Staunton Waynesboro Occupied W Winchester

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FmonRSECOND WINCHESTERWinchester THIRD WINCHESTERFIRST WINCHESTERSECOND KERNSTOWNCOOL SPRINGFIRST KERNSTOWNCEDAR CREEK & BELLE GROVE CEDAR CREEKNATIONAL HISTORIC PARKFISHER’S HILLStrasburgFRONT ROYALTOM’S BROOKEWinchester in c l ud i n g a r e a s o f F r e d e r i ck and C l ark e cou nt iesFront RoyalNEW MARKET BATTLEFIELDSTATE HISTORICAL PARK NEW MARKET LurayNew MarketHarrisonburgMontereyElktonCROSS KEYSPORT roOccupiedWinchesterWinchester is in the northern, or lower, Shenandoah Valley.Formed by the Appalachians to the west and the Blue Ridgeto the east, the Valley shelters the Shenandoah River on itsjourney down to the Potomac at Harpers Ferry.The Valley’s natural corridor formed by the river also spawned the 19thcentury Valley Pike (modern-day US 11), along which both commerceand armies traveled. In contemporary times, Interstate 81 hasreplaced the Pike as the principal transportation route, bringing bothopportunities and challenges to the interpretation of Civil War history.To the embattled and hard-pressed South, the Shenandoah Valley was aland of plenty—filled with grain, dotted with mills and linked by roadand rail with a main theatre of war across the Blue Ridge. The Valleyalso had abundant strategic options to offer to Confederate generals.Indeed, as Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson said, “If this Valley islost, Virginia is lost.”As a gateway to the Valley, Winchester became a battleground fromthe very beginning. Despite its great importance—or because of it—Winchester proved impossible to defend. The number of times thetown changed hands during the war—perhaps more than 72 times—istoday a matter of local htheToday, vestiges of the Civil War remain in Winchester and Frederickand Clarke counties. The voices of wounded and captured soldiers echoww

ehe.adshoFighting commenced quite early thismorning and cannonading has been goingon all day to the east of us on the BerryvilleRoad, but a mile or two from town.– Julia Chase, Winchester residentSeptember 19, 1864Winchester AreaBattlefieldsFirst KernstownMarch 23, 1862Jackson’s Valley CampaignFirst WinchesterMay 25, 1862Jackson’s Valley CampaignSecond WinchesterJune 13-15, 1863Lee’s Gettysburg Campaignthrough the county courthouse, where their graffiti is still visible. Thecourthouse is now a museum open to the public, as is the house thatserved as Stonewall Jackson’s Headquarters the winter before his famous1862 Valley Campaign. Throughout the region, historic farms, homes,mills, and cemeteries, along with outstanding museums and interpretedsites, all help tell the powerful history and moving legacy of the war.Visitors can walk the battlefields at Kernstown, Cool Spring, and Secondand Third Winchester and learn how Jackson, Robert E. Lee, Jubal Early,and Philip Sheridan shaped the course of the war. Scattered throughoutthe region are the stories of the war’s effect on the Valley’s civilianpopulation—how these families survived the personal and economicdevastation that war brought, and how they rebuilt their lives in theyears after the guns fell silent.You may want to begin your visit at the National Historic Districtorientation center in the Winchester area ( ? on the map, next page),which can help guide you to the host of sites where you can experiencethe region’s dramatic Civil War story today.Cool SpringJuly 17-18, 1864Early’s Maryland CampaignRutherford’s FarmJuly 20, 1864Early’s Maryland CampaignSecond KernstownJuly 24, 1864Early’s Maryland CampaignBerryvilleSeptember 3, 1864Sheridan’s Shenandoah CampaignThird WinchesterSeptember 19, 1864Sheridan’s Shenandoah CampaignIn the courtyard were two pieces of artillery,twelve pounders, taken from the enemy. In thevestibule lay thirteen deadbodies of United States soldiersand the courtroom was filled toits capacity with wounded – David Hunter Strother, Union staff officerMarch 1862www.ShenandoahAtWar.org21

