook the terms print, drawing, and diagram are used interchangeably to denote thecomplete drawing. This includes the graphic portion, the title block, the grid system, the revisionblock, and the notes and legend. When the words print, drawing, or diagram, appear in quotes,the word is referring only to the actual graphic portion of the drawing.Rev. 0Page 1This document, and more, is available for download at Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.netPR-01

INTRODUCTION TO PRINT READINGDOE-HDBK-1016/1-93Introduction To Print ReadingAnatomy of a DrawingA generic engineering drawing can be divided into the following five major areas or parts.1.2.3.4.5.Title blockGrid systemRevision blockNotes and legendsEngineering drawing (graphic portion)The information contained in the drawing itself will be covered in subsequent modules. Thismodule will cover the non-drawing portions of a print. The first four parts listed above provideimportant information about the actual drawing. The ability to understand the informationcontained in these areas is as important as being able to read the drawing itself. Failure tounderstand these areas can result in improper use or the misinterpretation of the drawing.The Title BlockThe title block of a drawing, usually located on the bottom or lower right hand corner, containsall the information necessary to identify the drawing and to verify its validity. A title block isdivided into several areas as illustrated by Figure 1.First Area of the Title BlockThe first area of the title block contains the drawing title, the drawing number, and liststhe location, the site, or the vendor. The drawing title and the drawing number are usedfor identification and filing purposes. Usually the number is unique to the drawing andis comprised of a code that contains information about the drawing such as the site,system, and type of drawing. The drawing number may also contain information such asthe sheet number, if the drawing is part of a series, or it may contain the revision level.Drawings are usually filed by their drawing number because the drawing title may becommon to several prints or series of prints.Second Area of the Title BlockThe second area of the title block contains the signatures and approval dates, whichprovide information as to when and by whom the component/system was designed andwhen and by whom the drawing was drafted and verified for final approval. Thisinformation can be invaluable in locating further data on the system/component design oroperation. These names can a

drawing. 1.2 STATE how the grid system on an engineering drawing is used to locate a piece of equipment. 1.3 STATE the three types of information provided in the revision block of an engineering drawing. 1.4 STATE the purpose of the notes and legend section of an engineering drawing. 1.5 LIST the five drawing categories used on engineering .

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