2007 Edition NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION GREEN BUILDING

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2007 EditionNEW HOME CONSTRUCTIONGREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES

2007 EditionNEW HOME CONSTRUCTIONGREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES

Recycling Agencies In Contra CostaNEW HOME CONSTRUCTION GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINESThe local recycling agency phone numbers below willput you in contact with a representative for one of thenineteen cities or the unincorporated areas of ContraCosta County. These agencies offer a wide range ofprograms in the areas of waste reduction, recycling,composting, market development and other relatedtechnical rdDanvilleEl PinolePittsburgPleasant HillRichmondSan PabloSan RamonWalnut CreekUnincorporated County(all other areas)PHONE sehold Hazardous Waste FacilitiesServing West County:West County Household Hazardous WasteCollection Facility 888-412-9277Serving Central County:Central Contra Costa Sanitary District HouseholdHazardous Waste Collection Facility 800-646-1431Serving East County:Delta Diablo Sanitary District Household HazardousWaste Collection Facility 925-756-1990Local Water UtilitiesThe following cities/communities are served by theirown local water utility:CITY/COUNTYAntiochBrentwoodBay PointMartinezOakleyPittsburgPHONE -3575925-625-3798925-252-4940The remaining cities and unincorporated communitiesare served by one of the below water utilities.Construction & Demolition WasteConstruction and demolition (C & D) debris compriseup to 30% of materials disposed in California landfills.Through job site recycling, efficient use of materials,use of recycled content building materials and similarpractices, you can effectively decrease the amount ofmaterials needed for home construction.Serving West County and portion of Central County:East Bay Municipal Utilities District 510-287-1380or www.ebmud.comAll cities and counties in California are required toimplement programs that divert waste from landfills.The County and many cities have passed C & D ordinancesthat require certain construction projects to reuse andrecycle jobsite debris. For additional details regardingEnergy UtilityDesign: Celery Design Collaborative , Berkeley, CA2these ordinances, go to http://www.cccrecycle.org/debrisor call the Contra Costa County Community DevelopmentDepartment at 925-335-1231. Free copies of the“Contra Costa Builder’s Guide to Reuse and Recycling”,which identifies resources to reuse and recycle C & Ddebris are available on-line at http://www.cccrecycle.orgor by calling the Recycling Hotline at 1-800-750-4096.Serving majority of Central County: Contra CostaWater District 925-688-8000 or www.ccwater.comPG&E’s Smarter Energy Line 800-933-9555 orwww.pge.comPrinting: 100% post-consumer recycled paper using soy-based inks.March 2007

About Build It GreenBuild It Green is a professional non-profit membershiporganization whose mission is to promote healthy,durable, energy- and resource-efficient buildings inCalifornia. Supported by a solid foundation of outreachand education, Build It Green connects consumers andbuilding professionals with the tools and technicalexpertise they need to build quality green homes. BuildIt Green fosters collaboration with key stakeholdergroups to accelerate the adoption of green buildingstandards, policies, and programs.In addition to providing these Guidelines for educationalpurposes, Build It Green offers the following companionresources at www.BuildItGreen.org: Green Points calculator List of references for all Guidelines measures Innovation checklist for approaches beyond themeasures described in the Guidelines Addendums that explain how to use the Guidelinesin conjunction with other programs Information about new practices and materials orcorrections that are identified after publicationAccessGreen DirectoryLocate green building products, local suppliers andservice providers that correspond with the measureslisted in the green building guidelines. The database iscontinuously updated based on the local availabilityof products and development of new materials. It issearchable by product categories, product names,and green building measures. Available atwww.BuildItGreen.orgAsk an ExpertHave a green building question? The Ask an Experthotline is a FREE service that provides homeownersand building professionals with unbiased, technicalinformation for their green project.Call today!888-40-GREEN (888-404-7336) orwww.BuildItGreen.orgLOCAL SUSTAINABLECONSTRUCTION RESOURCESGreen Building Program Information925-335-1230 or www.cccrecycle.org/greenbuildingConstruction & Demolition Debris Recovery925-335-1231 -or- www.cccrecycle.org/debrisRecycling HotlineNEW HOME CONSTRUCTION GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINES Cross-referencing with other residential initiatives(e.g. ENERGY STAR Indoor Air Package, LEED-H,CA Green Builder and the NAHB Guidelines)RESOURCES800-750-4096 -or- www.cccrecycle.orgDisclaimerThese Guidelines are provided exclusively for general education andinformational purposes and as a public service of Build It Green, aCalifornia non-profit corporation registered under Section 501(c)(3) ofthe Internal Revenue Code. Built It Green authorizes you to view theseGuidelines for your use and to copy any part of them as-is. In exchangefor this authorization: (i) you agree not to alter, sell or publish theGuidelines in any way without first receiving written permission fromBuild It Green; and (ii) you waive, release and covenant not to sueBuild It Green and all others affiliated with developing these Guidelinesfrom any liability, claims and actions, both known and unknown, forany losses, damage or equitable relief you may now have a right toassert or later acquire, arising from such use or reliance on theGuidelines. Unauthorized use of these Guidelines is prohibited anda violation of copyright, trademark and other laws.Nothing in these Guidelines constitutes an endorsement, approval, orrecommendation of any kind by any persons or organizations affiliatedwith developing these Guidelines. The suitability and applicability ofthis information for a given use depends on various factors specific tothat use. These include, but are not limited to, laws and regulationsapplicable to the intended use, specific attributes of that use, and thespecifications for any product or material associated with this information. All warranties, express or implied, are disclaimed, and thereader is strongly encouraged to consult with a building, product,and/or design professional before applying any of this information toa specific use or purpose.3