Winchester AreaOld Charles Town RoaVisitor Informationd1923B ATTLE OFR UTHERFORD F ARM 11 S ECOND & T HIRDB ATTLES OF W INCHESTER37522Third WinchesterOrientation CenterdRdtinsburgPikeRedbuT HIRD B ATTLEOF W INCHESTER26507Exit 31537Detail Map of Downtowny Rd1 Old Court House Civil War MuseumMuseum: 1840 courthouse used as prison and hospital during the Civil War.Exhibits include original soldiers’ graffiti on the courthouse walls and morethan 3,000 artifacts. 20 N. Loudon Street, Winchester Open Wed-Sat, 10am-5pm; Sun 1-5pm2 Museum of the Shenandoah ValleyMuseum: Complex that includes a historic house, six acres of spectaculargardens, and a museum that tells the story of the Shenandoah Valley’s art,history and culture. Museum offers 11 gallery rooms—including a Civil Warroom—as well as a museum store and a café. 901 Amherst Street, Winchester Open Tues-Sun, 10am-4pm (Museum year-round;house and gardens March-November)3 Historic Old Town Winchester45-block National Register historic district and pedestrian walking mall filledwith shops and cafes. 540-535-36611). (US 1.eron StN. Loudoun St.dock StN. Bradan MallPedestriHandley45S. KentSt.eron StS. Camoun St.l Ave. (Va 7)Ave.11)50S. Loudn St.Millwood(US122551 14Nationa0)Civil WarTrails Sites11Pet-Friendly SitesAdmission FeeGroup Tour Arrangements Available11yAve.White Post1722Valle34020StewarBoyce7B ATTLE OFC OOL S PRING3Cork St.ock St.1021S. Bradd340Berryville9en St.t St.7BoscawEast Lane2Washingto52211Exit 310N. CameValley Avd7S 50)y St.Jones Rbattlefield area13t St. (UB ATTLE OFB ERRYVILLE8137 AmhersPiccadillF IRST & S ECONDB ATTLES OF K16ERNSTOWN t Ave. (U50 17ClarkeCounty Areale RFairmonExit 313ddMid15Sensen81Civil WarOrientation Center11)622ade (Rt.Cedar Creek Gr6S 522)PleasantValleyRd27F IRST & S ECONDB ATTLES OF W INCHESTERUS 5ve. (ood A22258MillwWinchester Area Civil War SitesMarS ECOND B ATTLEOF W INCHESTER241118Civil War Orientation Center &Winchester-Frederick CountyVisitor Center1400 S. Pleasant Valley RoadWinchester, Virginia 22601877-871-1326Open daily – 9:00am to 5:00pmMilburExit 31717?n Rd814 National CemeteryCemetery: Final resting place for Union soldiers from the battlesof Winchester, New Market, Front Royal, Cool Spring, Harper’sFerry, Martinsburg, and Romney.401 National Avenue, Winchester r.aspOpen daily during daylight hours.5 Stonewall Cemetery, Mt. HebronComplexCemetery: Historic cemetery with gravestones dating to the 1760s,including Civil War soldiers, generals, governors, and patriots.305 E. Boscawen Street, Winchester Open during daylight hours.6 Abram’s DelightInterpretive Signage: Wartime experiences of the Hollingsworth family,who lived in Abram’s Delight, the oldest dwelling in Winchester.1340 S. Pleasant Valley Rd., Winchester 540-662-6519 Apr-Oct,Mon-Sat 10am-4pm; Sun 12-4pm www.winchesterhistory.orgww

