Hereditary Breast And Ovarian Cancer And Genetic Testing

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Hereditary Breast and OvarianCancer and Genetic TestingRong Mao, MDMedical Director, Molecular Genetics and GenomicsAssociate Professor of Pathology, University of Utah4

Breast Cancer Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of canceramong women (40,290 in 2015). It is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer deaths inAmerican women, One-third of women with breastcancer die from breast cancer, One out of every eight women will bediagnosed with breast cancer in 2015.5

Breast Cancer Risk FactorsAgeObesityFamily RiskNot havingchildrenExerciseAll women areat risk.BreastfeedingBirth llableUncontrollable

Breast Cancer Risk Factors: AgeRiskBy age 301 out of 2,000By age 401 out of 233By age 501 out of 53By age 601 out of 22By age 701 out of 13By age 801 out of 9Lifetime risk1 out of 8NCI SEER Program. http://seer.cancer.gov/

Family History as a Risk FactorBreast CancerOvarian Cancer5–10%5–10%15–20%70%90%SporadicFamily clustersHereditary

Compare Hereditary vs. Sporadic Cancer A younger age at the onset of cancer– Generally 50 years of age Multiple primary cancers:– Breast– Ovarian– Other9

Causes of Hereditary Susceptibility to Breast Cancer5–10% of breast cancers can be attributed to inherited factors.GeneContribution to Hereditary Breast CancerBRCA120–40%BRCA210–30%TP53 1%PTEN 1%Undiscovered genes30–70%

Breast Cancer Genes Found BRCA1 (for BReastCAncer gene 1) wasdescribed in 1990 onchromosome 17 andisolated in 1994. BRCA2 was isolated onchromosome 13 in late1994.11

Passing on Risk: Autosomal DominantEach child has 50% risk of inheriting a familial mutation.LegendNormal BRCA genesbbBRCA mutationBbB: BRCAgene withmutationb: NormalBRCA geneBbSusceptibleBRCA genebbPopulationriskBbSusceptibleBRCA genebbPopulationrisk

Consequences of Having a BRCA MutationEstimated cancer risk by age 70BRCA MutationCarriersIn General PopulationBreast Cancer BRCA1 & BRCA250–85%11%Ovarian CancerBRCA140–60%1–2%Ovarian CancerBRCA210–20%1–2%Breast Cancer BRCA2 6%Rare

Other BRCA Related CancersSlight risk for other cancers Shown to be increased in carriers:– Pancreatic– Melanoma– Stomach– Colon– Prostate– Male breast cancer

Who Should Be Tested? Multiple family members with breast cancer A family member with primary cancer in both breasts– Especially if manifested before age 50 A family member with ovarian cancer A family member with male breast cancer A family member with an identifiedBRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation Jewish ancestry

BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations BRCA1: 1873 mutations– Point mutations: 1574 (84%)– Large deletions/duplications: 299 (16%) BRCA2: 1597 mutations– Point mutations: 1523 (95%)– Large deletions/duplications: 74 (5%)16

BRCA1 and BRCA2 Jewish Mutations Three mutations in BRCA1 and 2 account for 97% of BRCA1and BRCA2 mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals:– BRCA1: 185delAG, 5382insC– BRCA2: 6174delT17

Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Testing Ashkenazi Jewish (BRCA1 and BRCA2), 3 Mutations (2011958) Breast and Ovarian Hereditary Cancer Syndrome (BRCA1 andBRCA2) Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication (2011949) Breast and Ovarian Hereditary Cancer Panel, Sequencing andDeletion/Duplication, 20 Genes (2012026)18

Test Recommendation for Jewish Ancestry Test with Ashkenazi Jewish (BRCA1 and BRCA2), 3 Mutations(2011958): sensitivity 97% (PCR/ capillary electrophorese) Negative: Breast and Ovarian Hereditary Cancer Syndrome (BRCA1and BRCA2) Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication (2011949)185delAG19

Testing for High-Risk Individuals Breast and Ovarian Hereditary Cancer Syndrome (BRCA1 and BRCA2)Sequencing and Deletion/Duplication (2011949)– Sequencing BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes: sensitivity 80–84% and 90–95%– Deletion/duplication of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes: sensitivity 16% and 5%SequencingMLPA20

Breast Cancer Multi-Gene Panel Breast and Ovarian Hereditary Cancer Panel, Sequencing andDeletion/Duplication, 20 Genes (2012026) 20 genes associate with increased risk of breast cancer: ATM,BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CDH1, CHEK2, EPCAM, MEN1,MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, PALB2, PTEN, RAD51C,RAD51D, STK11, TP53Next-generation sequencingArray CGH21

Is This Sequence Variant a Mutation?M18T in BRCA1: Is this a mutation or benign?Publication, computational prediction, databasehttp://www.arup.utah.edu/22

ARUP BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Database23

Management of BRCA WomenPrevention and Screening OptionsProphylactic fenOral ical breast exams

Current Screening Recommendations for BRCA Women Breast– Monthly breast self-exams (begin by age 18)– Early clinical surveillance (begin by age 25) Biannual clinical breast exams at a breast center Annual mammography Sonography? MRI? Ovarian: no good options– Transvaginal ultrasound– CA-125 blood levels