ForewordThese residential Guidelines were developed for thefollowing reasons: To provide local governments with an educationaltool for city staff, builders and homeowners interestedin green residential construction To present a range of voluntary measures forbuilders to choose from when constructing a greenhome in California To create a policy foundation for local governmentsinterested in implementing a green building program To establish regional consistency in green buildingguidelines to increase predictability for builders To integrate varying residential initiatives in order toachieve greater simplicity and local applicability To offer a set of guidelines developed by anindependent, third-party source.NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINESGuidelines Development Process4The New Home Construction Guidelines were developedthrough a collaborative process that included thefollowing steps:These guidelines are based on the Alameda County NewHome Construction Green Building Guidelines, whichwere first developed in 2000 through a collaborativeprocess and public-private partnership among builders,green building experts, and local government staff inAlameda County. Representatives from major productionbuilders, including Centex Homes, Greenbriar Homes,Ponderosa Homes, Pulte Homes, Shea Homes,Signature Properties, Silverwood Homes, and TollBrothers, provided input and direction in the developmentof the original Guidelines.The Guidelines were updated in 2005 to expand itsapplicability throughout California, address changes inTitle 24, and incorporate measures from other residentialgreen building initiatives such as the California GreenBuilder program, National Association of HomeBuilders guidelines, and the pilot draft LEED forHomes checklist.The Green Residential Environmental Action Team(GREAT), a task force of state agencies including theCalifornia Integrated Waste Management Board,California Energy Commission, Office of EnvironmentalHealth Hazard Assessment, Office of the StateArchitect, Department of General Services,Department of Water Resources, and California AirResources Board, provided technical expertise andinput in the update of these Guidelines.Build It Green—a professional non-profit organizationwhose mission is to promote green building inCalifornia—expanded and facilitated the stakeholderprocess to include input from its various councils,including the Public Agency Council, Builders Council,Non-Profit Network, and Suppliers Council. In 2006the water efficiency measures in the Guidelines wererevised based on input from the Southern CaliforniaPublic Agency Council.Publicly available information, scientific data, andthird-party standards were referenced in the developmentof these Guidelines. The Guidelines are intended tobe a living document, and will be regularly updated asadditional technical and quantitative informationbecomes available, measurement tools such as LifeCycle Assessment become more accessible, and newgreen measures are developed.