a 7)7 Newtown History Center Museum: Interprets the history of this 250-year-old town: frontier settlementand growth, wagon industry and craftsmen, and Civil War conflicts.5408 Main St, Stephens City 540-869-1700 www.newtownhistorycenter.orgJun-Aug: Tues-Sat 10am - 4pm; Sun 1pm-5pm. Sept-Nov: Wed-Sat,10am-4pm; Sun 1pm - 5pm (*Open by appointment in winter.)8 Jordan SpringsInterpretive Signage: Centered on the nearby spring waters, site of an early1800s resort that occasionally served as a hospital during the war.Jordan Springs Road (VA 664), northeast of Winchester9 Clarke County Historical Association MuseumMuseum: Features ‘Our Land Is Our Legacy,’ a multi-media exhibit telling 300years of Clarke County history, land use and preservation, and rural culture.32 East Main Street, Berryville 540-955-2600 www.clarkehistory.orgOpen Tues-Fri 11am-4pm; Sat by appointment only Free10 Josephine School Community MuseumMuseum: Housed in an 1882 school built by former slaves and free coloredpeople, the museum tells the stories of 270 years of African-Americancontributions to the county.303 Josephine Street, Berryville 540-955-5512 www.jschoolmuseum.orgOpen every Sunday 1-3 pm and by appointment11 The Burwell-Morgan MillHistoric Site: Built in 1785, one of the oldest operating gristmills in the country,grinding corn and wheat every Saturday from May through November.15 Tannery Lane, Millwood 540-837-1799 www.clarkehistory.orgOpen May-Nov, Sat 10am-5pm, Fri and Sun 12-5pm. 12 Long Branch Historic House and FarmHistoric Site: House begun ca. 1810, with interiors finished in the 1840’s inelaborate Minard Lafever Egyptian-Revival style by Maj. Hugh M. Nelson, CSA.400 acres, English gardens. Open May-November, Wednesday-Sunday 1-4 830 Long Branch Lane, Millwood 540-837-1856 www.visitlongbranch.comJackson’s 1862 Valley CampaignFirst Battle of Kernstown and First Battle of Winchester Pages 6-913 Stonewall Jackson Headquarters MuseumMuseum: This home served as Jackson’s headquarters during the winter of1861-62; museum houses one of the largest collections of Jackson memorabilia.415 N. Braddock St, Winchester 540-667-5505 www.winchesterhistory.orgOpen Apr-Oct, Mon-Sat 10am-4pm; Sun 12-4pm 14 Winchester – The Valley CampaignsInterpretive Signage: Overview of Winchester’s strategic importance duringthe war, and its role during the 1862 and 1864 campaigns2 North Cameron St., Winchester15 Kernstown Battlefield – Rose Hill FarmBattlefield Area: Site of the closing phases of First Kernstown; features onemile walking tour with interpretive signs telling the battle’s story. 1850 Jones Road, Winchester 888-556-5799 hill.html Site open on select days and by appointment16 Kernstown Battlefield – Pritchard FarmBattlefield Area: 250-year-old, 315-acre farm was the center of the First andSecond Battles of Kernstown. Visitor center, exhibits, and walking tours.610 Battle Park Drive, Winchester 540-869-2896 Open May-Oct, Sat 10am-4pm, Sun 12-4pm.Lee’s 1863 Gettysburg CampaignSecond Battle of Winchester Pages 10-1117 Second Battle of WinchesterInterpretive Signage: Describing action around three defensive forts northwestof the city.US 522 (parking lot of the Virginia Farm Market), northwest of Winchesterwww.ShenandoahAtWar.org18 Star FortBattlefield Area: Site of one of the last remaining defensive forts ringing thecity of Winchester. Walking trail with interpretive signage.Fortress Drive and US 522, Winchester19 Stephenson’s DepotInterpretive Signage: Describing action at Stephenson’s Depot during theSecond and Third Battles of Winchester.US 11 at Old Charles Town and Milburn Roads, north of WinchesterEarly’s Maryland CampaignBattle of Cool Spring and Second Battle of Kernstown Pages 14-1520 Battle of Cool SpringInterpretive Signage: Describes the July 18, 1864 Confederate victory whenUnion troops attacked Jubal Early’s rearguard during his withdrawal back tothe Valley after threatening Washington, D.C.Intersection of Castleman’s Road (Va. 603) and Va 721 Holy Cross AbbeyBattlefield Area: Site of the Battle of Cool Spring.North of Va 7 on the west