White Paper Manual Color Dyeing For White HP Multi Jet .

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White paperManual Color Dyeing forWhite HP Multi Jet Fusion PartsDyed white parts-color possibilities

White paper Manual color dyeing for white HP Multi Jet Fusion partsExecutive summaryManual dyeing consists of immersing parts into dyeing baths for a short period of time in order to color them. Thisprocess can be used to add color to white parts that have been printed using HP Jet Fusion 500/300 Series 3D Printers.This white paper reviews the application process of two dyes that are used in two different time intervals in order to setbenchmarks, but these can be modified to achieve different desired effects. These recommendations are not intended forparts printed with the HP Jet Fusion 4200 3D Printing Solution.Applications for HP MJF–produced partsManually dyeing white HP Multi Jet Fusion (MJF)–produced parts is an inexpensive, efficient method for achieving a widerange of vibrant colors for low-volume finished pieces. It dramatically expands the aesthetic possibilities for 3D printedparts without requiring a costly investment in post-processing equipment. It also enables parts to be finished in colorsthat may not be printable, such as neon.Our study showcases the possibilities, but by no means the bounds, of this post-processing method.Test/post-process overviewManual dyeing as part of the workflow takes place after printing, cooling and unpacking, and cleaning. After dyeing, anoptional drying step can be added.Recommendations1. Part preparation: Following the bead blasting recommendations will provide a consistent base for dyeing. Becareful not to over-blast or to blast with contaminated media. If the white surface turns grey during the cleaningprocess, then the color of the dyed part will be less vibrant.2. Repeatability: While this white paper only discusses the use of four colors, the indications offer a general baselinethat can be used for other colors. White HP MJF parts can be dyed with almost any color. Be sure to record theexact concentrations of dye used as well as the dyeing time to achieve repeatability of the desired color, as you canachieve a wide range of shades with a single dye.What do you need?1. Recommended equipment At least two stainless steel pots, large enough to comfortably contain the volume of your printed parts with roomfor them to move. A frying machine is also a good alternative as it has a hot bath and a basket. Two hot plates, capable of reaching 100 degrees Celsius A tool to stir the parts Tongs or a strainer for removing parts. Mesh bags are also useful for containing and dyeing smaller parts in anefficient way.2. Site requirements: Working in a ventilated area, such as an extractor hood, is highly recommended in order to allowsteam and vapors that form during the dyeing process to be removed from the area as long-term exposure to thefumes could be toxic.Because some dyes are mild irritants, the operator should use gloves and goggles to prevent skin staining, as wellas a mask in case the process cannot be done in a fume hood.You also need a waste water disposal deposit as the residue of the dyeing process must be handled according to therelevant local laws. The dye bath residue should not be poured into a conventional drain.3. ConsumablesWe have tested two different consumables: RIT Proline in Black, Neon yellow, Cherry red, and Neon green TCN liquid dye in Black, Yellow fluo, Anise fluo, and RedBoth brands also offer many other colors

White paper Manual color dyeing for white HP Multi Jet Fusion parts4. Printed parts: We tested parts printed with HP 3D High Reusability (HR)1 CB PA 12 powder. For each dye brand andduration of dyeing, we used five test cubes, each of which measures 18 mm by 18 mm by 18 mm, resulting in a totalof 80 cubes.How does it work?1. RIT Proline Powder Dye: Settings:–– Dye concentration: 7 grams/liter–– Dyeing temperature: 100 degrees Celsius–– Dyeing time: 10-20 minutes–– Post-bath rinse time: 2 minutes Procedure:1. Fill two pots with enough water to cover the parts you are dyeing. Heat the dyeing pot to 100 degrees Celsius,and the rinsing pot to 60 degrees Celsius.2. Add the RIT dye to the dyeing pot.a. The used concentration for the tested samples was 7g/liter; however, RIT recommends doubling the amountof dye for lighter colors.b. RIT also recommends adding a teaspoon of dish soap and one cup of vinegar to the dyeing solution, whichhas been done in the case of our samples.3. Place the parts in the dyeing solution. If dyeing multiple small parts at once, put them in a mesh bag or strainerprior to putting them in the dyeing pot.4. Immerse the parts in the dyeing solution and stir frequently until the desired color is achieved. For our samplesthe dyeing time was 10 minutes for one set and 20 minutes for a second set.5. Take the parts out of the dyeing solution and put them in the rinsing pot for 2 minutes.6. Take the parts out and arrange them to dry. If you dyed parts in a mesh bag, remove them from the bag andspread them out individually to dry. The drying time varies depending on the size and shape of the parts.1. TCN Liquid Dye Settings:–– Dye concentration: 0.1 liter/liter–– Dyeing temperature: 80 degrees Celsius–– Dyeing time: 10-20 minutes–– Post-bath rinse time: 2 minutes Procedure:1. Fill two pots with enough water to cover the parts you are dyeing. Heat the dyeing pot to 80 degrees Celsius, andthe rinsing pot to 60 degrees Celsius.2. Add the TCN dye to the dyeing pot.3. Place the parts in the dyeing solution. If dyeing multiple small parts at once, put them in a mesh bag or strainerprior to putting them in the dyeing pot.4. Immerse the parts in the dyeing solution and stir frequently until the desired color is achieved. For our samples,the dyeing time was 10 minutes for one set and 20 minutes for a second set.5. Take the parts out of the dyeing solution and put them into the rinsing pot for 2 minutes.Take the parts out and arrange them to dry. If you dyed parts in a mesh bag, remove them from the bag and spreadthem out individually to dry. The drying time varies depending on the size and shape of the parts.