AcknowledgmentsSpecial thanks to the following individuals and organizations for contributing to the development of these guidelines:ENERGY EFFICIENCY Douglas Beaman, Douglas Beaman Associates David Blanke, Southern California Gas Co. Elaine Hebert, California Energy Commission Gary Klein, California Energy Commission Randel Reidel, California Energy Commission David Springer, Davis Energy GroupRESOURCES Gregory Dick, California Integrated WasteManagement Board Teresa Eade, Bay-Friendly Landscaping Cynthia Havstad, Bay-Friendly Landscaping Clark Williams, California Integrated WasteManagement BoardIAQ/HEALTH Peggy Jenkins, California Air Resources Board Richard Lam, California EPA, Office ofEnvironmental Health Hazard Assessment Jed Waldman, California Department ofHealth ServicesBUILDERS Don Babbitt, Heartwood Communities Troy Bevilacqua, Christopherson Homes Amy Christopherson Bolten,Christopherson Homes Pamela Hardy, Ponderosa Homes Stephen Holmes, Brookfield Homes Jeff Jacobs, Centex Homes Dave Kay, Shea HomesNON-PROFIT AND COMMUNITY GROUPS Build It Green Global Green USA Healthy Building Network San Luis Obispo County Green BuildingInitiative Group Santa Cruz Green Building Working GroupNEW HOME CONSTRUCTION GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINESWATER EFFICIENCY & STORMWATER MANAGEMENT Diamera Bach, Alameda County PublicWorks Agency Geoff Brousseau, California StormwaterQuality Association Dan Cloak Environmental Consulting John Koeller, California Urban WaterConservation Council Tom Larson, DUDEK Carlos Michelon, Metropolitan Water DistrictPUBLIC AGENCIES Southern California Public Agency CouncilTechnical Advisory Committee Jill Boone, County of San Mateo RecycleWorks Peter Bruck, City of Rohnert Park Michael Foster, City of San Jose Alec Hoffmann, County of Marin Laura Ingall, City and County of San Francisco Karen Kho, Green Building in Alameda County Glenn Kirby, City of Union City Mauricio Mejia, City of Pasadena Kae Ono, Contra Costa CountyCommunity Development Annette Puskarich, City of Palo Alto Greg Reitz, City of Santa Monica Keith Roberts, City of Sacramento Billi Romain, City of Berkeley Rosalind Rondash, City of Pleasanton Peter Schultze-Allen, City of Emeryville Gregory Shreeve, City of Dublin Wendy Sommer, Green Building inAlameda County Wes Sullens, Green Building in Alameda County Scott Terrell, Truckee Donner PublicUtility District Dell Tredinnick, City of Santa RosaOTHERS David Johnston, What’s Working Marc Richmond, What’s Working Jennifer Roberts, Editor Donald Simon, Wendel, Rosen, Black & DeanFront cover photo courtesy of Christopherson Homes. Back cover photos courtesy of East Bay Habitat for Humanity, Bruce Hammond,Victoria and Michael Johnston, Leger Wanaselja Architecture, and Ponderosa Homes.5

Table of Contents1. OVERVIEW OF GREEN BUILDING7Introduction8Fundamental Objectives of Green Building9The House as a System12Cost Considerations132. HOW TO START BUILDING GREEN14What’s Inside the Guidelines163. GREENPOINT CHECKLIST174. GREEN BUILDING MEASURES22Community Design and Planning23A. Site25B. Foundation27C. Landscaping28D. Structural Frame and Building Envelope33E. Exterior Finish37F. Insulation38G. Plumbing39H. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning40I. Renewable Energy44J. Building Performance46K. Finishes48L. Flooring51M. Appliances53N. Other545. MARKETING GREEN HOMES55

Chapter One:Overview of Green BuildingOVERVIEW OF GREEN BUILDING“As our population along the coast increases, our resources are decreasingand it is only responsible to build homes that use less water and energy if thetechnology is available and cost-effective.”—Amy Christopherson Bolten, Christopherson HomesOverarching Principles of Green Building123Build for the long-termBuild durable homes & livable communities.Build for our childrenMake their homes, communities & environment safe.Build for the planetUse natural resources wisely.7