bank of the Shenandoah River in ClarkeCounty 540-995-1425Abbey visitor center open year-round. Battlefield by appointment.22 Battle of Cool Spring - Walking TrailBattlefield Area: Walking trail with interpretive markers. Take Parker Lanenorth for approximately 1.5 miles to the parking area.23 Battle of Rutherford’s FarmInterpretive Signage: Describing the Union victory in the July 20, 1864 battlenorth of Winchester. Pull-off for markers north of US 11.16 Kernstown Battlefield – Pritchard Farm*Sheridan’s 1864 Shenandoah CampaignThird Battle of Winchester Pages 16-1924 Third Winchester Orientation CenterBattlefield Orientation: Interpretive panels and exhibits provide historical andvisistor-related information for Third Winchester battlefield sites throughoutWinchester, Frederick County, and Clarke County. www.ShenandoahAtWar.orgRedbud Road, east of US11. (Across from parking lot.) 540-740-454525 Third Winchester Battlefield ParkBattlefield Area: Miles of interpretive trails take visitors through areas thatsaw some of the fiercest fighting of the battle – and the entire war – includingArtillery Knoll, First Woods, and the Middle Field.Parking lot on Redbud Rd, east of US11. Open dawn to dusk.19 Stephenson’s Depot*26 Fort Collier Civil War CenterBattlefield Area: Focal point of one of the war’s largest cavalry charges; 10acre site includes interpretive signage, earthworks, and historic Stine House.922 Martinsburg Pike, Winchester 540-662-2281 www.fortcollier.comSite open dawn to dusk for self-guided tours. House open by appointment.27 Sheridan’s Field Hospital at Shawnee SpringsInterpretive Signage: Site of the largest field hospital of the war; includesearthen remains of the state-of-the-art tent heating system.Corner of Opequon Avenue and Hollingsworth Drive,*Please see previous listing (same number) for site information.Self-guided Tours Free printed driving tours of the FirstBattle of Kernstown, First Battle of Winchester, and the Third Battle ofWinchester are available at the visitor center and other Civil War sites.Walking tours of the downtown area are also available.23

.teeaSECOND WINCHESTERWinchester THIRD WINCHESTERFIRST WINCHESTERSECOND KERNSTOWNCOOL SPRINGFIRST KERNSTOWNCEDAR CREEK & BELLE GROVE CEDAR CREEKNATIONAL HISTORIC PARKFISHER’S HILLStrasburgFRONT ROYALTOM’S BROOKEin cl u d i n g M i d d l e t o wn , S t r a sbu rg, and F r ont R oy alFront RoyalNEW MARKET BATTLEFIELDSTATE HISTORICAL PARK NEW MARKET LurayNew MarketHarrisonburgMontereyMCDOWELLSignal Knob24ElktonCROSS KEYSPORT REPUBLICMcDowellStauntonPIEDMONTWaynesboroSignal KnobThe Valley’sWitness toTragedyCedar Creek and Belle GroveNational Historical ParkFree self-guided tour brochures,interpretive materials,and Ranger Programs areavailable from the NationalPark Service (NPS). Startyour visit at the NPS VisitorContact Station (see listing#1 on page 26) at 7712 Main St.,Middletown; call 540-869-3051 formore information. See listings for BelleGrove Plantation (#4) and Cedar CreekBattlefield Foundation Headquarters(#29) for information about visitingpartner-operated historic sites withinthe park. Contact the park at 540-8693051 or website forinformation, schedules and brochures.Confederate observers on Signal Knob at the north tip ofMassanutten Mountain were in a position to view battlesand movements in three counties throughout the Civil War.The Massanutten is a 60-mile-long, north-south range that splits theShenandoah Valley along its spine from Strasburg to Harrisonburg.Front Royal on the east and Strasburg on the west are located at narrowsformed by the mountain and the two forks of the Shenandoah River.These