The Tools Of Geography - Nisdtx

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CHA PTER1The Tools of Geography1.1 IntroductionIn the early 1800s, the United States was just beginning to expand westacross North America. No American had ever crossed the territory that laywest of the Mississippi River. This vast area was mostly a mysterious blankspace on the map.To find out about this unknown territory, President Thomas Jefferson sentMeriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the western frontier. Lewisand Clark led a team of explorers on a two-year expedition to the PacificOcean. The team mapped mountains and rivers as they crossed them. Theycollected samples of wildlife and plants that they had never seen before.The explorers also met the Native Americans of the West and learned howthey lived.In many ways, today’s geographers are explorers like Lewis and Clark.They study the natural features of the land, the sea, and even the sky above.They try to understand the way people interact with the world around them.For example, they look at where people choose to live and why. They studythe way people use Earth’s resources, such as forests, water, and minerals.They explore the advantages that come with living in cities or in the country.Often geographers use maps as a basic tool for recording information andmaking new discoveries.In this chapter, you will learn how to use different kinds of maps. Youwill see how maps can illustrate information about people and places onEarth. You will then put these tools to use in your own study of geography.Graphic OrganizerEssential QuestionHow do geographers showinformation on maps?A geographer made thismap to show informationabout the world. The words,lines, and symbols are cluesfrom the geographer to helpyou make sense of the map.Keep this map and its cluesin mind as you try to answerthe Essential Question.Physical Features of the WorldNWESElevationsFeetOver 1,000Antique map and sundial compassMetersOver 0 3,000 miles03,000 kilometersGoode’s Homolosine projection11

UNIT1The Geographer’sWorldLesson 1The Tools of GeographyLesson 2Seeing the World Likea Geographer

Lesson1The Tools of GeographyOverviewIn this lesson, students acquire the basic map-reading skills theywill need for success in this program. Working in pairs, studentsstudy maps in a Social Studies Skill Builder, learning the difference between absolute and relative location; locating majorparallels and meridians; determining location with lines of latitude and longitude; measuring distance using scale; reviewinghemispheres, continents, and oceans; and learning about Earthsun relations and the relative merits of various map projections.ObjectivesStudents will define and explain the importance of these key geographicterms: absolute location, distortion, map projection, relativelocation. understand the difference between absolute and relativelocation. locate major parallels and meridians. use latitude and longitude to determine absolute location. measure distance using scale. identify continents and oceans for a given hemisphere. understand how Earth-sun relations cause seasons. understand the relative merits of five map projections(Mercator, Eckert IV, Robinson, Goode’s Homolosine, andLambert Equal-Area). design a map with basic map components (title, legend,compass rose, grid system, scale).Materials Geography Alive! Regions and PeopleInteractive Student NotebooksTransparencies 1A–1IStudent Handout 1A (3 copies)Student Handout 1B (17 copies)Student Handouts 1C and 1D (2 copies of each)Student Handout 1E (1 per student)Student Handouts 1F–1K (2 copies of each, cut apart)CD Track 1masking tapecolored pencils or markersThe Tools of Geography5

Lesson1Preview1 Prepare materials. On the back of each of the 3 copies ofStudent Handout 1A: Gold Deposits, write any number from 1to 20. On the back of each of the 17 copies of Student Handout1B: Dirt, write the remaining numbers from 1 to 20. Use eachnumber only once.2 Arrange the classroom. Create a grid in the classroom byevenly spacing one set of coordinates cut from Student Handout1C: Latitude Coordinates in order along the right wall and thesecond set along the left wall. Then evenly space the coordinatescut from Student Handout 1D: Longitude Coordinates in orderalong the front and back walls. (Note: It is important that thesecoordinates can be seen by but are not necessarily obvious tostudents. When students enter the room, do not point them out.)Tape each copy of Student Handout 1A, face up, to the floor atthree exact coordinates of your choice.Student Handouts 1A–1Dgold placed at exact coordinates3 Meet with students outside the classroom and dividethem into mixed-ability pairs. In each pair, designate aCartographer and a Geologist. Explain that the classroom hasbeen transformed into a “Siberian wilderness” that containsvaluable deposits of gold. The students will enter the site atdifferent times. Cartographers will enter first. Their task willbe to map the site for the Geologists. Cartographers will thengive their maps to the Geologists, who will enter the room anduse the maps to search for the gold deposits.4 Pass out Student Handout 1E: About Gold. Explain that,while Geologists are waiting outside the classroom, they mustread and take notes on the handout, which contains importanthints that could help them locate gold deposits. (Note: Thehandout will also serve to keep students busy while their partnersare in the classroom.)6Lesson 1Student Handout 1E