IntroductionOVERVIEW OF GREEN BUILDINGIn response to growing concerns about building quality, health, quality of life, energycosts and dwindling natural resources, an increasing number of California homebuildersare embracing “green building.” This holistic approach to homebuilding emphasizes qualityconstruction, energy efficiency, good indoor air quality and livable neighborhoods. As you’lldiscover in these Guidelines, green building provides myriad benefits to California’shomebuilders, homeowners and communities.NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINESDoes green building really matter?8Green building means improving our design andconstruction practices so that the homes we build todaywill last longer, cost less to operate, and won’t harmpeople’s health. It also involves protecting naturalresources and improving the built environment sothat people, communities and ecosystems can thriveand prosper.With the budget and time pressures we’re all undertoday, is it really worth the extra effort? Increasingly,builders, developers, real estate professionals, policymakers and homeowners agree that it is worth theeffort. Better homes, it turns out, are also better forbusiness. Developers, builders and other real estateprofessionals who follow “building as usual” practicesmay find themselves at a competitive disadvantage asregulatory and market forces shift the industry towardbuilt environments that are healthier, more resourceefficient and less polluting.Green building is gaining momentum in California, andfor good reason. To meet expected population growthbetween now and 2020, approximately 220,000 housingunits need to be added annually. That’s 3.3 millionhomes over the next 15 years.Imagine the demands that all those homes will put onour water and energy supplies, forests, farmlands,recreational areas, roadways and municipal infrastructure.Green building offers solutions to meeting those demandswhile minimizing environmental impacts. By buildingdurable, healthy homes that consume less energy,water and other resources, today’s green homebuildersare helping to safeguard the well-being and prosperityof Californians today and for decades to come.

Fundamental Objectives of Green BuildingThere’s nothing mysterious about green building—it’s really just applied commonof green building as quality design and construction achieved through the convergenceof four fundamental objectives:1. Conserve natural resources2. Use energy wiselyOVERVIEW OF GREEN BUILDINGsense. To move forward with greening your construction project, it is helpful to think3. Improve indoor air quality4. Plan for livable communitiesConserve natural resourcesMuch of this waste is avoidable. Careful managementof the construction process makes a big difference.There are also many well-established homebuildingpractices that help protect natural resources. Forexample, advanced framing techniques can substantiallyreduce lumber requirements without compromisingstructural integrity. Using engineered lumber andwood products certified by the Forest StewardshipCouncil can help protect old-growth forests.There are many effective building strategies that conservenatural resources, as well as provide benefits such ascost savings. These include using durable productssuch as roofing materials with 40- or 50-year warranties,and specifying recycled-content products that divertwaste from landfills. Recycled-content decking,reclaimed lumber and other products put waste togood use, while providing quality and durability thatWater is another critical resource. California residencesuse 5.6 million acre-feet of applied water annually.Our prosperity and ability to meet the needs of ourgrowing population hinge on having adequate suppliesof clean, fresh water. Homes built and landscaped touse water wisely make a tremendous contribution toprotecting our shared resources. An added benefit islower expenses for the homeowner. Today’s builders cantake advantage of a new generation of cost-effective,high efficiency appliances and landscape watermanagement systems.Use energy wiselyNew houses in California must be built to the moststringent energy code in the country, but given thestate’s projected population growth, even this may not beenough to keep demand for energy in check. Generationand use of energy are major contributors to air pollutionand global climate change. With homes accounting forroughly 31% of the electricity consumed in the state,it is clear that homebuilders have a significant role toplay in helping our society address energy-relatedconcerns now and in the coming decades.NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINESConventional building construction and operationconsumes large quantities of wood, water, metals, fossilfuels and other natural resources. Even though themajority of the materials used to build a home are putto good use, vast quantities of resources are wasted. Infact, building an average 2,000-sq. ft. house producesabout 7,000 pounds of waste.often exceed conventional materials. For example,decking materials made of recycled plastic mixed withwood waste fibers can last up to five times longer thanwood decking, and never needs to be treated or painted.9