choke points channeled opposing armies’ movements andinfluenced commanders’ operational decisions throughout the war.The terrain explains why some of the largest and most significant battlesof the Valley’s 1862 and 1864 campaigns occurred within sight of SignalKnob.verRidCoTodmiretFrothatellthevissiteIn 1862, Confederate Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson used theMassanutten to screen his movement northward, successfully attackinga small Union garrison that was stationed at Front Royal, disconnectedfrom the larger Federal force at Strasburg. Weakened, the northernerslost to Jackson again at Winchester two days later.In the fall of 1864, Confederates under Gen. Jubal Early made a futilestand at Fisher’s Hill on the west side of Signal Knob after suffering astinging defeat at Winchester just days earlier. After watching Unionforces lay waste to the Valley’s bounty, Early’s cavalry attacked theFederals at Tom’s Brook but was forced to retreat. Finally, Early usedSignal Knob as a vantage point from which to plan a surprise attackon Union forces encamped around Cedar Creek—an assault that cameww

wslesnalgde.every piece of artillery, every wagon andtent and supporting line of troops were ineasy range of our vision.—Confederate Gen. John B. GordonObserving from Signal Knob before the Battle of Cedar CreekOctober 1864Signal Knob AreaBattlefieldsFront RoyalMay 23, 1862Jackson’s Valley CampaignManassas Gapvery close to succeeding in one of the largest battles west of the BlueRidge. The decisive Battle of Cedar Creek effectively ended the majorConfederate war effort in the Shenandoah Valley.July 23, 1863Lee’s Gettysburg CampaignGuard HillToday, the road networks are much the same, and vestiges of thesemilitary events have survived sufficiently to allow modern visitors toretrace these famous campaigns.August 16, 1864Sheridan’s Shenandoah CampaignFisher’s HillSeptember 22, 1864Sheridan’s Shenandoah CampaignFront Royal and the Cedar Creek battlefield each have visitor facilitiesthat help explain Civil War events, while Belle Grove Plantation cantell you about life in the antebellum era. With information provided atthese places about walking trails, driving tours, and interpretive signage,visitors can walk parts of these and other battlefields and explore thesites that tell this part of the Shenandoah Valley’s Civil War story.Tom’s BrookOctober 9, 1864Sheridan’s Shenandoah CampaignCedar CreekOctober 19, 1864Sheridan’s Shenandoah CampaignSelf-guided ToursFree printed driving tours of the Battles of Cedar Creek, Fisher’s Hill, and FrontRoyal are available at the visitor centers in this area and other Civil War sites.Walking tours of Front Royal and Strasburg are also available. A podcast tour ofthe Battle of Cedar Creek is available at and at back quick and tell him that the YankeeForce is very small, one regiment of Marylandinfantry.Tell him I know, for I went throughthe camps and got it out of an officer.—Belle Boyd, Resident of Front RoyalMay 23, 1862www.ShenandoahAtWar.org25

81Signal Knob Area? Visitor Information?Stephens City55i ns22unt aB ATTLE OFC EDAR C REEKMiddletownCOAH COl leA23Exit 618rveRiahengFront RoyalaintouMennnadork340B ATTLE OFM ILFORD2411arsDetail Map ofFront RoyalhallHwSha n u ttN. Ma ssE . K inolo’s M il l R dShenandoveah Rir17522340165514th Stg StenandoahRivee e kC r--S. HanwmForkShenand oah AverkBy StFothSou5l i darthen StyNoahRittnusaasMFothuSo55915rH a p p yN. Royal AveSandyHookRd555226St7 20Sta ins te rW. MChea l AveAv eS. RoySt8erce1314?mmE. Ma inCobattlefield areanational parksnational forestSouth St55340522 Civil War Trails Sites