Lesson15 Have Cartographers enter the classroom to map the site.Give each Cartographer a sheet of paper, and explain that theycan use any method they like to map the locations of the threegold deposits they discover. They will have five minutes. Theirmaps must be as accurate as possible because they are what theGeologists will use to search for the gold. To create a morerealistic atmosphere, play CD Track 1, “Siberia Sound Effects,”and project Transparency 1A: Siberia Wilderness as you allowCartographers to enter the room and begin making their maps.(Note: It is likely that most students will not think of using thecoordinates on the walls to add a grid to their maps.)Transparency 1A6 Have Cartographers leave the classroom. After five minutes, have Cartographers stop drawing and exit the classroom.Ask them to record their own and their partner’s names on theirmaps. Collect the maps, and have Cartographers begin readingStudent Handout 1E. Tell students not to talk with their partners.7 Rearrange the classroom. Move some of the desks andchairs to look as though a snowstorm has hit the site. Turn eachcopy of Student Handout 1A over, retaping them to the floor atthe same coordinates. Place several copies Student Handout 1Bface down and clustered nearby. Arrange the remaining copiesof Student Handout 1B face down throughout the classroom.Tape the sheets to the floor so students cannot lift them up. Youmay even want to move desks or chairs over some of the papers.8 Have Geologists enter the classroom to search for gold.Tell students that a terrible snowstorm has covered the landscape with snow and debris. Then tell Geologists they will haveonly one minute to explore the site. When they enter the site,they will use their maps to select and write down the three numbers that they think represent the gold deposits. Distribute themaps to the Geologists, and allow them to enter the room. PlayCD Track 1 and project Transparency 1A to create a more realistic atmosphere. Geologists may walk around the classroom,but explain that they may not touch the sheets of paper as theyare “covered in snow.” Expect most students to struggle withfollowing their partners’ maps. The one or two students whoused the coordinates to add a grid to their maps should easilylocate the gold deposits.9 Have Cartographers enter the classroom. After one minute,ask Geologists to stop searching, and invite Cartographers torejoin their partners. Expect the Cartographers to be confusedwhen they see the classroom after the “snowstorm” that has hitthe site.The Tools of Geography7

Lesson110 Reveal where the gold deposits are located. Have studentsstand along the walls of the room as you reveal the locations ofthe gold deposits. Move any furniture covering the papers. Oneat a time, remove the tape from the papers and show studentswhat is on the other side. Finally, call attention to the pairs ofstudents who correctly identified some or all of the gold deposits.11 Debrief the experience. Encourage students to share theirmaps as you lead a discussion about the experience using thesequestions: Ask Geologists: How did it feel to use your partner’s map tosearch for the gold? What was helpful about the map? Howcould it have been improved? How did it feel to rely on amap that someone else drew? Which teams located the mostgold deposits? What made them successful? Ask Cartographers: What methods did you use to map thesite? Did any of you use the numbers on the walls? If so, didit help the Geologists to find the gold? What other helpfulcomponents did you include on your maps? If you had todraw another map of the site, what would you do differently? Ask the class: What do the numbers on the walls represent?Where have you seen latitude and longitude before? Whydo you think using latitude and longitude to find locationis helpful to geologists and other people? What othercomponents make maps easier to use?(Note: After the debriefing, you may want to conduct the activity again to allow all Cartographers to use the coordinates to adda grid to their maps. This may be especially useful if studentsstruggled with the third set of questions above.)12 Explain the connection between the Preview and theupcoming activity. Tell students that geographers have manyways to show location on a map. One is by using lines of latitude and longitude. With these, geographers can show the exact,or absolute, location of something even if the landscape changesin some way. Point out that the maps that used the numbers onthe classroom walls clearly indicated the locations of the golddeposits even after the snowstorm hit. In the upcoming activity,students will learn how to use latitude and longitude to findabsolute location. They will also discover the importance ofother map components, such as scale.8Lesson 1