OVERVIEW OF GREEN BUILDINGEnergy efficiency is the cornerstone of every greenhome. Improving energy efficiency and using renewableenergy sources are effective ways to reduce the potentialof energy supply interruptions, improve air quality,reduce the impacts of global warming, and slow therate at which we need to build new power plants.Energy efficiency also makes good sense for homeowners: an energy-efficient house saves money byreducing utility bills year after year, and providesother valuable benefits. Better insulation, for example,reduces uncomfortable drafts, and double-pane windowsmake for a quieter home.NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINESImprove indoor air qualityOn average, Americans spend 90% of their time indoors,yet the air in new homes can be ten times more pollutedthan outdoor air, according to the U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency. Children are particularly vulnerablewhen it comes to air pollution. A report in the NewEngland Journal of Medicine states that 40% ofchildren will develop respiratory disease, in part dueto the chemicals in their homes.A common source of indoor air pollution is the offgassing of chemicals found in many building materials.Kitchen cabinets, countertops, shelving and furnituremay be made from particleboard or medium densityPleasant Hill CoHousing Common House, Pleasant Hill, CA.10fiberboard. These pressed-wood products are typicallymade with adhesives that release urea formaldehyde—a known human carcinogen—into the home for yearsafter installation. Also, many paints, floor finishes,adhesives and sealants emit unhealthy volatile organiccompounds (VOCs). That “new house smell” is atelltale sign that there are harmful chemicals in theindoor environment.Fortunately, the building products industry is respondingto these indoor pollution problems by developing saferproducts, including low-VOC paints, cleaners andadhesives. These products are now commonly availablefrom most major suppliers at costs comparable toconventional products. California also now hasspecifications available for some materials to assurethat they are low emitting and safe.Poor indoor air quality is also often caused by biologicalcontaminants, such as mold that grows as a result ofmoisture infiltration due to inadequate ventilation,poor design and maintenance, and other factors. Dust,another major source of air pollution inside homes,can be reduced by installing permanent front doorwalk-off mats and by using hard surface flooringmaterials such as natural linoleum, bamboo, woodor wood alternatives, or concrete.

Plan for livable communitiesGreen building offers homebuilders, community leadersand California residents sensible solutions that improvean individual home’s performance and provide broadbased community benefits. These benefits rangefrom cleaner air to reduced traffic congestion, frommore appealing recreational opportunities to greatereconomic vitality.For California residents, developments designed tocluster homes help preserve open space for recreation,Centex Homes, PowerSave Plus home at Lunaria inWindemere, San Ramon.NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINESFor local municipalities, green building can providemany economic benefits. Developments designed toreduce dependence on cars help ease traffic congestion,which can improve business productivity. Mixed-usedevelopments encourage economic vitality and adiversified municipal tax base. Infill projects helprevitalize older urban areas and allow public fundsto be used for upgrading existing services such asschools, transit and sewers, rather than diverting limitedfunds to the development of new services.Clearly, green building cannot solve all the social,economic or environmental challenges facingCalifornia’s communities. Still, green buildinggives homebuilders a valuable set of strategies formeeting residents’ expectations for livable, healthy,sustainable communities.OVERVIEW OF GREEN BUILDINGCalifornia’s homebuilders and homebuyers are makingdecisions today that will affect the quality of our livesfor decades to come. New construction, whether of asingle home or a large development, contributes to thestate’s economic vitality and helps meet our pressingneed for more housing. At the same time, every newhome places additional demands on our supplies ofland, water and energy, and on our infrastructure ofroads, sewers and other services.views and natural habitats. Pedestrian- and bicyclefriendly neighborhoods provide people with opportunitiesto exercise and get to know their neighbors. Higherdensity urban infill developments allow people tolive closer to where they work, shop and go toschool, which means less time spent driving andmore time for family, community and personal activities.11