Pet-Friendly Sites Admission Fee55nRa?eShDetail Map of Strasburg1121B ATTLE OFF RONT R OYALdoanenShrkFohrtNoExit 28334019552WoodstockW. Wa sh ing to nStW. K ing St52266Signal Knob268127WARREN COCedar Creek & Belle GroveNational Historical ParkStrasburg30 25B ATTLE OFT OM’S B ROOKToms Brook?FREDERICK CO28Exit 2911110nMSignal Knob Area Civil War SitesgExit 296 Group TourArrangementsAvailable11rve12Front Royal Visitor Center414 E Main St, Front,Open daily – 9am to 5pmShenandoah County Tourism600 N Main St, Ste 101, Woodstock888-367-3965www.shenandoahtravel.orgOpen Mon-Fri – 8:30am to 5pm5221 NPS Visitor Contact StationMuseum: Interprets the history of the valley,concentrating on the Civil War and CedarCreek. Includes fiber optic map. 7712 Main St,Middletown. 540-869-3051. Mar to early Nov, 9am-4:30pm; Nov-Mar,Wed-Sun 10am-4pm, closed Mon-Tue.ShenandoahNational Park2 Signal Knob Hiking TrailHiking trail: Rigorous ten-mile hike within theGeorge Washington National Forest. TrailheadFort Valley Rd, south of Va 55. Newtown History CenterMuseum: Interprets the history of this 250-year-old town, now knownas Stephens City: frontier settlement and growth, wagon industry andcraftsmen, and Civil War conflicts. 5408 Main St, Stephens City 540-869-1700 www.newtownhistorycenter.orgJune-Aug: Tues-Sat 10am - 4pm; Sun 1pm-5pm. Sept-Nov: WedSat, 10am-4pm; Sun 1pm - 5pm (*Open by appointment in winter.)4 Belle Grove PlantationHistoric house and farm: This 18th century farm and antebellum plantation reveal Shenandoah Valley life during the years prior to and duringthe Civil War. The Battle of Cedar Creek was fought on and around theplantation’s ground.336 Belle Grove Rd, Middletown, 540-869-2028 www.bellegrove.orgLate March to early Nov: Mon-Sat: 10am-4pm; Sun 1pm-5pm; weekends only in Nov; Dec holiday tours; open by appt. Jan-March5 Strasburg MuseumMuseum: Interprets local history, pre-settlement to 20th century. 1891building originally used as a pottery factory and later as a train depot.440 East King St, Strasburg 540-465-3175 May 1-Oct 31 10am-4pm DailyenheB ATTLE OFF ISHER’S H ILL29Joh264Exit 29881Exit 3021yMERICKANDO11Skyline DrivoFREDSHENCivil War Orientation Center &Winchester-Frederick Co. Visitor Center1400 S Pleasant Valley Rd, n daily – 9am to 5pm36 Warren Heritage SocietyMuseum: Historical home (Ivy Lodge), archives, and exhibits. 101 Chester St, Front Royal www.warrenheritagesociety.org540-636-1446 Open year-round, M-F 10am-4pm; May-October openSaturdays 9:30am-4pmww

nterteron,be.,-nntangtheg1men7 Warren Rifles Confederate MuseumMuseum: Extensive collection of relics and records of the Civil War. 95 Chester St, Front Royal 540-636-6962or 540-635-3463 Apr 15-Nov 1; (by appointment in winter);Mon-Sat 9am-4pm; Sun 12pm-4pm8 Front Royal: Crossroads of WarInterpretive Signage: Wartime history of the “cross-roads town”.In front of Front Royal-Warren County Visitors Center, 414 East Main Street21 Battle Wapping Heights (Manassas Gap)Intepretive Signage: Describes the last Federal attempt to cut off Gen. Robert E.Lee’s withdrawal after Gettysburg.Sheridan’s 1864 Shenandoah CampaignBattles of Fisher’s Hill/Overall, Tom’s Brook, and Cedar Creek Pages 16-1910 Cedar Creek: Strategic Crossings 1864Interpretive Signage: Second sign interprets the crossing’s importance in 1864and the nearby mill and residence.Jackson’s 1862 Valley CampaignIn the median of US 11, fourteenths of a mile north of Quarry Rd, StrasburgBattle of Front Royal Pages 6-918 Battle of Guard HillInterpretive Signage: Describes the first battle of Sheridan’s 1864 Campaign, an9 Stonewall’s Surprise: Bank’s FortInterpretive Signage: Earthen fortification constructed during Valley Campaign. inconclusive clash north of Front Royal.Intersection of West Washington Street and North Holliday Street, Strasburg 22 NewtownInterpretive Signage: Describes 1864 military actions and the dramatic effects of10 Cedar Creek: Strategic Crossings 1862the war on the town—now known as Stephens City—and its residents.Interpretive Signage (one of two signs at this site): Describes the burning ofUS 11 South of Stephens Citythe bridge by Jackson’s army during the 1862 campaign.In the median of US 11, four-tenths of a mile north of Quarry Rd, Strasburg23 Fisher’s Hill Battlefield – Ramseur’s HillBattlefield Area: Interpreted one-mile walking trail over steep terrain.6 Belle Boyd Cottage Va 601 (Battlefield Rd), two miles west of US 11, Fishers HillHistoric home: Home of the famous Confederate spy Belle Boyd.101 Chester St, Front Royal 540-636-1446 Trail open during daylight hours.belleboyd.php Open year-round, M-F 10am-4pm; May-Oct, Sat 10am-4pm24 Battle of MilfordInterpretive Signage: Confederate victory prevented Union troops from8 Battle of Front Royalencircling Early after Fisher’s Hill.Interpretive Signage: Overview of the May 23, 1862 battle.In front of Front Royal-Warren County Visitors Center, 414 East Main Street U.S. 340 and Overall Road, 11 miles SW of Front Royal16 Execution of Mosby’s Rangers11 Asbury ChapelInterpretive Signage: Describes the execution without trial of six of Mosby’sInterpretive Signage: Stonewall Jackson and the advance to Front Royal.Confederate Rangers by Union troops in late September 1864.Intersection of U.S. 340 and Rocky Lane (Route 607), south of Front RoyalJust north of the intersection of North Royal Ave and 15th St, Front Royal12 Belle Boyd: Jackson Prepares for BattleInterpretive Signage: Boyd’s meeting with Jackson and Confederate advance. 25 Valley PikeInterpretive Signage: Tells the story of the role of the Turnpike during the war,7145 Browntown Road (Rt. 649)especially at this “choke point” of the Valley.13 Prospect Hill CemeteryIntersection of US 11 and Va 601, (Battlefield Rd), Fishers HillInterpretive Signage: Opening of the Battle of Front Royal and postwar26 Tom’s Brook Battlefield – Shenandoah Co. Parkestablishment of the Soldiers Circle to honor Confederate dead.Interpretive Signage: Describes nearby events during the Battle of Tom’s Brook.Soldier’s Circle, Prospect Hill Cemetery, 200 West Prospect St., Front RoyalBetween Maurertown and Toms Brook on US 11, Toms Brook14 Front Royal Street FightingInterpretive Signage: Confederate Maryland troops vs. Union Maryland troops, 27 Woodstock: Execution and The BurningInterpretive Signage: Describes tragic events in the town in fall to house fighting, and civilian reaction. 1 E. Main St., Front RoyalIntersection of W Court St & School St, Woodstock15 Rose Hill: Combat in the Front YardInterpretive Signage: Union resistance temporarily halts Confederate advance 28 Hupp’s Hill Civil War ParkMuseum: Interprets 1864 Shenandoah Valley Campaign (operated by the Cedarand the story of the Richardson Family in Rose Hill. Intersection of N. Commonwealth Ave. (U.S. 522) & Warren Ave., Front Royal Creek Battlefield Foundation.). 