Conclusion:Identifying high-riskindividuals will helpsurveillance and preventionof breast/ovarian cancer.26

Germline Pharmacogeneticsin Breast CancerGwen McMillin, PhD, DABCC(CC,TC)Medical Director, ToxicologyCo-Medical Director, Pharmacogenetics27

Germline vs. Somatic GeneticsAdapted from the National Cancer Institute and the American Society of Clinical Oncology28

Germline PharmacogeneticsInherited genes can predict/explain if and how a person willtolerate and respond to a drug:– Pharmacokinetics, such as drug metabolism– Pharmacodynamics, such as drug response29

Good responsePoor responseResistanceSensitivityNo side effectsAdverse effectsUnconventionaldose and/or dosing frequency30

Drug Metabolism Most drugs are metabolized. Some drugs require metabolism to be converted to an active form(drug activation); these drugs are called “prodrugs.”31

Drug Metabolism (cont.) Most drugs are inactivated bymetabolism to promote eliminationof the drug. Drug metabolism is mediated byenzymes; the cytochrome P450(CYP) family is one of the mostclinically significant.32

Proportion of Drugs Metabolized by P450 Enzymes33

Relationship to Breast CancerCYP2D6CYP2C19 Minor enzyme responsible foractivation of tamoxifen Major enzyme responsible forinactivation of many drugs, suchas antidepressants andgastrointestinal drugs Major enzyme responsible foractivation of tamoxifen and somepain drugsMajor enzyme responsible forinactivation of many drugs, suchas antidepressantsGenetic variants can increase, decrease, or obliterate metabolism.34

Common Genetic Variants (Alleles)CYP2D6CYP2C19 CYP2D6*4 ( function) CYP2C19*2 ( function)o 1–8% of Asianso 30–35% of Asianso 6–18% of Caucasians andAfrican-Americanso 15–20% of Caucasians andAfrican Americanso 8% of Middle Easternerso 55% of Oceanians CYP2D6*1 or 2xN ( function) CYP2C19*17 ( function)o 1% of Asianso 1–15% of Asianso 2–3% of Caucasians andAfrican Americanso 15–20% of Caucasians andAfrican Americanso 7% of Middle Easternerso 2.5% of Oceanians2015 CPIC Guideline for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of SSRIs –Supplemental v1.0.35

Two Alleles GenotypeFrom which phenotype is predicted EM extensive metabolizer normal IM intermediate combinations of non-functional and/or reducedfunction alleles and/or normal alleles PM poor two non-functional alleles UM ultra-rapid duplications of functional alleles or alleles thatincrease expression36

Tamoxifen Most commonly prescribed anti-estrogen Prodrug Used since 1971 for breast cancer treatment,adjuvant therapy, prevention, and several otherindications Annual sales in the U.S. 500 million 35% of women do not respond37

Simplified Schematic of Tamoxifen Metabolism38

Theoretical Effect of CYP Phenotypeson Activation of TamoxifenCYP2D6PMIMNormalUMLittle to noactive drugPotentiallyinadequateactive drugActive drugMore thanaverageamounts ofactive drugSome activedrugActive drug?More activedrugCYP2C19PMIMNormalUM39

CYP Phenotype and Amitriptyline RecommendationsCYP2D6PMIMNormalAvoid useConsider 50%dose reductionCYP2C19PMIMNormalUMAvoid useConsider 25%dosereduction;TDM tooptimizeConsideralternate drugStandarddosingUMAvoid useConsideralternate 40

CYPs for Other Drugs Used in TreatingBreast Cancer PatientsCYP2D6CYP2C19 Antidepressants Antidepressants– Citalopram, sertraline– Paroxetine, venlafaxine Gastrointestinal drugs Other psychiatric drugs– Omeprazole, lansoprazole,rabeprazole– Risperidone, atomoxetine Analgesics Cardiac drugs– Codeine, tramadol, oxycodone– Clopidogrel Cardiac drugs Other misc. drugs– Flecainide, propafenone– Voriconazole, clobazam41

CYP Tests at ARUPSingle geneMulti-gene DME panel CYP2D6: 0051232 – 14 variants and geneduplication/deletionIncludes CYP2D6, CYP2C19,and CYP2C9(test code 2008920)Notes: CYP3A5 will be available with theNovember 2015 hotline and willbe added to the gene panelin 2016. A saliva kit will be available soonto promote non-invasive (notblood), outpatient collections. Custom interpretation formulti-gene panel is anticipatedfor 2016. CYP2C19: 0051104– 9 variants42

Summary and Conclusions Germline pharmacogenetic testing can help personalize drugtherapy by predicting whether a patient will be able to metabolicallyactivate and inactivate drugs. CYP genetic testing is relevant to all breast cancer patients who areprescribed drugs, particularly tamoxifen, antidepressants, and opioidanalgesics.43

Breast Cancer Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer among women (40,290 in 2015). It is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer deaths in American women, One-third of women with breast cancer die from breast cancer, One out of every eight women will be

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