NEW HOME CONSTRUCTION GREEN BUILDING GUIDELINESOVERVIEW OF GREEN BUILDINGThe House as a System12A house is an intricate system made up of interdependentcomponents. Changing one aspect of this system cancreate a ripple of effects in other areas. Builders werereminded of this when they began building tighterhouses in the 1970s in response to rising energy costs.Tightly sealing the thermal envelope reduced heatingand cooling costs but sometimes had unintendedresults, such as increased indoor air pollution dueto inadequate ventilation or problems with mold dueto moisture trapped within the structure.The solution was not to return to the days of leaky,uncomfortable houses that wasted energy. Instead,what grew out of this experience was a new approachto home building, called the whole-house systemsapproach. In collaboration with building-scienceresearchers, home-building associations and governmentagencies such as the U.S. Department of Energy’sBuilding America program, many home buildersacross the nation are now successfully using thisapproach. It emphasizes strategic planning, systemsanalysis, and testing and verification to ensure thatimprovements in one area won’t jeopardize health,safety, affordability, durability, profitability and othervital concerns.According to Building America, a whole-house systemsapproach can reduce the energy consumption of newhouses by as much as 40% with little or no effect onthe cost of construction. Usually the decisions made aspart of a whole-house approach yield multiple benefits.For example, framing the home with 2x6 studs spacedat 24 inches allows increased insulation compared toconventional 2x4 studs spaced at 16 inches. Increasedinsulation saves heating and cooling energy andimproves comfort. Also, as mentioned above, it mayallow the downsizing of heating and cooling equipment.What’s more, the 2x6 framing technique reduces wooduse and labor costs.The whole-house systems approach requires that thedesign and construction process be highly integrated.This involves: Careful planning and attention to detail from theoutset of design through all the phases of construction. Understanding of building science principles,including the principles of air, heat and moisture flow. Good communication among the entire team,including the developers, architects, engineers,builders, trade contractors, and material suppliers.Ideally, home builders should incorporate green buildinginto their practices as part of this whole-house systemsapproach. This requires taking into account the interaction of many factors: the building’s structure andthermal envelope; heating, cooling, water heating andelectrical systems; renewable energy systems; thesite’s climate, topography, landscaping and surroundingstructures; aesthetics; health and safety requirements;and how the occupants will use the house. Proper sequencing of decision-making andbuilding activities throughout the entire designand construction process.For example, a green builder concerned with improvingthe performance of the whole house will not merelyselect a more energy-efficient heating and cooling systemand call it a day. Instead, the builder will look foropportunities to improve the thermal envelope anddecrease heating and cooling loads, such as by reducingair leakage, designing and locating ductwork to minimizeenergy losses, increasing insulation, and choosinglow-e windows. These improvements may allow theuse of significantly smaller—and less costly—heatingand cooling systems. Properly sized HVAC systemsalso lower the owner’s energy costs and providegreater comfort.Building America provides detailed information aboutthe whole-house systems approach on their website,www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building america. Adequate training and supervision to ensure qualityconstruction. Testing and verifying performance during and afterconstruction, and establishing a feedback loop toimprove future designs based on the testing results.It’s no coincidence that green homes designed witha whole-house systems approach are better homes.Improving building performance takes time and care,but can significantly reduce energy needs, improvehealth and comfort, and reduce builder risk and cost.

Cost ConsiderationsBalancing costs and benefitsThese Guidelines recommend methods and materialsthat range in cost—some of them cost no more oreven less than conventional options. In fact, whena home is designed from the outset to be green, itneed not cost more than a conventionally built home.While not all measures recommended in theseGuidelines will be applicable to your project, themeasures included are relevant and reasonable forresidential developments built today.Sample utility bill for a zero net energy home.While the health and environmental benefits ofgreen building are well established, many peoplestill assume that green building costs more. But takinga whole-house systems approach to green building,as described on the previous page, can actuallyreduce construction and operating costs compared tostandard practice. This integrated approach to greenbuilding can help steer the design away from expensivesolutions and toward cost-effective ones.During schematic design, for example, the teammight consider strategies such as simplifying a building’swall structure by changing the wall articulation toa flat wall with bolted-on overhangs and thick trim.Such a change can often save money and materials,but would be costly to do once construction documentswere underway.To give another example, a design team that takesa whole-house systems approach might recommendincreasing the exterior wall thickness to accommodatemore insulation, which could result in reducing thesize and cost of the heating system.The key to reducing costs is to evaluate opportunitiesas early as possible in the design process becausethe range of cost-effective solutions narrows as thedesign progresses. Consider framing techniques.During schematic design, the design team mightdecide to incorporate advanced framing techniques.These techniques, as described in the Guidelines,reduce wood and construction costs while maintainingstructural int

Walnut Cr ek 925 - 06 18 Unincorporated County (all other areas) 925-335-1231 Construction & Demolition Waste . Greenbriar Homes, Ponderosa Homes, Pulte Homes, Shea Homes, Signature Properties, Silverwood Homes, and Toll Brothers, provided input and

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