Lesson1Essential Question and Geoterms1 Introduce Chapter 1 in Geography Alive! Regions andPeople. Explain that in this chapter, students will learn howto read maps. Have them read Section 1.1. Then ask, In what ways are today’s geographers similar to theexplorers Lewis and Clark? How do today’s geographers use maps?2 Introduce the Graphic Organizer and the EssentialQuestion. Have students examine the illustration, which is aphysical map of the world. Ask, What do you see? How did the maker of this map choose to draw the world? Why do you think the mapmaker would draw the world inthis way? What components does this map have? What other components make maps useful?Have students read the accompanying text. Make sure theyunderstand the Essential Question, How do geographers showinformation on maps? You may want to post the EssentialQuestion in the classroom or write it on the board for theduration of this activity.3 Have students read Section 1.2. Then have them work individually or in pairs to complete Geoterms 1 in their InteractiveStudent Notebooks. Have them share their answers in pairs, orhave volunteers share their answers with the class.Geoterms 1Social Studies Skill BuilderNote: This activity has six phases, covering six topics: (1) basicmap components, (2) latitude and longitude, (3) scale, (4) hemispheres, continents, and oceans, (5) Earth-sun relations, and(6) map projections. You may want to allow one class period toteach each skill. Alternatively, you might modify or eliminate aphase depending on your students’ skill level.1 Prepare materials and arrange the classroom. Beforeclass, cut apart two copies each of Student Handouts 1F–1K.Place the cards in six piles, one for each phase of the activity.2 Divide students into mixed-ability pairs. Have studentsarrange their desks so that pairs can easily talk among themselves and clearly see the projected transparencies.Student Handouts 1F–1KThe Tools of Geography9

Lesson1Phase 1: Map Titles and Symbols1 Project Transparency 1B: Basic Map Components.Explain that students will now learn the basic components of amap, which you will introduce by asking a series of questions.Have students turn to Section 1.3 of Reading Notes 1 in theirInteractive Student Notebooks. Have several volunteers respondto these questions as you point to various parts of the map: Which map component tells us the subject of the map?The title tells us this is the Marshall Gold Discovery StateHistoric Park. Which map component tells us the pieces of information wecan learn from this map? The legend tells us that we canlearn the locations of paved roads, footpaths, picnic areas,historical monuments, and park buildings. Put your pencil on your map so that it points north. Nowpoint it south, east, and then west. What do we call thesefour points? cardinal directions Put your pencil on your map so that it points southeast,northeast, southwest, and then northwest. What do we callthese four points? intermediate directions What map component indicates direction? the compass rose (Point to the grid lines.) What do we call this map component? the map grid (Point to the Gold Discovery Museum.) How can we usethe map grid to give the location of the Gold DiscoveryMuseum? State the grid coordinates E5 or E6. (Point to the Gold Discovery Museum and then to theSawmill Replica.) How can you tell someone to get to theGold Discovery Museum from the Sawmill Replica withoutusing the map grid? Possible answer: Go left along the footpath, cross Main Street, and continue on the footpath untilyou see the museum. (Point to the Gold Discovery Museum and then to theThomas House.) How can you tell someone to get to theGold Discovery Museum from the Thomas House withoutusing the map grid? Possible answer: Go left on High Street,and turn left onto Back Street. At the intersection of Backand Bridge streets, you will see the museum. Why are these directions different if the location of the GoldDiscovery Museum has not changed? We are giving directions relative to our starting point. Explain that this is calledrelative location. Why is the map grid helpful? The map grid gives exact, orabsolute, location.10Lesson 1Transparency 1BReading Notes 1