White paper Manual color dyeing for white HP Multi Jet Fusion partsTest/post-process resultsVisual results, RITFigure 1. RIT Neon yellow; Left: 10 minutes, Right: 20 minutesFigure 2. RIT Cherry red; Left: 10 minutes, Right: 20 minutesFigure 3. RIT Neon green; Left: 10 minutes, Right: 20 minutes

White paper Manual color dyeing for white HP Multi Jet Fusion partsVisual results, TCNFigure 4. TCN Yellow fluo; Left: 10 minutes, Right: 20 minutesFigure 5. TCN Red; Left: 10 minutes, Right: 20 minutes

White paper Manual color dyeing for white HP Multi Jet Fusion partsVisual results, TCNFigure 6. TCN Anise fluo; left: 10 minutes, right: 20 minutesFigure 7. TCN Black; Left: 10 minutes, Right: 20 minutes

White paper Manual color dyeing for white HP Multi Jet Fusion partsWater absorptionWhen measured after 24 hours of drying in a fume hood, the change in weight was generally between 0.3% and 0.7%.Color measurementThe vibrancy of the final colors can vary from dye to dye. The tested TCN yellow and green dyes were more vibrant than theRIT yellows and greens. The red dyes from both companies performed similarly. Quantitative comparisons can be madeby measuring the color of the final cubes with a spectrophotometer, obtaining CIE 1976 L*a*b* (or Lightness, Chroma, Huevalues) and plotting those in a 3-dimensional color space. Ideally, the chroma should be as large as possible to achievevibrant colors.Another aspect is the achieved color uniformity across one object (e.g., the sides of the cube) and the uniformity acrossseveral objects (e.g., among several cubes). One way to quantify the uniformity is by calculating color differences (e.g.,ΔE76 or ΔE2000). A ΔE76 difference is simply the euclidean distance between two colors represented as points in the CIE1976 CIE Lab color space. A Δ E76 1 roughly corresponds to a slightly noticeable color difference by a human observer.Figure 1 below shows a reference sample at the top and three different color samples at the bottom that are 1, 5, and 10ΔE units different from the reference sample. In this specific example the difference is in the lightness, but samples can bedifferent in either lightness, hue, or chroma, or in all three.In our tests we achieved a better uniformity (e.g., lower color difference measured as ΔE76) using RIT dyes. Comparinge.g. the color values of the top/bottom surfaces of a set of five cubes with the average top/bottom color values we goton average values below 3 ΔE76 for red and yellow RIT dyed cubes and 95 percentile values of below 5 ΔE76. The resultsfor red and yellow TNC color values were quite a bit higher (e.g., the average was below 6 ΔE76 and for the 95 percentilesbelow 10 ΔE76). Non-uniformities of the degree of the second group are clearly visible. Overall, color uniformity variesdepending on the process and the dye used, and the original undyed color of the part. If color uniformity is an issue for yourapplication, you may consider investigating an automated dyeing machine.Figure 8. Example of ΔE lightness variation; From left to right: reference, ΔE 1, ΔE 5, ΔE 10

White paper Manual color dyeing for white HP Multi Jet Fusion parts1. HP Jet Fusion 3D Printing Solutions using HP 3D High Reusability CB PA 12 provide up to 80% powder reusability ration, producing functional parts batch after batch. For testing,material is aged in real printing conditions and powder is tracked by generations (worst case for reusability). Parts are then made from each generation and tested for mechanicalproperties and accuracy. Copyright 2019 HP Development Company, L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change without notice.The information contained herein is provided for information purposes only. The only terms and conditions governing the sale of HP 3D printer solutions are those setforth in a written sales agreement. The only warranties for HP products and services are set forth in the express warranty statements accompanying such productsand services. Nothing herein should be construed as constitutinan additional warranty or additional binding terms and conditions. HP shall not be liable for technical oreditorial errors or omissions contained herein and the information herein is subject to change without notice.4AA07-0016ENW, September 2019

If dyeing multiple small parts at once, put them in a mesh bag or strainer prior to putting them in the dyeing pot. 4. Immerse the parts in the dyeing solution and stir frequently until the desired color is achieved. For our samples the dyeing time was 10 minutes for one set and 20 minutes for a second set.

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