33229 Old Valley Pike, Strasburg540-465-5884 9am-5pm daily16 Richardson’s Hill29 Cedar Creek Battlefield Foundation HQInterpretive Signage: Final Union attempt to hold Front Royal andConfederate flanking attack. North of N. Royal Ave. and 15th St., Front Royal Battlefield Orientation Center: Interprets the Battle of Cedar Creek (operated bythe Cedar Creek Battlefield Foundation)17 The Bridges8437 Valley Pike, Middletown 540-869-2064 www.cedarcreekbattlefield.orgInterpretive Signage: Union retreat and attempts to burn the bridges over the Mon-Sat 10am-5pm, Sun 11am-4pmriver ahead of Confederate pursuit. North end of N. Royal Ave., Front Royal30 Veterans’ Picnic Grounds18 Guard HillInterpretive Signage: Describes the reunion picnics that veterans from both sidesInterpretive Signage: Union attempts to hold off Confederate forces north of attended here from the 1880s until the 1930s.the River. South of intersection of Route 637 and U.S. 340/522, Front RoyalIntersection of Battlefield Rd (Va 601) and Tripplett Rd (Va 821), Fishers Hill19 Fairview: Kenly’s Last StandInterpretive Signage: Final Union stand and Confederate cavalry charge thatCedar Creek and Belle Grove Nationaloverwhelmed the defenders. North of Front Royal, 7085 US 340Historical Park This national park is a “partnership20 Bel Airpark”. NPS ranger programs offered spring through fall.Interpretive Signage: Diarist Lucy Buck’s story of a visit to her home by Gen.540-869-3051. See page 24 for more information.Robert E. Lee as his army withdrew southward. US 522 in Front Royalwww.ShenandoahAtWar.org27

PfSECOND WINCHESTERWinchester THIRD WINCHESTERFIRST WINCHESTERSECOND KERNSTOWNCOOL SPRINGFIRST KERNSTOWNCEDAR CREEK & BELLE GROVE CEDAR CREEKNATIONAL HISTORIC PARKFISHER’S HILLStrasburgFRONT ROYALTOM’S BROOKEFront RoyalNEW MARKET BATTLEFIELDSTATE HISTORICAL PARK NEW MARKET Lurayin cl u d i n g Lu r a y a n d a r e a s o f Page C o unt yNew MarketHarrisonburgMontereyMCDOWELLNew Market28ElktonCROSS KEYSPORT REPUBLICMcDowellStauntonPIEDMONTWaynesboroNew MarketCrossroadsof DestinyThe New Market-Luray area was at the crossroads of theShenandoah Valley’s wartime campaigns. Its network of roadways– most notably the Valley Turnpike (modern US 11) – allowedarmies to move with remarkable speed. And the New Market gapprovided the only path across the 45-mile long Massanutten Mountain,an imposing ridgeline that bisects the Valley north to south, dividing itinto the main Valley on the west and Luray Valley on the east.Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson took brilliant advantage of thislandscape throughout his famous Valley Campaign. In May 1862, withthe bulk of the Union army waiting north on the Valley Turnpike,Jackson abruptly turned east and crossed the New Market gap intoLuray Valley along the New Market-Sperryville Turnpike (modern-dayUS 211). He then used the natural screen of the Massanutten to concealhis army as he moved north along the Luray-Front Royal Turnpike(modern-day US 340) to surprise Union forces at Front Royal andWinchester, temporarily driving them from the Valley and sending theUnion leadership into an uproar.Two years later a Union army under the command of Gen. Franz Sigelcollided with the hastily-assembled Confederate force of Gen. John C.Breckinridge at New Market. In the southern ranks were 257 cadets ofthe Virginia Military Institute, soon to experience their baptism of fire. trMuWakioCuster’s Division retiring from Mount Jackson in theShenandoah Valley, October 7, 1864Alfred Waud (1828-1891)ww

aysn,thyealehePut the boys in, and may Godforgive me for the order.– Confederate Gen. John C. Breckinridgecommitting the VMI cadets to battle at New MarketMay 15, 1864Battle of New Market reached its climax in the afternoon amid the muddywheat fields of Jacob Bushong’s farm, as the cadets, surging forward inthe final Confederate charge, not only helped win the battle, but forged alegacy that has inspired generations of cadets to the present day.New Market A


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