Lesson12 Have students read Section 1.3.3 Have students respond to cards cut from Student Handout1F: Phase 1 Cards. Give one card to each pair of students.Have them respond to the cards by labeling the map in theirReading Notes in the correct locations with (1) the number ofthe card and (2) the answer.4 Check students’ work. When a pair finishes with a card,have both students raise their hands. Use Guide to ReadingNotes 1 to check their answers and award them points (optional).Continue until most pairs have had a chance to respond to all ofthe cards.Phase 2: The Global Grid: Latitude and Longitude1 Project Transparency 1C: Parallels of Latitude andMeridians of Longitude. Tell students that they will now learnhow to use latitude and longitude to determine absolute location. Introduce the skill by asking this series of questions: What are the lines that circle Earth called? Parallels of latitude. Explain that they have this name because the distancebetween them is always the same. In what direction do parallels circle Earth? east to west (Point to the equator.) What is this parallel called? Why isit important? The equator; it serves as a reference whenmeasuring parallels of latitude. How do we measure parallels of latitude? With degrees.Explain that parallels are measured in degrees because theyare angular measurements. If you move north from the equator, a parallel of latitude is x degrees north, or x N. If youmove south from the equator, a parallel of latitude is xdegrees south, or x S. As you move away from the equator ineither direction, the parallels of latitude become higher innumber because the angles get larger. The farthest pointnorth is 90 N, which is the North Pole. The farthest pointsouth is 90 S, which is the South Pole. What are the lines that run from the North Pole to the SouthPole called? Meridians of longitude. Explain that, unlikeparallels of latitude, the distance between them varies. (Point to the prime meridian.) What is this meridian called?Why is it important? The prime meridian; it serves as areference when measuring meridians of longitude. How do we measure meridians of longitude? With degrees.Point out that these are also angular measurements. If youmove east from the prime meridian, a meridian of longitudeTransparency 1CThe Tools of Geography11

Lesson1is x E. If you move west from the prime meridian, a meridianof longitude x W. As you move away from the prime meridianin either direction, the meridians of longitude become higherin number because the angles get larger. The farthest pointeast is 180 E. The farthest point west is 180 W, which isthe same line as 180 E. This line is called the InternationalDate Line.2 Project Transparency 1D: Latitude and Longitude. Havestudents turn to Section 1.4 of their Reading Notes, and continue the discussion by asking this second series of questions: (Point to the grid lines on the map.) What do we call thismap component? A map grid. Explain that this is a specialgrid system, called the global grid, with unique characteristics that you will now review. What do we call the lines that run east to west on a map?parallels of latitude Where do we begin and end the measuring of parallels oflatitude? We begin at the equator and end 90 north andsouth of the equator. What do we call the lines that run north to south? meridiansof longitude Where do we begin and end the measuring of meridians oflongitude? We begin at the prime meridian and end 180 east and west of the prime meridian. (Point to the spot at coordinates 45 N, 105 W.) How canyou use longitude and latitude to identify this location?Use the coordinates 45 degrees north latitude, 105 degreeseast longitude. What will you find at 30 S, 135 E? Australia3 Repeat Steps 2–4 from Phase 1. Have students readSection 1.4. As before, have pairs complete the cards cut fromStudent Handout 1G: Phase 2 Cards.12Lesson 1Transparency 1DReading Notes 1

Lesson1Phase 3: Dealing with Distances: Map Scale1 Project Transparency 1E: Scale. Tell students they willnow learn how to measure distance using scale. Have studentsturn to Section 1.5 of their Reading Notes, and introduce theconcept by asking this series of questions: What is similar about each of these maps? Possible answer:Both show Washington, D.C., and Route 395. What is different about the maps? Possible answer: Thelower map has more streets labeled. If both maps show Washington, D.C., why are they different?They use different scales. What does the scale tell us? It tells how the map size compares to the real size of the landscape. It also allows us tomeasure distance. What is the scale of the upper map? Every 12 1 inches represent 10 miles. Every 1 inch represents 10 kilometers. What is the scale of the lower map? Every 12 1 inches repre 3sent 0.5 mile. Every 4 inch represents 0.5 kilometer. Which map is more useful in finding the distance betweenArlington, Virginia, and Washington, D.C.? Why? The uppermap because it has a smaller scale. It shows Washington,D.C., and its surrounding areas.Transparency 1EReading Notes 1 Which map is more useful in finding the distance betweenthe Lincoln and Jefferson memorials? Why? The lower mapbecause it has a larger scale. It shows a more focused areaof Washington, D.C. (Demonstrate how to use a straightedge, such as an indexcard, to measure distance. Align the straightedge to th

Geography Alive! Regions and People Interactive Student Notebooks Transparencies 1A–1I Student Handout 1A(3 copies) Student Handout 1B (17 copies) Student Handouts 1C and 1D (2 copies of each) Student Handout 1E (1 per student) Student Handouts 1F–1K (2 copies of each, cut apart) CD Track 1 masking tape

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